NGHIÊN CỨU ĐA DẠNG NGUỒN TÀI NGUYÊN CÂY THUỐC ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG TRONG CỘNG ĐỒNG MỘT SỐ DÂN TỘC Ở XÃ YÊN LẠC, HUYỆN PHÚ LƯƠNG, TỈNH THÁI NGUYÊN

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Taxonomic diversify of medicinal plant resources Researching medicinal plants was based on the experience of San Chay and San Chi ethnic minorities in the study area [r] (1)DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANT RESOURCES USED IN SOME ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES IN YEN LAC COMMUNE, PHU LUONG DISTRICT, THAI NGUYEN PROVINCE Nguyen Thi Thu Hien1*, Trinh Dinh Kha2, Dang Kim Tuyen1 1 TNU - University of Forestry and Agriculture, 2 TNU - University of Science ABSTRACT This research was conducted to assess the diversity of medicinal plant resources in Yen Lac Commune, Phu Luong District, Thai Nguyen Province The methods used for collecting data were method of specimen collection, interview method, identification of the species name, method of medicinal plant resources diversity assessment, method of endangered medicinal plants level assessment The results of research have identified initially 182 species of medicinal plants of 158 genera and 89 families which the ethnic minority communities have used for diseases prevention and treatment There are six main life forms of the medicinal plants: herbaceous, vines, small wood trees, moderate wood trees, shrubs and parasitic tree The trees distribution is often in many types of habitat: Forests, gardens, hills and along the riverside In the parts used as medicine, leaves, whole plants and fruits are most used accounting for from 16.94% to 38.80% The results show that there are 20 groups of diseases which could be cured by the experience of using medicinal plants of some ethnic communities in the study area, of which groups of diseases occupy the highest rate: kidney diseases, osteoarthritis diseases, skin diseases, stomach diseases There are endangered medicinal plants: Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson, Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl, Lonicera bournei Hemsl.ex Forb and Strophanthus wallichii A DC Keywords: Medicinal plants, Diversity of medicinal plants, Yen Lac Commune, Phu Luong District, Thai Nguyen Province INTRODUCTION* Through the folk experiences of herbalists in each ethnic community, knowledge of medicinal plants is passed on and handed down to next generations Over time, medications are unique and become popular in the health care of the people Thus, many research and medicinal plants and folk medicine knowledge conservation programs which have been carried out and brought many scientific and practical value as well as the preservation of folk medicine knowledge have been carried out and brought many scientific and practical values Thai Nguyen has rich natural resources, humid tropical climate, rich vegetation and abundant ethnic minorities such as Tay, Nung, San Chi, San Diu, Dao, etc For a long time, ethnic minorities in Thai Nguyen province have been able to cure diseases by using medicinal plants, each ethnic group has different experience in plan medicine * Tel: 0983 419156; Email: nguyenthithuhien@tuaf.edu.vn reflecting their identifies Among them, the San Chay and San Chi ethnic minority in Yen Ninh commune, Phu Luong district also have unique experiences in medicinal plants However, nowadays forest area is decreasing and the situation of harvesting and trading is complicated causing to a decline in medicinal plant resources In addition, though the medicine has been used by the San Chay and San Chi ethnic for a long time in preventing and treating effectively some diseases, the biological activity and scientific knowledge of the medicine has not been studied and proven by science Based on the above reasons, we conducted the study "Diversity of medicinal plant resources used in some ethnic minority communities in Yen Lac Commune, Phu Luong District, Thai Nguyen Province" RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Method of specimen collection: Specimens (2)Interview method: At the study area, interviewed herdsmen, cynics, people having medicinal using experience and using traditional medicine remedies of ethnic communities The research’s questionnaire was based on the community’s medicinal plants questionnaire and the questionnaire of the Institute of Medicinal Materials (Institute of Medicinal Materials, 1993) [10] Collected information about medicinal plants is: common name, ethnicity; model number; life forms; living environment; used parts as medicine (stem, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, etc.); the value each medicinal plant Identification of the scientific name: Identification of the tree species in two main steps: (i) identification in the field; (ii) using the knowledge and experience of experts and reliable sources that have been re-examined, including: methods of Pham Hoang Ho, 1999 [2]; Do Tat Loi, 2005 [3] and Checklist of plant species in Vietnam (Center for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies - Vietnam National University, Ha Noi and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources – Vietnam Academy of sciences and Technology, 2006) [9] Method of medicinal plant resources diversity assessment: Based on Nguyen Nghia Thin's method, 2007 [6] Method of endangered medicinal plants level assessment: Identifying preserved medicinal plants in the study area according to: Vietnam Red Book (Ministry of Science and Technology, 2007) [7], Decree 32 of the Government of Vietnam (Government of Viet Nam, 2006) [8], Red List of Vietnamese Medicinal Plants in the Medicinal Plant Handbook to be protect in Vietnam (Nguyen Tap, 2007) [4] RESULTS Taxonomic diversify of medicinal plant resources Researching medicinal plants was based on the experience of San Chay and San Chi ethnic minorities in the study area and found 182 species of plants which the San Chay and San Chi ethnic used as medicine including 158 genera, 89 families The results are summarized in Table Table shows that there was species in Lycopodiophyta has been used as medicine, Huperzia squarrosa (Forst.) Trevis, accounting for 2.2% of the total number of found species; there were species in Pteridophyta: Microsorum pteropus Perner; there were 180 species in Magnoliophyta has found (98.9% of total species) in 156 genera (accounting for 98.73% of the total) and 87 families accounting for 97.75% of the total) This may explain that the flora in the study area mainly Magnoliophyta, which are common in the surrounding hamlets, hills, rivers and streams Therefore, these are also the more common species having chosen to make drugs than other plants Magnoliophyta play a particularly important role in the medicinal plants and the research analyzed the composition of the taxon levels in the layers of Magnoliophyta: Dicotyledoneae and Monocotyledoneae The results of the specific numbers and percentages were shown in Table Table Number of discovered medicinal plants in the study area No Taxonomic Family Genus Species 1 Lycopodiophyta 1 2 Pteridophyta 1 3 Magnoliophyta 87 156 180 3.1 Dicotyledoneae 70 132 145 3.2 Monocotyledoneae 17 24 35 Total 89 158 182 Table Number of family, genus, species belonging to classes in Magnoliophyta Magnoliophyta Family Genus Species Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage Dicotyledoneae 70 80.46 132 84.62 145 80.56 Monocotyledoneae 17 19.54 24 15.38 35 19.44 (3)Figure Diversity of life forms of medicinal plants in the study area Dicotyledoneae have the number of family, genus, species used as medicine are predominant over the Monocotyledoneae Dicotyledoneae has 145 species, accounting for 80.56%; 132 genera, accounting for 84.62% and 70 families, accounting for 80.46% of the total number of species The valuable species are: Pseuderanthemum palatiferum, Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl used to treat osteoarthritis disease, etc Table shows that Moncotyledones contain only 35 species (19.44% of Magnoliophyta), 24 genera (15.38%), 17 families (19.54%) Although it is not a large proportion, Moncotyledones also has some valuable trees such as: Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd used to treat headache, fever, abdominal pain; Amomun xanthioides Wall used to treat dysuria, abdominal pain, tonic; Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl used to treat joint pain, sedation, kidney remedies, etc Thus, it can be seen that the some species in Magnoliophyta, especially the Dicotyledones species, accounting for a large proportion and play an important role in healing with plan by the San Chay and San Chi ethnic communities in Yen Lac commune Diversity of life forms of medicinal plant resources The diversity of life forms of medicinal plants in the study area is shown in Figure Figure shows that most of the medicinal plants used by the San Chay and San Chi ethnic communities are herbaceous, with 57/182 species (31.32% of all medicinal plants) mainly in the family Asteraceae, Zingiberaceae, etc; following by the vines life forms with 41/182 species (22.53%), this species are mainly on the species of Cucurbitaceae, Vitaceae are used to treat abdominal pain, osteoarthritis, kidney disease, treatment of peptic ulcer disease, bronchitis, good digestion, etc; the third was small wood tree species with 33/182 species (18.13%), are in the Dicotyledoneae, represented in this group are Roseceae and some species Euphorbiaceae, etc; the moderate wood trees with 23/182 species (12.64%), this species are in some Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae are used to treat toothache, stomach, deworming children, premature ejaculation, etc; the shrubs with 21/182 species (11.54%), this species are mainly on the species of Musaceae used to treat diseases such as: sprain, stomach, leg numbness, etc; the least species were parasitic tree which is 7/182 species (3.85%), five species of Loranthaceae are used to treat some diseases such as liver, kidney, tonic, heat, detoxification, stomach, etc In general, the above data proved that the experience of using medicinal plants as medicine for treatment of San Chay and San Chi in the study area is very diverse and abundant (4)gardens: Trees live in the garden, the pond, around the village, (iii) forests: Trees live in dense forest, secondary forest, forest edge; (iv) near streams, rivers: Trees live near flowing water, near streams, rivers, wetlands The above data show that: The number of species distributed in the forest is relatively high with 90 species (accounting for 49.18% of the total number of collected species) and most of the species are distributed in deep forests, for example: Milletia reticulata Benth is used to treat joints; Stephaniae glabrae Diels for the treatment of stomach, kidney, abdominal pain, etc; Heliciopsis Lobata (Merr.) Sleumer for treating rheumatism, pain, kidney stones, urine, etc The frequency of finding precious medicinal plants is lower than the past, even some endangered species only could be found in deep forests: Pseuderanthemum palatiferum (wall) Radlk for the treatment of liver cancer, stomach; Excoecaria conchinchinensis Lour treats stomach pain, measles, itching; Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl for joint pain, sedation, kidney failure, etc Being aware of the fact that medicinal plants in the forest have been in danger because of over-exploitation for exporting to China, many herbalists and local people grew the medicinal plant in their garden with 33.33% of medicinal plants distributed in the gardens in the study area There were 52 species of medicinal plants found in hills at 28.42% of the total species in the study area, such as: Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl for the treatment of joint pain; Euphorbia thymifolia Burn is used to treat intestinal diseases, abdominal pain; Xanthium strumarium L is used to treat gastritis, gastrointestinal disorders, boils, etc The number of species live along streams is low, with only species (accounting for 2.19% of total species) They are mainly moisturizing species such as: Houttuynia cordata Thunb has the effect of ulcers, disease, headache; Eichhornia crasspes Solms used to treat wounds, headaches; Polygonum chinense L to treat cough, colitis, detoxification, heat bar, melasma in children, etc Diversify of used parts of medicinal plants The results of using the medicinal plants’ parts as medicine based on the experience of the San Chay and San Chi ethnic minorities in Yen Lac commune are shown in Table Table Distribution of medicinal plants in different habitats No Living environment Species Percentage 1 Forests 90 49.18 2 Gardens 61 33.33 3 Hills 52 28.42 4 Along streams, rivers and wetlands 2.19 (Note: The percentages in the table are more than 100% because some species can live in different environments) Table Diversity of plants’ parts used as medicine No Used parts Species Percentage 1 Whole plant 71 38.80 2 Leaves 47 25.68 5 Fruits 31 16.94 3 Roots 26 14.21 4 Stem 17 9.29 (5)medicinal plants; the next is the fruits section with 31 species of medicinal plants used (accounting for 16.94%); roots with 26 medicinal plant species (14.21%); and the lowest part was stem with 17 species (9.29% of total species) Diversity of medicinal uses of medicinal plant resources As folk experience, a medicinal plant could be effective in a disease treatment but there are some diseases requires many types of plants to treat The results of the survey on the diversity of medicinal plants are shown in Table Table Proportion of species to treat specific diseases No Treatment disease group Species Percentage 1 Kidney diseases (glomerulonephritis, kidney stones, diabetes, etc) 30 16.39 Osteoarthritis diseases (arthritis, bone pain, lumbar spine, etc) 26 14.21 Skin diseases (boils, scabies, ulcers, rash, urticaria, etc) 22 12.02 Stomach diseases (stomach pain, stomach ulcers, colon, etc) 15 8.20 Respiratory diseases (pharyngitis, cough, bronchus, lung, etc) 12 6.56 Women's diseases (menopause, menstrual irregularities, pregnancy control, etc) 10 5.46 Weather sickness (headache, sickness, fever, etc) 4.92 8 Supplement (kidney, blood, liver, tonic, etc) 4.37 9 Digestive diseases (diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, etc) 4.37 10 Detoxification (insect allergy, food allergy, etc) 4.37 11 Tumors (cancer, lymphadenopathy, mumps, etc) 4.37 12 Liver diseases (hepatitis, hepatomegaly, etc) 3.83 13 Cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, high blood pressure, etc) 3.28 14 Diseases of children (deworming, eye, yellow skin, melaleuca, etc) 2.73 15 Wound diseases (hemostasis, hematoma, swelling, disinfection, sprain, etc) 2.73 16 Diseases of the mouth (gingivitis, tooth decay, etc) 2.73 17 Neurological diseases (sciatica, sedation, insomnia, etc) 2.19 18 Heat bar (cool body, cool blood, etc) 2.19 19 Diseases caused by animal bites (snake bite, centipede bite, dog bite, etc) 1.09 20 Eye and nose diseases (red eyes, nosebleeds, etc) 1.09 The above data show that the San Chay and San Chi ethnic communities in the study area can use their knowledge and experience on medicinal plants to treat 20 different diseases, including infectious diseases: Liver, kidney, heart, bone, joint, intestinal, respiratory tract, etc The number of medicinal plants used for treatment mainly are specific types of diseases: Kidney diseases: There were 30 species out of 183 species were found (accounted for 16.39% of total species) These species are in families such as: Marantaceae, Ranunculaceae, Cucurbitaceae, etc Some species can be mentioned as: Phyllodes plancentaria Lour, Rhizoma coptides, etc Osteoarthritis diseases: There were 26 species (accounted for 14.21%), some popular species are: Menispermaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae, etc Some species can be mentioned as: Strophanthus wallichii A DC., Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl, Milletia reticulata Benth, Centella asiatica, Tinospora tomentosa Miers, Cnidium monnieri Cuss, etc Skin diseases: There were 22 species (accounted for 12.02%), which are mainly families: Rosaceae, Sinaroubaceae, Altingiaceae, Malvaceae, etc For example: Rosa chinensis jacq, Liquidambar formosana, Eurycoma longifolia Jack subsp, Abutilon indicum L., etc Stomach diseases: There were 15 species out of 183 species were found (accounted for 8.20%) These species are mainly distributed in families such as: Asteraceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, etc (6)Endangered medicinal plants This research has identified the rare medicinal plants that need to be protected in Table Table List of preserved medicinal plants in the study area No Species Granted regulations Vietnam Red Book, 2007 Decree 32 of the Government of Vietnam List of red medicinal plants in Vietnam 1 Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson VU A1a,c,d EN.A3a,c,d 2 Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl EN.A1c,d.B2a,b(ii,iii,iv,v) 3 Lonicera bournei Hemsl.ex Forb CR B1+2b, C2a CR.B2a,b(ii,iii,iv,v) 4 Strophanthus wallichii A DC EN B1+2b,c (Note: VU: Vulnerable; EN: Endangered; CR: Critically Endangered) There were rare endangered medicinal species belonging to genera and families of Magnoliophyta There were three species listed in the Vietnam Red Book (Ministry of Science and Technology, 2007) [7], three species listed in the Catalog Red Medicinal Plants of Vietnam (Nguyen Tap, 2007) [4] Specifically: VU level - Vulnerable by Vietnam Red Book, including the following species: Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson belong to the Polygonaceae, which is used to treat insomnia, hair loss, gray hair EN level - Endangered by Vietnam Red Book, including the following species: Strophanthus wallichii A DC belongs to family Apocynaceae, used to treat bones, boils, etc EN level - Endangered by the Catalog Red Medicinal Plants of Vietnam, including the following species: Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson belongs to family Polygonaceae; Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl belongs to family Araceae, which is used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatism, degeneration, etc CR level - Critically Endangered by Vietnam Red Book and the Catalog Red Medicinal Plants of Vietnam, including the following species: Lonicera bournei Hemsl.ex Forb belongs to family Caprifoliaceae, used to treat acne, make tonic, etc In general, there were threatened species in Yen Lac could be extinction, they are medicinal plants with high medicinal and economic value Therefore, it is necessary to raise the local people’s awareness of medicinal plants protection and prioritize the conservation of precious and rare genetic resources for a long-term From the above results, it has proved that this result will be an important information, which will contribute to the databases for functional departments and agencies to formulate strategies and policies for conservation and exploitation these medicinal plants on planned and sustainable Especially rare medicinal plants that are at risk of deterioration In addition, these results are also the scientific basis for other further research on the conservation and sustainable development of medicinal plants and the experience of using medicinal plants as medicine for treatment of San Chay and San Chi in the study area CONCLUSTION (7)Menispermaceae, Zingiberaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Vitaceae and Rutaceae have species that have medicinal uses There were 57 species of herbaceous, 41 species of vines, 33 species of small wood species, 23 species of moderate wood species, 21 species of shrubs and species of parasitic tree The most of medicinal plants are in forest habitats with 90 species, followed by gardens with 61 species, hills with 52 species and species near streams Used parts of the plants for medicine included: whole plant of 71 species, 47 species’ leaves, 31 species’ fruits, 26 species’ roots and 17 species’ sterms could be used as medicine Identified 20 different groups of diseases could be treated by using the medicinal plants as San Chay and San Chi ethnic minorities’ methods in the study area In which the experience of using medicinal plants of the San Chay and San Chi ethnic communities is most concentrated in diseases groups including: kidney diseases, osteoarthritis, skin and stomach diseases There were endangered species need to be preserved, accounting for 2.2% of the total medicinal plants, including: Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson, Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl, Lonicera bournei Hemsl.ex Forb, Strophanthus wallichii A DC REFERENCES 1 Vo Van Chi (2012), Dictionary of medicinal plants in Vietnam, Hanoi Publishing House, volume 1-2, Hà Nội 2 Pham Hoang Ho (2001), Vietnamese Herbs, Young Publishers, Ho Chi Minh City 3 Do Tat Loi (2005), Vietnamese medicinal plants and herbs, Hanoi Publishing House, Hanoi 4 Nguyen Tap (2007), Manual of medicinal plants for protection in Vietnam, Publishing House of Non-Timber Forest Products Vietnam, Hanoi 5 Nguyen Nghia Thin (1997), Biodiversity Research Handbook, Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi 6 Nguyen Nghia Thin (2007), Methods of botanical research, Vietnam University Press, Hanoi 7 Ministry of Science and Technology (2007) Vietnam Red Book, Plant Section, Natural Science and Technology Publishing House, Hanoi 8 The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (2006), Decree 32/2006 on prohibiting and restricting the exploitation and use of wild fauna and flora species 9 Center for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies - Vietnam National University, Ha Noi and Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources – Vietnam Academy of sciences and Technology, (2006), Checklist of plant species in Vietnam, Publishing House Agriculture, Hanoi, Volume - (8)TÓM TẮT NGHIÊN CỨU ĐA DẠNG NGUỒN TÀI NGUYÊN CÂY THUỐC ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG TRONG CỘNG ĐỒNG MỘT SỐ DÂN TỘC Ở XÃ YÊN LẠC, HUYỆN PHÚ LƯƠNG, TỈNH THÁI NGUYÊN Nguyễn Thị Thu Hiền1*, Trịnh Đình Khá2, Đặng Kim Tuyến1 1Trường Đại học Nông Lâm – ĐH Thái Nguyên, 2Trường Đại học Khoa học – ĐH Thái Nguyên Nghiên cứu tiến hành nhằm đánh giá đa dạng nguồn tài nguyên thuốc xã Yên Lạc, huyện Phú Lương, tỉnh Thái Nguyên Các phương pháp sử dụng gồm có: Thu thập mẫu vật, vấn, định danh tên loài, đánh giá tính đa dạng nguồn tài nguyên thuốc đánh giá mức độ nguy cấp loài thuốc Kết nghiên cứu bước đầu xác định 182 loài thuốc thuộc 158 chi, 89 họ cộng đồng dân tộc khu vực nghiên cứu sử dụng phòng chữa bệnh cho người dân Cây thuốc thuộc dạng sống gồm: Thân thảo, dây leo, gỗ nhỏ, gỗ trung bình, bụi ký sinh Cây thường phân bố dạng sinh cảnh là: Sống rừng, sống vườn, sống đồi sống ven suối, ven sông Trong phận sử dụng làm thuốc lá, sử dụng nhiều đạt từ 16,94% - 38,80% Nghiên cứu điều tra 20 nhóm bệnh chữa trị kinh nghiệm sử dụng thuốc người dân khu vực nghiên cứu, có nhóm bệnh chiếm tỷ lệ cao là: Bệnh thận, bệnh xương khớp, bệnh da, bệnh dày Có lồi thuốc có nguy bị tuyệt chủng được ghi nhận là: Hà thủ ô đỏ - Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson, Thiên niên kiện tía - Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl, Kim ngân rừng - Lonicera bournei Hemsl.ex Forb, Sừng trâu - Strophanthus wallichii A DC Từ khóa: Cây thuốc, Đa dạng thuốc, Yên Lạc, Phú Lương, Thái Nguyên Ngày nhận bài: 01/10/2018; Ngày phản biện: 25/10/2018; Ngày duyệt đăng: 31/10/2018 *
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