Journal of environmental science and engineering,vol 3,no 1b,2014

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Increased sedimentation rates have been attributed to increased anthropogenic activity in watersheds throughoutFlorida and many parts of the world. The Manatee River, located on the west coast of Florida (USA), like many other coastalwatersheds, has experienced depletion in natural resources, increased nutrient loading, and increased pollution. LARs (linearaccumulation rates) from watersheds throughout Florida suggest that anthropogenic activity increased bulk sedimentation by asmuch as 4fold. The objective of this study was to construct a record of sedimentation and improve upon previous studies bydetermining individual sedimentary constituent MARs (mass accumulation rates) based on short lived radioisotopes (210Pb and234Th) to characterize changes in sedimentation attributed to increased anthropogenic development. This study constructed recordsof sedimentary accumulation rates to compare predevelopment records to the past 100 years of anthropogenic development andidentified specific changes in sedimentation attributed to anthropogenic activity. Anthropogenic development increaseddeposition of terrigenous material into the river from 2fold to 10fold (0.32.0 gcm2yr) over three periods: (1) predevelopmentperiod (19001941); (2) agricultural development period (19411970); (3) urban development period (19702010). Themobilization of this amount of terrigenous material has implications for effects on water quality and biological communitieswithin the river Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B Volume 3, Number 1, January 2014 (Serial Number 25) David Publishing David Publishing Company www.davidpublishing.com Publication Information: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B (formerly parts of Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering ISSN 1934-8932, USA) is published monthly in hard copy (ISSN 2162-5263) and online (ISSN 2162-5271) by David Publishing Company located at 9460 Telstar Ave Suite 5, EL Monte, CA 91731, USA Aims and Scope: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B, a monthly professional academic journal, covers all sorts of researches on environmental management and assessment, environmental monitoring, atmospheric environment, aquatic environment and municipal solid waste, etc Editorial Board Members: Dr Bishnu Rajupreti (Nepal), Prof Jianhua Wang (China), Prof Mankolli Hysen (Albania), Dr Jungkon Kim (South Korea), Prof Samira Ibrahim Korfali (Lebanon), Prof Pradeep K Naik (Bahrain), Dr Ricardo García Mira (Spain), Dr Leucci Giovanni (Italy), Prof Konstantinos C Makris (Gonia Athinon & Nikou Xiouta), Prof Kihong Park (South Korea), Prof Mukesh Sharma (India), Dr Hesham Gehad Mohamed Ibrahim (Palestine), Dr Jyoti Prakash Maity (India), Prof Luigi Maxmilian Caligiuri (Italy), Dr Satinder Kaur Brar (Canada), Dr Jo-Ming Tseng (Taiwan), Associate Prof Muntean Edward Ioan (Romania) Manuscripts and correspondence are invited for publication You can submit your papers via Web Submission, or E-mail to environmental@davidpublishing.com, environmental@davidpublishing.org or info@davidpublishing.org Submission guidelines and Web Submission system are available at http://www.davidpublishing.com, http://www.davidpublishing.org Editorial Office: 9460 Telstar Ave Suite 5, EL Monte, CA 91731, USA Tel: 1-323-984-7526, 323-410-1082 Fax: 1-323-984-7374, 323-908-0457 E-mail: environmental@davidpublishing.com; environmental@davidpublishing.org; info@davidpublishing.org Copyright©2014 by David Publishing Company and individual contributors All rights reserved David Publishing Company holds the exclusive copyright of all the contents of this journal In accordance with the international convention, no part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted by any media or publishing organs (including various websites) without the written permission of the copyright holder Otherwise, any conduct would be considered as the violation of the copyright The contents of this journal are available for any citation However, all the citations should be clearly indicated with the title of this journal, serial number and the name of the author Abstracted/Indexed in: CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) Database of EBSCO, Massachusetts, USA Chinese Database of CEPS, Airiti Inc & OCLC Cambridge Science Abstracts (CSA) Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory Chinese Scientific Journals Database, VIP Corporation, Chongqing, China Summon Serials Solutions Proquest Subscription Information: Price (per year): Print $600, Online $480 Print and Online $800 David Publishing Company 9460 Telstar Ave Suite 5, EL Monte, CA 91731, USA Tel: 1-323-984-7526, 323-410-1082; Fax: 1-323-984-7374, 323-908-0457 E-mail: order@davidpublishing.com Digital Cooperative Company: www.bookan.com.cn D DAVID PUBLISHING David Publishing Company www.davidpublishing.com Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B Volume 3, Number 1, January 2014 (Serial Number 25) Contents Ecological Environment A Record of Anthropogenic Effects on Sedimentation in the Manatee River, Florida Patrick Schwing and Ashanti Johnson 14 An Ecological Alternative for the Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Sheep in Northern Veracruz (Mexico) Amalia Cabrera Núđez, Miguel Ángel Lammoglia Villagómez, Iliana Del Carmen Daniel Rentería and Rebeca Rojas Ronquillo Environmental Chemistry 18 Modelling of the Resin Penetration Rate into the Archaeological Wood Cell Wall: The Methodology of Experimental Design Youssef Elrhayam and Ahmed Elharfi Environmental Management 24 Avalanche Warning Service without Frontiers in the Karawanks along the Slovenian-Austrian Border Arnold Studeregger, Arnulf Wurzer, Hannes Rieder, Andreas Riegler, Willi Ertl, Manca Volk Bahun, Jaka Ortar and Miha Pavšek 30 Food Crises and Market Mechanisms Henning Otte Hansen 49 Hydrochemical Control of Groundwater in an Administrative Area of Mamou Mamadou Dian Kante, Chuanping Feng, Cellou Kante, Alfa-Sika Mande Seyf-Laye and Baogang Zhang 55 A New Method Based on Kinematics of Robots to Analyze the Kinematics of Persian Joint Pham Thanh Long and Tran The Long Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B (2014) 1-13 Formerly part of Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, ISSN 1934-8932 D DAVID PUBLISHING A Record of Anthropogenic Effects on Sedimentation in the Manatee River, Florida Patrick Schwing1 and Ashanti Johnson2 College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, Saint Petersburg 33701, Florida, USA University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington 76019, Texas, USA Received: June 11, 2014 / Accepted: July 23, 2014 / Published: August 20, 2014 Abstract: Increased sedimentation rates have been attributed to increased anthropogenic activity in watersheds throughout Florida and many parts of the world The Manatee River, located on the west coast of Florida (USA), like many other coastal watersheds, has experienced depletion in natural resources, increased nutrient loading, and increased pollution LARs (linear accumulation rates) from watersheds throughout Florida suggest that anthropogenic activity increased bulk sedimentation by as much as 4-fold The objective of this study was to construct a record of sedimentation and improve upon previous studies by determining individual sedimentary constituent MARs (mass accumulation rates) based on short lived radioisotopes (210Pb and 234 Th) to characterize changes in sedimentation attributed to increased anthropogenic development This study constructed records of sedimentary accumulation rates to compare pre-development records to the past 100 years of anthropogenic development and identified specific changes in sedimentation attributed to anthropogenic activity Anthropogenic development increased deposition of terrigenous material into the river from 2-fold to 10-fold (0.3-2.0 g/cm2/yr) over three periods: (1) predevelopment period (1900-1941); (2) agricultural development period (1941-1970); (3) urban development period (1970-2010) The mobilization of this amount of terrigenous material has implications for effects on water quality and biological communities within the river Key words: Sedimentation, lead-210, cesium-137, man induced effects, Florida, Tampa Bay Introduction Increased coastal sedimentation rates have been attributed to increased anthropogenic activity (land-use change) in watersheds throughout Florida and many parts of the world [1-12] The objective of this study was to determine if the Manatee River, located on the west-central Florida coast, was affected by such trends of increased sedimentation caused by anthropogenic activity, and to better characterize the sedimentary signal of that activity using MARs (mass accumulation rates) (as opposed to LARs (linear accumulation rates)) of individual sedimentary constituents This study examined records of sediment deposition during the anthropogenic development period (last Corresponding author: Patrick Schwing, Ph.D., research field: marine geochemistry E-mail: pschwing@mail.usf.edu 100 years) Changes in the types and amounts of sediment being introduced to the Manatee River, Tampa Bay, and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico were examined to determine the signature of anthropogenic land-use change This study was the first to use MARs of specific constituents in the sediment to determine the effect of anthropogenic development on the fluvial and estuarine environments of the Manatee River 1.1 Setting The Manatee River is located on the west coast of Florida in the southeastern portion of the Tampa Bay Estuary (Fig 1) The Manatee River Watershed has experienced increasing anthropogenic development (industrial, residential, and agricultural) over the last 100 years and was relatively pristine previous to this development The population within the watershed has A Record of Anthropogenic Effects on Sedimentation in the Manatee River, Florida Fig Location map of Florida expanding to the location of the selected coring sites throughout the Manatee River with reference to the cities of Bradenton and Palmetto as well as the Manatee River Dam A Record of Anthropogenic Effects on Sedimentation in the Manatee River, Florida Table 2001) Manatee County population estimates and projections from 1980-2020 (South Florida Water Management District, Area 1980 1990 1995 2000 2010 2020 Manatee County 148,800 211,700 223,500 258,410 302,710 344,000 City of Bradenton 30,288 43,779 47,679 52,752 61,549 N/A City of Palmetto 8,637 9,268 10,454 12,130 14,588 15,553 N/A means no projections were available doubled in the last 30 years (Table 1) The heavy residential development has led to depletion in natural resources, increased nutrient loading, coastal erosion, and increased pollution [13] The Tampa Bay area is located on the west-central portion of the Florida coastline and totals approximately 7,000 km2 including estuarine waters, wetlands and drainage basins The bay is shallow with an average depth of 3.5 m and vegetation is dominated by mangrove forest with some areas of salt marsh, both of which contribute a significant portion of the organic matter in Tampa Bay sediment [14] The Manatee River begins in Manatee County, FL, southeast of Tampa Bay at an elevation of 39.6 m and proceeds westward for 72.4 km The river drains approximately 932.4 km2 of land into the southern region of Tampa Bay and ultimately into the Gulf of Mexico [15] There are two major sources of sedimentary input into the bay, marine sediments (CaCO3) carried by tidal currents from the Gulf of Mexico and terrigenous sediments (fine-medium grain quartz sand) via fluvial systems [14, 16-17] 1.2 Sediment Accumulation Rates in Florida Short-lived radioisotopes such as 137Cs (cesium-137) and 210Pb (lead-210) have been used for many applications to produce corroborating geochronologies for the past 100 years [1, 3-5, 7-9, 11] 210 Pb has been used in geochronological applications in both marine/coastal and lacustrine/watershed settings (Fig 2) LARs (cm/year) have been found to be quite variable throughout Florida Florida Bay had the highest accumulation rate of 0.33-5.8 cm/year [6] The river-dominated areas (Steinhatchee, Charlotte Harbor, Saint Johns River Basin) had very similar linear accumulation rates with 0.14, 0.25-0.28, and 0.33 cm/year, respectively [2, 5, 10] Brenner et al [5] found that the sedimentation rate increased between 1.7-3.4-fold in the SJRB (Saint Johns River Basin) between pre-anthropogenic and anthropogenic times with an average of 0.33 cm/year These changes were attributed to modifications in the hydrology of the fluvial system The sedimentation rate in Lake Okeechobee was intermediate at 0.78 cm/year and the lowest accumulation rate was reported in Rookery Bay at 0.14-0.17 cm/year [18-19] Across a suite of cores in Lake Okeechobee, Brezonik and Engstrom [19] calculated that there had been a 2-fold increase in mass sediment accumulation rate (MAR, 3-6 g/cm2/year) and a 4-fold increase in the rate of total phosphorus deposition in Lake Okeechobee since the early 1900s Methods 2.1 Sampling Methods Six sediment cores were collected in the Manatee River (Fig 1) The core sites were selected by locating areas with little potential for resuspension (low energy/basins) and as fine-grained as possible The cores were collected by a diver-assisted push-coring method with 10 cm diameter acrylic barrel Push cores provide a short-term environmental development record (hundreds of years before present) Sub-samples of each core were taken on a calibrated, threaded rod extrusion device The sediment was extruded at 0.5 cm (0-10 cm) and at 1.0 cm for the remainder of each core Fig A Record of Anthropogenic Effects on Sedimentation in the Manatee River, Florida A map of Florida depicting previous studies that have utilized LARs to determine anthropogenic change Samples were archived in plastic bags and frozen The frozen samples were then freeze dried 2.2 Sedimentology Laboratory Methods Approximately g of each sediment sample were sieved at 63 µm Silt and clay weight percentages (fine fraction) were determined by using a Saturn DigiSizer High Resolution Laser Particle Size Analyzer at College of Marine Science, USF (University of South Florida) A manual pipetting method developed by Folk [20] was also used on certain samples to determine any errors in the DigiSizer measurement It is assumed that the coarse fraction (sand and gravel) weight percentage is the difference between the fine fraction and 100% and is therefore not reported LOI (loss on ignition) analysis was used to determine the total organic matter and percent of carbonate material [21-22] Approximately g of each sample was placed into a crucible and ignited at 550 °C in a muffle furnace for h and the percent of TOM (total organic matter) was determined by the mass difference after ignition The remainder was then placed back into the muffle furnace and ignited at 950 °C for 1.5 h and the percent of carbonate (CO3) content was determined by mass difference [21] 2.3 Radioisotope Laboratory Methods A Canberra planar HPGe (high purity germanium) detector was used to determine 210Pb and 137Cs activity throughout each core at College of Marine Science, USF For planar gamma detection, samples were freeze-dried and placed in vacuum-sealed aluminum canisters Once sealed, the samples were allowed to achieve secular equilibrium for 28 days The samples were then counted for 24-48 h based on sample size Reported error is the product of the net uncertainty from the detector A Record of Anthropogenic Effects on Sedimentation in the Manatee River, Florida Theory and Calculation Activity values for 137Cs (661 keV emission energy) were reported directly Unsupported 210Pb (46.5 keV) values were determined by subtracting the average activity of the reported 214Bi (209 keV), 214Pb (295 keV) and 214Pb (351 keV) from the reported activity of 210 Pb MARs [23] and the CRS (constant rate of supply) model as described in Refs [24-26] were also used to quantify the changes in sedimentation over time Activities are reported in disintegrations per minute per gram (dpm/g) LARs are reported in centimeters per year (cm/year), whereas MARs, which incorporate flux (accumulation) per unit area per time, are reported in gram per square centimeter per year (g/cm2/year) Results sand layers at 20 cm and 12 cm (Fig 3) A fining upward sequence (increasing clay) occurred from 10 cm to 4.5 cm A sudden increase in grain size (sand) occurred at cm and another, smaller fining upward sequence terminated at the top of the core (3.5 cm to 0) EP-10 was primarily (> 95%) quartz sand throughout, with small increases in fine grains (silt) at 22, 16-14, and cm and almost no clay-size particles There was also an increase in sand (95%-98%) throughout the entire core EP-12 was primarily sand throughout the entire core (< 5% mud (silt and clay)) Much like EP-10, EP-12 exhibited a coarsening upward trend throughout the core with increased fine-grained (silt) particles at 32-28, 22-16, cm, and at the surface Working up-core from the sandy base in EP-17, The lithology, radioisotope, and MARs records of the push-cores collected from the Manatee River are described below (Table 2) Each represents a record from a different sampling location and sedimentological response to natural and anthropogenic events Criteria for selecting coring sites included as fine-grained surface sediment possible for highest possible radioisotope activity and areas likely to have the least resuspension due to tidal or river energy there were two finer grained layers with increased organic material at 42 cm and 34 cm There was a gradual coarsening upward sequence from 46 cm to 16 cm Directly above the fining upward sequence, there was an increase in grain size (sand) from 15 cm to 10 cm The sediment in the surface section (10 cm to the surface) was slightly finer than the 15 cm to 10 cm section Throughout EP-18, the dominant sediment constituent was medium-fine quartz sand The percent silt fluctuated between 1%-9% throughout the core 4.1 Lithology The entirety of EP-19 was primarily quartz sand The base of EP-09 was sand with abundant small shell fragments Moving upcore, there were fine Table There was a coarsening upward sequence from the base of the core to 22 cm There was another, more Sampling site information including core name, recovery length, location and water depth Core name Recovery (cm) Latitude Longitude Water depth (m) EP-09 24 27.52947 82.62617 1.3 EP-10 31 27.53257 82.64657 2.1 EP-12 41 27.53264 82.64282 2.7 EP-17 46 27.50892 82.59028 4.5 EP-18 42 27.49790 82.52267 2.6 EP-19 43 27.51932 82.48901 2.4 A Record of Anthropogenic Effects on Sedimentation in the Manatee River, Florida EP­09 EP­10 % 20 EP­12 % 0 Silt Silt Clay Clay Silt Clay 10 10 15 15 Depth (cm) Depth (cm) 10 Depth (cm) 5 % 20 15 25 20 30 25 20 35 40 30 EP­17 EP‐18 % 10 0 5 Clay 15 15 25 25 Depth (cm) 15 20 10 Silt Silt 10 20 10 Depth (cm) Depth (cm) Clay % 10 10 20 25 30 30 30 35 35 35 40 40 40 45 45 45 Fig Silt EP‐19 % Grain size records for the six selected core sites in weight percentage of the silt and clay fraction Clay Food Crises and Market Mechanisms The most recent food crises have shown that food supply, food markets and food companies are vulnerable when external shocks generate increasing prices and food crises However, a number of lessons can be learnt from the food crises The recent food crises share many common features and it was largely the same market mechanisms which were at work With increasing pressure on agricultural and food markets and future changes in market structures, it is likely that food crises will be a recurring phenomenon References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) 2014 “Wheat Data Year Book.” USDA Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.ers.usda.gov/datafiles/Wheat_Wheat_Data/Y earbook_Tables/Domestic_and_International_Prices/Whe atYearbookTable20Full.htm World Bank 2014 “World Bank Commodity Price Data.Historical Data.” World Bank Accessed July 23, 2014 http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ EXTDEC/EXTDECPROSPECTS/0,,contentMDK:21574 907~menuPK:7859231~pagePK:64165401~piPK:641650 26~theSitePK:476883,00.html USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) 2014 “Foreign Agricultural Service.” USDA Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/psdreport.aspx? hidReportRetrievalName=BVS&hidReportRetrievalID=8 72&hidReportRetrievalTemplateID=13 USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) 2014 “Wheat Data Year Book Tables Table 4-World and US Wheat Production, Exports, and Ending Stocks.” USDA Accessed July 15, 2014 http://www.ers.usda.gov/ data-products/wheat-data.aspx#.U76ZDPmSxic BP (British Petroleum) 2014 “Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2014.” BP Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/Energy-economi cs/statistical-review-2014/BP-statistical-review-of-worldenergy-2014-full-report.pdf OECD-FAO (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) 2013 Agricultural Outlook 2013-2022 Paris: OECD-FAO World Bank 2008 “A Note on Rising Food Prices.” Policy Research Working Paper 4682 Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/ WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/07/28/000020439_2 [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] 47 0080728103002/Rendered/PDF/WP4682.pdf IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) 2008 “Feed the World? We Are Fighting a Losing Battle, UN Admits.” The Guardian Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/feb/26/fo od.unitednations Hansen, H O 2013 Food Economics, Industry and Markets UK, USA and Canada: Routledge European Commission 2008 “High Prices on Agricultural Commodity Markets: Situation and Prospects—A Review of Causes of High Prices and Outlook for World Agricultural Markets.” Working document Bruxelles UNCTAD (United Nation Conference on Trade and Development) 2009 “The Global Economic Crisis: Systemic Failures and Multilateral Remedies.” UNCTAD Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/gds20091_en.pdf Farm Foundation 2009 “What’s Driving Food Prices?” Farm Foundation Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.farmfoundation.org/news/articlefiles/1702-Fa rm%20-%203-10-09%20-%20Food%20Prices%20Updat e%20-%20Book%20for%20Posting.pdf IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) 2009 “When Speculation Matters.” IFPRI Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/ publications/ib57.pdf IATP (Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy) 2008 “Commodities Market Speculation: The Risk to Food Security and Agriculture.” IATP Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.iatp.org/files/451_2_104414.pdf Irwin, S H., and Sanders, D R 2010 “The Impact of Index and Swap Funds on Commodity Futures Markets: Preliminary Results.” OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Working Papers 27: OECD Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.oecd.org/trade/agricultural-trade/ 45534528 pdf Irwin, S H and Sanders, D R 2010 “The Impact of Index and Swap Funds on Commodity Futures Markets: Preliminary Results.” OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Working Papers 27: OECD Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.oecd.org/trade/agricultural-trade/45534528.p df OECD-FAO 2009 Agricultural Outlook 2009-2018 Paris: OECD-FAO WTO (World Trade Organisation) 2009 “The World Needs a Shared Vision on Food and Agricultural Trade Policy.” WTO Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/sppl_e/sppl124_e.htm 48 Food Crises and Market Mechanisms [19] World Bank 2010 “The Impacts of Biofuel Targets on Land-Use Change and Food Supply A Global CGE Assessment.” Policy Research Working Paper 5513 Accessed July 23, 2014 http://elibrary.worldbank.org/ doi/pdf/10.1596/1813-9450-5513 [20] CME (Chicago Mercantile Exchange) Group 2014 Agricultural Commodities Products Accessed July 23, 2014 www.cmegroup.com [21] FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations), FAOSTAT—FAO’s corporate database 2014 Accessed July 23, 2014 http://faostat3.fao.org/ faostat-gateway /go/to/home/E [22] Nomura 2010 The Coming Surge in Food Prices Global Economics and Strategy Report Nomura Accessed July 23, 2014 http://www.nomura.com/europe/resources/pdf/ 080910.pdf Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B (2014) 49-54 Formerly part of Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, ISSN 1934-8932 D DAVID PUBLISHING Hydrochemical Control of Groundwater in an Administrative Area of Mamou Mamadou Dian Kante1, Chuanping Feng1, Cellou Kante2, Alfa-Sika Mande Seyf-Laye1 and Baogang Zhang1 School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 10083, China Department of Water Resources and Energy, Institute Technology of Mamou BP63, Guinea Received: June 16, 2014 / Accepted: July 17, 2014 / Published: August 20, 2014 Abstract: The potability of water wells, drilling and tap water is the determining factor for the quality management of health of the urban and rural population This study has been done on the basis of monitoring aspect such as pH, content ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and chloride from a physico chemical point of view This study allowed the chemical and bacteriological analysis of samples, based on the result obtained, and the potability of water was defined The bacteriological analysis was carried out taking account of the total flora, coliforms and Escherichia coli This work gave rise to analyze 36 samples of water from wells, eight samples of drilling water and nine samples of water taps from municipalities such as Mamou, Dalaba and Pita Water wells represent 90% of water supplies in drinking water to the population In this research, collection of samples was very important This study shows that 16 samples from 52 are potable, therefore, it is urgent to focus on the treatment of sewage in order to ensure better health for the population from administrative region of Mamou Key words: Nitrates, nitrites, total flora Introduction Urban and peri-urban areas in Africa, experiencing rapid growth of the population without the appropriate structures distribution of water and electricity, developed proportionally To remedy this situation, people have to resort to the wells water The study of potability of water wells made to Pointe Noire has revealed that from 597 wells, only 293 wells were concerned by a pollution that is either chemical or bacteriological [1] In this pollution from well water, the ammonium is 41.90%, nitrite is 2.73%, and nitrate is 29.69% Bacterial pollution of these waters was in content of 95% In Benin, the bacteriological quality of water wells Prefecture Grand Popo was evaluated [2] Studies of the quality of water wells in the town of Abomey in Benin have shown that 100% of water wells have studied bacteriological pollution by  Corresponding author: Mamadou Dian Kante, Ph.D., research field: wastewater treatment technology E-mail: Kmamadoudjan@yahoo.fr Escherichia coli [3] Senegal in 2011, a study on the relationship between water quality and hygiene behavior of people in rural areas showed that the prevalence of diarrheal diseases depended on the potability of water and lack of hygiene [4] In 1994, studies on the nitrate content in water sources were made using the method of colorimetric test paper strips in Belgium This study made it possible to make map of nitrates and monitor the evolution of this pollutant in time [5] In Guinea, a study on the quality of drilling water and bacteriological contamination in households was done in 2000 [6] Mamou area is often confronted with shortages of water taps and this fact increases the pressure on domestic water wells Mamou area benefits the technical assistance from the superior Institute of Technology Mamou, partners of the General Council of the North (Lille France) through the financing of the Water Agency Artois Picardie Douai, the ACUADCL (Association for the 50 Hydrochemical Control of Groundwater in an Administrative Area of Mamou Coordination of Useful Actions to Developing Countries Lille), the Chappelle Armentieres and ACUADCG (Association for the Coordination of Useful Actions to Developing Countries Guinea) Recent assessments of water quality by the DNPPW (Department of National Planning Points Waters) have shown that 45% of water is contaminated with bacteria more than 70% of Guinean rural households use water sources considered undrinkable [7] The present study concerns the monitoring of six physicochemical parameters (the aspect, pH, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and chlorides) and three bacteriological parameters (total flora, coliforms and Escherichia coli) Characterization of well water remains the greatest concerns due to their extremely high pollution and it is set within an overall framework to improve public health and strategy of poverty reduction Study Area Mamou Prefecture is the capital of the administrative region which has three prefectures (Dalaba, Mamou and Pita) Mamou Prefecture covers an area of 8,000 km2 with a population of 236,326 inhabitants Mamou Region is often confronted with shortages of water taps and limitations of distribution networks Hygiene and sanitation, the situation is far from satisfactory Hygienic behavior and inadequate means of excreta disposal, and poor management of solid and liquid waste promote high prevalence of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea among children All of these health problems have allowed to investigate on quality of the waters of the administrative region Mamou January is the driest month with only mm of rainfall and on the other hand rainfall records are recorded in August They are average of 415 mm with an average temperature of 26.9 °C; the month of April is the hottest of the year The coldest month of the year is that of August with an average temperature of 22.3 °C The annual rainfall varies between 1,500 mm and 2,000 mm The Mamou area is mainly composed of siliceous sandstone and shale, but large areas are covered with ferruginous cuirasses or bauxite Plains soils are often poorly structured, highly acidic and slightly rich in organic matter decomposed Material and Methods The samples were taken from polyvinyl chloride boxes by 50 mL following the practice of collecting samples in aquatic systems described by the Departmental Laboratory Analyses of the Vendee for monitoring (physico-chemical and bacteriological) After sampling, an analysis of pH was realized with indicator strip by universal pH (pH = 0-14) An analysis of the concentration of mineral substances such as nitrate, nitrite and chlorine were also carried out by using test strip (Aquamerck Ammonium Test MERC1.11117.0001, Aquamerck Nitrite Test MERC.1.14658.0001, Aquamerck Nitrate Test MERC1.11170.0001) whereas the methods of bacteriological analysis were made through collecting sample using a graduated pipette of mL, the collected solution was set in the middle of CompactDry and finally incubation of the sample at 35 °C for 18 h, or 24 h, or 48 h as the case Basic tools were used for the economic analysis Results and Discussion From chemical analysis, the standards of potability are following:  Aspect conforms if the water is clear;  The pH should be between 6.5 and 8.5;  Ammonium content should be less than 0.5 mg/L;  Nitrite content must be less than 0.1 mg/L;  Nitrate content must be less than 50 mg/L;  The chloride content must be less than 200 mg/L pH varies between and 6.5 where the waters of the three prefectures are acid rather than basic This acidity is due to the fact that soils are ferrallitic and the waters are poor in decomposing organic matter Zero content of ion ammonium supports this hypothesis Hydrochemical Control of Groundwater in an Administrative Area of Mamou Fig 51 Map of study area placed in northwest of Guinea The content of nitrite is higher than standards in the district Kimbely The waters having higher values of nitrite-nitrate should not be consumed because they cause health problems in pregnant women and children Methemoglobinemia (or blue baby syndrome) is a health problem associated with the ingestion of nitrites and nitrates The presence of these ions interferes with the ability of blood to carry oxygen Nitrites are the property of oxidizing blood hemoglobin to methemoglobin which in this form is no longer able to play its role as carrier of oxygen and therefore causes hypoxia in the tissues The human adult body is able to act against this aggression because it is equipped with an enzyme system (methemoglobin reductase) being capable of carrying out the reverse reaction, that is to say convert hemoglobin in the reduced methemoglobin However, the infant system Hydrochemical Control of Groundwater in an Administrative Area of Mamou 52 Table Well water Municipality NO3 (mL) pH Min Av Max Min Av Total flora (mL) Max Min Av Max Coliform (mL) Min Av E coli (mL) Max Min Av Max 30.34 100 Mamou 5.30 5.5 10 42.53 200 63.48 100 31.51 100 Dalaba 5.25 5.0 40 52.10 70 55.75 100 10 12.50 15 9.75 30 Pita 5.00 5.0 10 12.50 15 40 60.00 10 15.00 30 19.50 30 Table 80 Drilling water Municipality NO3 (mL) pH Total flora (mL) Coliform (mL) E coli (mL) Min Av Max Min Av Max Min Av Max Min Av Max Min Av Max Mamou 5.5 5.60 6.0 < 10 < 10 < 10 9.33 24 0 5 Dalaba 5.0 5.80 6.5 < 10 < 10 < 10 7.33 20 0 0 0 Pita 5.0 5.25 5.5 < 10 < 10 < 10 5 0 0 0 Table Tap water Municipality NO3 (mL) pH Total flora (mL) Coliform (mL) E coli (mL) Min Av Max Min Av Max Min Av Max Min Av Max Min Av Max Mamou 5.0 5.50 6.0 < 10 < 10 < 10 25.50 60 2 4 Dalaba 5.5 5.60 6.0 < 10 < 10 < 10 23.66 3 5 5 Pita 6.0 6.25 6.5 < 10 < 10 < 10 1.00 0 0 0 does not have this enzymatic equipment, and risks of general toxic effect are then much greater This has affected the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen Symptoms of this disease include cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mouth), difficulty breathing and fatigue Potable water as well as beverages water contains chloride For most people, water which has chloride concentrations higher than 200 mg/L is unpleasant to consume From bacteriological analysis, the analysis were conducted on 52 samples for the three municipalities in the region of Mamou with 67.37% for well water, 15.38% for water drilling and 17.25% for tap water From bacteriological analysis, the standards of potability are: The total flora requires a number of colonies per milliliter less than 10; Coliforms are conforming with the standards to a value of zero colony per milliliter; The E coli also conforms to a value of zero colony per milliliter Fecal coliforms, E coli (Escherichia coli) and Enterococci are bacteria of faecal origin found in the digestive tract of humans and animals When there is their presence in the well, it is considered that water is not potable Work towards this remediation should be taken immediately The detection of these bacteria may indicate the presence of other microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa and viruses that can lead to illness the most common is gastroenteritis Although it is often benign, it can have serious health consequences to a person The children under the age of 5, and people with weakened immune systems or with chronic conditions are the easiest to be infected The risk does not only concern the family members which consume water from a well, but also all their visitors In the presence of such contamination of water well, it is necessary to identify the cause and correct it There may be a problem of well development, defective installation of septic system or activities nearby generating faecal pollution such as spreading of manure It will be necessary to disinfect your well and then proceed with a new water analysis Hydrochemical Control of Groundwater in an Administrative Area of Mamou 53 Fig Graphics of the sample potable and no potable water based on the number of sample analysis samples were potable in the region of Mamou The samples of the municipality of Mamou are three times greater (61.54%) than Dalaba (19.23%) and Pita (19.23%) 30% of the samples analyzed are potable, while in the municipality of Mamou, this value is 13.46%, the municipality of Dalaba is 3.85%, and Pita is 13.46% Usually the pollutants are bacteriological contamination and this is very explicit for the municipality of Dalaba where results showed that over eight out of 10 samples are bacteriological contamination and non-potable Tables 1-3 generally show that the samples are chemically potable From these tables one sample is contaminated with nitrites, eight samples are affected by nitrates and no sample contains ammonium ions The results on the bacteriological analysis of samples, in Tables 1-3, show that 27 samples of 52 are affected by E coli or coliform It is clear from Tables 1-3 that more than 50% of samples collected were affected by E coli This situation is very severe for the municipality of Dalaba where 80% of the samples contain germs pollutants beyond the standard Fig Graphics shows the sampling of water in percentage term Conclusions Fig Graphics of the level of concentration chemical parameters such as ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and bacteriological parameters such as E coli, coliform and pending on municipality The analysis of 52 samples of water from the administrative region of Mamou let’s say 16 out of 52 Analysis of drinking water wells, drilling and tap water from the Water Company of Guinea revealed that 70% of water is non potable The municipality of Dalaba is the most affected by the pollution of water because it has a rate of pollution wate close to 80% The results of water quality obtained for the three municipalities are:  Mamou 13.46%;  Dalaba 3.85%;  Pita 13.46% This work allows reaching a better understanding of the water quality in the area of Mamou Evaluation of bacteriological and chemical water pollutants was necessary to ensure the quality of the public health as well as livestock Hydrochemical Control of Groundwater in an Administrative Area of Mamou 54 References [1] [2] [3] Afogbolo, A 1996 “Bacteriological Quality of Water Wells in the Rural Areas—Case of Sub-prefecture Grand-Popo in Benin.” J.CREPA 14: 8-11 Barry, A K., Koulemou, S., Sow, A A., and Boiro, I 2000 “Evaluation of the Quality of Drilling Water and Their Bacteriological Contamination in the Household to the Republic of Guinea.” Biannual Journal Environmental Research 1: 26-41 Dedbey, C., Makoutode, M., and Agueh, V 2011 “Factors Associated with the Quality of Well Water and the Prevalence of Waterborne Diseases in the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi in Benin.” Health 1: 47-55 [4] [5] [6] [7] Faye, A., Ndiaye, N M., and Faye, D 2011 “Water Quality and Hygienic Behavior of Populations in Rural Area (Senegal).” Tropical Medicine 1: 45-8 Keleke, S., Marin, V I., and Heib, S 2000 “Well Water in Pointe Noire (Congo) and Its Surroundings: Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality.” Medicine of Black Africa 33: 313-27 National Statistical Service of Guinea and Macro International Int (DHS) 1999 Statistical Data Conakry: National Statistical Service of Guinea and Macro International Int (DHS) Wattecamps, J M., Bernier, J., and Debacker, L 1994 Preliminary Statistical Analyses of the Results and Validation of the Nitrates Map Belgium: Operation Sources Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B (2014) 55-59 Formerly part of Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, ISSN 1934-8932 D DAVID PUBLISHING A New Method Based on Kinematics of Robots to Analyze the Kinematics of Persian Joint Pham Thanh Long1 and Tran The Long2 Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Thai Nguyen University of Technology, Thai Nguyen 23000, Vietnam Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Thai Nguyen University of Technology, Thai Nguyen 23000, Vietnam Received: July 10, 2014 / Accepted: July 17, 2014 / Published: August 20, 2014 Abstract: This paper has been focused on investigating kinematics of Persian joint In this study, instead of using the 3D (three dimensional) rotation matrix method as in the previous research, Persian joint is considered as a robotic mechanism, and the methods and tools are applied to present the relationship of angular displacements of input shaft and output shaft When the angle between intersecting shafts changes from degree to 135 degrees, the results show that the velocities of input shaft and output shaft are almost the same with the actual values This study provides a new method to investigate this mechanism in detail The obtained results not only provide the sub-parameters (the displacement of guide arms and connecting arms), but also help to have a deeper understanding about the operation of Persian joint in order to develop the design of Persian joint in the future Key words: Inverse kinematic problem, Persian joint, constant-velocity joint Introduction The universal joints were presented very early and play very important roles in the mechanical field [1] Today when people can program the displacement, velocity, acceleration and torque on the servo motors, gear boxes almost disappeared, but changing the direction of transmission still bases on the special structures such as universal joints, constant-velocity joints, or straight bevel gears, helical bevel gears, etc While they may seem similar in function, these mechanisms are very different when considering such aspects as the constant velocity between input shaft and output shaft, the limit of intersecting angles, transmission performance, the number of parts, the ability to balance the dynamics, power transfer capability, the requirement of accuracy in fabrication installation, reliability and durability These are the factors that will determine the success of a particular design in term of application Compared to other  Corresponding author: Pham Thanh Long, Dr., research field: industrial robots E-mail: kalongkc@gmail.com structures using high pair joints such as straight bevel gears, spiral bevel gears, and worm gear, the mechanisms using low pair joints have lower performance, but they allow transfer greater torque and are easier to fabricate Probably the most important thing is that they are easy to change the direction of input shaft and output shaft without redesigning the mechanism due to the combination of low pair joints specifically designed to that Beside existing mechanisms, Persian joint is the newly proposed mechanism [2, 3] and has such valuable features as the very high intersecting angle (up to 135 degrees) In the previous studies, the use of three dimensional rotation matrix was successful in proving constant velocity of Persian joint [4] However, in order to obtain the detailed kinematic analysis of each joint for further development, the analysis process faces many difficulties In this paper, a new method is presented to study the kinematics of this mechanism based on point of view that seeing it as a robotic mechanism The investigation of the mechanism is also based on modelling techniques and 56 A New Method Based on Kinematics of Robots to Analyze the Kinematics of Persian Joint numerical methods often used for robots [5, 6] In this method, the operation of the mechanism is simulated like its real working It means that the center axes of the input shaft and output shaft are fixed, and the motions are put on the input and noted the movement of the mechanism together with the movement of output shaft by solving the reverse kinematic problem to evaluate the constant velocity The detail results of investigating Persian joint showed that the completely constant velocity between input shaft and output shaft can be achieved with any intersecting angles from degree to 135 degrees The limit of different speed between the two shafts can be determined This is an important premise for further development of Persian joint to the next level Kinematic Analysis of Persian Joint 2.1 Methods All intermediate joints of the mechanism are revolute joints, and the objective in this paper is to determine the same speed between input shaft and output shaft in the transmission of different intersecting angles in detail based on two basic arguments: A and B Velocity and displacement are two quantities related by the derivative If the displacement of input shaft and output shaft are the same at a time, the angular velocities of two shafts are also the same, and vice versa Persian joint is considered as a robot of open-loop kinematic chain [7], and the first joint is connected to the base like robot arm fixed on the floor To simulate an application of Persian joint in the actual situation, the position and orientation of output shaft must not change by fixing the center 06 and the orientation of cosine vector z6 in the reference coordinate 00 (i.e., these parameters will not be updated in the real coordinate matrix on the right side of the close-loop equation) as shown in Fig While observing the operation of the mechanism, the practical possibilities are noted by solving reverse kinematic problems To Fig The input shaft is fixed, and the orientation and position of output shaft are kept with the direction cos (0.5, √ / , 0.5) change the rotation angle of the output shaft z6, the component cos (xox6) is constantly updated from -1 to with appropriate steps The reverse kinematic problem established for the ith investigation of Persian joint has the form: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (1) where, a11 = cos (x0x6) is the cosine of the angle between x0 axis and x6 axis and is scanning from -1 to for describing the rotation of z6 axis with fixing the position and the orientation like actual transmission; z6/x0y0z0 = (cos (z0x6), cos (z0y6), cos (z0z6))T = (a13, a23, a33)T is the direction cosine of z6 in x0y0z0 coordinate O6 = (px, py, pz)T is the origin of O6 reference frame in O0 reference frame These two quantities when solving the new inverse problem are not reassigned to simulate the keeping of fixed axis of output shaft and only accept turning itself around qi = (q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6)(i) is the solution of Eq (1) after applying numerical methods to solve the inverse kinematic problem for robot introduced in Ref [8] To describe the variation of output shaft 2/ (n is the number of divisions of [-1, 1]), the modelling problem is updated in Eq (1) have the inverse problem for the (i +1)th investigating point as follows: A New Method Based on Kinematics of Robots to Analyze the Kinematics of Persian Joint Table (2) 1 qi+1 = (q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6)(i+1) is the solution of Eq (2) The angular displacements of the input and output described by the right-hand side of Eq (2) are evaluated as follows: (3) i = 1/n is scanned for tracking the variation of these two quantities to conclude about the same speed between input shaft and output shaft Using expressions derived from the derivative of two sides of Eq (3) as follows: (4) & are compared to conclude the constant velocity for Persian joint 2.2 Kinematic Analysis of Persian Joint Persian joint was modelled as shown in Fig and the DH (Denavit Hartenberg) rule [3] was used to obtain DH table in order to determine the transformation matrices between the coordinates According to Table 1, the equations of robot associated with the chosen location are shown as below: nx = C6·(S5·((C3S1)·0.5 + (√3·C1S2)·0.5 – (C1C2S3)·0.5) – C5·(S4·((C1S2)·0.5 – ( √3 ·C3S1) 0.5 + ( √3 ·C1 C2S3)·0.5) – C4·(S1C3 + C1C2C3))) – S6·(C4·((C1S2)·0.5 – ( √3 ·C3S1)·0.5 + ( √3 ·C1C2S3)·0.5) + S4·(S1S3 + C1C2C3)) ax = – C5·((C3S1·0.5 + (√3·C1S2)·0.5 – (C1C2S3)·0.5) – S5S4·((C1S2)·0.5 – (√3·C3S1)·0.5 + (√3·C1C2S3)·0.5) – C4·(S1S3 + C1C2C3)) px = (4,511,420,722,739,313·C3S1) / 70,368,744,177,664 – (4,511,420,722,739,313·C1S2) / 35,184,372,088,832 + (4,511,420,722,739,313√3·C1S2) / Joint 57 DH table R(zα) α1 α2 α3 α4 α5 α6 T(zd) 0 d -d 0 T(xa) 0 0 0 R(xβ) -90° -90° 30° -90° 90° 0° 70,368,744,177,664 – (4,511,420,722,739,313·C1C2S3) / 70,368,744,177,664 ay = C5·((C1C3)·0.5 – (√3S1S2)·0.5 + (C2S1S3)·0.5) – S5·(S4((S1S2)·0.5 + (√3·C1C3)·0.5 + (√3C2 S1S3)·0.5) + C4·(C1S3 – C2C3S1)) py = (4,511,420,722,739,313·√3·S1S2) / 70,368,744,177,664 – (4,511,420,722,739,313·S1S2) / 35,184,372,088,832 – (4,511,420,722,739,313·C1C3) / 70,368,744,177,664 – (4,511,420,722,739,313·C2S1 S3) / 70,368,744,177,664 az = - C5·((S2S3)·0.5 + (√3·C2)·0.5) – S5·(S4·(0.5C2 – (√3·S2S3)·0.5) + C3C4S2) pz = (4,511,420,722,739,313·S2 S3) / 70,368,744,177,664 – (4,511,420,722,739,313·C2) / 35,184,372,088,832 + (4,511,420,722,739,313√3·C2) / 70,368,744,177,664 Results and Discussions According to the investigating results in different situations as described above, it may notice the following points: (1) Persian joint is an under-actuated mechanism Therefore, it should not be completely controlled the property of the expected constant velocity only relied on special mechanical design (hardware) of the mechanism; (2) The proposed mechanism has enough degree of freedom and appropriate arrangements to transmit power that changes the direction in space However, the difference of instantaneous turning radii (r1 ≠ r2) and linear velocity v1 = v2 can easily yield ω1 ≠ ω2 as shown in Fig The difference of velocities depends on the difference of turning radii r1 and r2, and the relation is illustrated by: 58 A New Method Based on Kinematics of Robots to Analyze the Kinematics of Persian Joint shaft In general, the kinematic analysis fully indicated the mechanical reactions of Persian joint, and it will be the basis for the selection of its applications in reality Conclusions Fig The relation of velocities between input shaft and output shaft Fig The difference of displacement between input shaft and output shaft ω2 = ω1·(r1 / r2) ↔ q2 = q1·(r1 / r2) Because r1 and r2 depend on the angles q2 and q5, the variations of these two angles can obtain from the graph of displacement of the mechanism in a specific position From that, the variation in speed of output shaft can be yielded when the speed of input shaft is fixed The variation in displacement of output shaft occurs as shown in Fig 3, because the operation of the third joint suffers reaction forces from the second joint and the fourth joint They impact on changing radius r1 and radius r2 This problem cannot be overcome because Persian joint is an under-actuated mechanism If the mechanism naturally works with any intersecting angles from degree to 135 degrees, the differences of displacements between input shaft and output shaft change from -0.1536 (rad) to 0.3348 (rad) as shown in Fig They are the explanations for the change in speed of output shaft compared with input Except for aligned transmission between input shaft and output shaft, with the completely same velocity, transmission with different intersecting angles can achieve the constant velocity if the displacements of the intermediate joints are controlled by pre-established rules Considering Persian joint like a robotic mechanism to use modelling methods and mathematical tools still used for the robots is a new method It shows the objective approach to the problem Only by boundary conditions and mathematical models, Persian joint was operated and then recorded its kinematic reaction to draw conclusions about studying characteristics needed to investigate This new method also allowed to determine the separately motional characteristic of each joint, as well as the characteristic of intermediate joints in case of requiring the same speed between input shaft and output shaft The detail results of kinematic analysis bring a new orientation to redesign Persian joint in order to develop the applicability of this joint in reality References [1] [2] [3] [4] Seherr-Thoss, H Chr., Schmelz, F., and Aucktor, E 2006 Universal Joints and Driveshafts Germany: Springer Yaghoubi, M., Mohtasebi, S S., Jafary, A., and Khaleghi, H 2011 “Design, Manufacture and Evaluation of a New and Simple Mechanism for Transmission of Power between Intersecting Shafts up to 135 Degrees (Persian Joint).” Mechanism and Machine Theory 46: 861-7 Yaghoubi, M., Mohtasebi, S S., and Jafary, A 2010 “Static and Dynamic Simulation of a New High Deflection Constant-Velocity U-joint (Persian Joint).” Report and Opinion 2: 41-5 Nguyen, Hoang., Vi Hoang., Lien, Vu Thi., and Long, Tran The 2013 “Kinematic Analysis of Persian Joint Using 3D Rotation Matrix.” Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A 2: 770-12, ISSN 2162-5298 A New Method Based on Kinematics of Robots to Analyze the Kinematics of Persian Joint [5] [6] Paul, R P 1981 Robot Manipulators: Mathematic, Programming and Control, the Computer Control of Robot Manipulator England, Massachussets and London: The MIT Press Vinh, Trinh Quang., Binh, Nguyen Dang., and Long, Pham Thanh 2008 Industrial Robots: Kinematics, Dynamics, Mechanisms Vietnam, Hanoi: Science and [7] [8] 59 Technology Press Merlet, J P 2006 Parallel Robots France: Springer Long, Pham Thanh 2012 “A New Method to Solve the Reverse Kinematic Robot Problem.” Presented at the International Symposium on Technology for Sustainability, Bangkok, Thailand Call for Papers Dear author, This is Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A (ISSN 2162-5298) (Earlier title: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, ISSN 1934-8932), a professional journal published across the United States by David Publishing 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Mande Seyf-Laye and Baogang Zhang 55 A New Method Based on Kinematics of Robots to Analyze the Kinematics of Persian Joint Pham Thanh Long and Tran The Long Journal of Environmental Science and
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