Biomass and seed yield of maize with effective tillering trait: CRTM-2

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Maize genotype with effective tillers was developed from a natural mutant with ineffective tillers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India. Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. luxurians), African tall (fodder maize) and Harsha (composite) were included for development of CRIDA tillering maize viz., CRTM-2. Single plant of CRTM2 had five effective tillers similar to Teosinte, with a total height of 1223.5 cm, 62.0 leaves and 25.8 filled cobs. CRTM-2 showed an increase of 530.3, 423.7 and 2086.0% over Harsha, 388.0, 315.8 and 2350 % over African tall and 15.5, 34.1 and -53.0 % over teosinte, for plant height, number of leaves and number of filled cobs respectively averaged over four seasons viz., 2016 (kharif and rabi), 2017 kharif and 2018 kharif. CRTM-2 had tillers like teosinte and the shape of cobs and seed type of maize. The percentage of superiority of CRTM-2 for seed yield /plant was 227.8%, 27.4% and 22.5% over Teosinte, African tall and Harsha respectively. It also showed superiority for total biomass. It was 102.7%, 21.5% and 63.5% over Teosinte, African tall and Harsha respectively. This tillering maize can be source material for innovative concept of developing new tillering maize varieties with effective cobs and significantly higher productivity and production of feed, fodder and food for animals, poultry and humans apart from industrial uses. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(6): 3355-3360 International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume Number 06 (2019) Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com Original Research Article https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.806.398 Biomass and Seed Yield of Maize with Effective Tillering Trait: CRTM-2 N Jyothi Lakshmi*, P Raghuram Reddy, Amol Patil, M Vanaja, K Salini, B Sarkar, S S Shishodia, S.K Yadav, V Maruthi, M Maheswari, K Sammi Reddy and G Ravindra Chary Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santhoshnagar, Hyderabad, India *Corresponding author ABSTRACT Keywords Tillering maize, Zea luxuriance, Effective tillers, Effective cobs, Biomass and seed yield Article Info Accepted: 18 May 2019 Available Online: 10 June 2019 Maize genotype with effective tillers was developed from a natural mutant with ineffective tillers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India Teosinte (Zea mays ssp luxurians), African tall (fodder maize) and Harsha (composite) were included for development of CRIDA tillering maize viz., CRTM-2 Single plant of CRTM2 had five effective tillers similar to Teosinte, with a total height of 1223.5 cm, 62.0 leaves and 25.8 filled cobs CRTM-2 showed an increase of 530.3, 423.7 and 2086.0% over Harsha, 388.0, 315.8 and 2350 % over African tall and 15.5, 34.1 and -53.0 % over teosinte, for plant height, number of leaves and number of filled cobs respectively averaged over four seasons viz., 2016 (kharif and rabi), 2017 kharif and 2018 kharif CRTM-2 had tillers like teosinte and the shape of cobs and seed type of maize The percentage of superiority of CRTM-2 for seed yield /plant was 227.8%, 27.4% and 22.5% over Teosinte, African tall and Harsha respectively It also showed superiority for total biomass It was 102.7%, 21.5% and 63.5% over Teosinte, African tall and Harsha respectively This tillering maize can be source material for innovative concept of developing new tillering maize varieties with effective cobs and significantly higher productivity and production of feed, fodder and food for animals, poultry and humans apart from industrial uses Introduction Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops in the world, being among the primary sources of human food, animal feed, and raw material for some industrial processes Maize has wider adaptability under varied agro-climatic conditions Wild species are important sources of genetic variability and may be exploited by breeding programs to introgress desirable traits The potential use of Teosinte in maize breeding has been evaluated since 1950s Researchers concluded that Teosinte is a valuable germplasm for maize improvement, providing resistance to diseases and other abiotic stresses (Reeves, 1950), as well as quantitative traits (Cohen and Galinat, 1984; Casas et al., 2001) Some of the ancestral maize species have the prolificacy characteristics Recently their architecture related to particular traits has been elucidated (Weber et al., 2008) Such studies suggested the relationship between specific gene and 3355 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(6): 3355-3360 trait variation in Teosinte The annual teosinte, Zea mays ssp luxurians, has tillering ability, having 6-7 tillers with tender stem, many small leaves and many very small cobs It is highly palatable to the animals with high nutritive value However the seeds are very hard, small sized and bitter in taste and low yielding African tall is a tall, single stemmed, many leafed with white seeded cob and matures in 130-135 days It produces higher green fodder yield and good silage can also be prepared from it Maize composite variety Harsha is yellow-orange seeded, drought tolerant, high yielding and matures in 100-110 days Present study was aimed to develop tillering maize having more no of tillers with effective cobs, more no of leaves/plant and cobs with effective seeds from a natural mutant with ineffective tillers using Teosinte, African tall and Harsha Materials and Methods A natural mutant with tillers was first identified in Hayathnagar Research Farm of CRIDA, Hyderabad during 1990 It had ineffective tillers (tillers with low height and ineffective cobs) To improve the number of effective tillers along with height it was crossed with teosinte The progeny of natural mutant and teosinte was crossed with African tall to improve tiller height The above progeny was crossed with Teosinte and African tall, using them as male parent was done in alternate seasons After years of above crossing, the progeny were crossed with normal maize (composite-harsha) and recurrent selection was followed and single plants were selected with desirable characteristics of higher number of tillers, tillers with effective cobs and normal maize type seed The crop was sown in kharif season during June month in 2016, 2017 and 2018 and rabi season during November 2016 Teosinte, African tall and Harsha were sown along with CRTM-2 in all the seasons The spacing was 75x30 cm between rows and within a row respectively Recommended dose of fertilizer for maize at the rate of 120:60:60 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K2O was applied to the crop Crop was maintained free from moisture stress, pests and diseases Crop was grown in replications Each replication had rows of meter length Crop duration of CRTM-2 was about 105-110 days The checks Harsha and African tall matured in 110 and 135 days respectively At maturity, three plants of each genotype were used to determine above ground dry matter accumulation and seed yield Plant height, number of leaves and no of cobs were recorded Dry weights were recorded after keeping the leaf, stem and tassel at 80o C for 48 hours in hot air oven Cobs were sun dried Total biomass and seed yield per plant was recorded Results and Discussion The unique characters of CRTM-2, tillering maize developed at CRIDA is presented in figure The tillering maize showed five effective tall tillers apart from main stem and high number of leaves and filled cobs Anova for number of tillers, total plant height, number of leaves, number of cobs, total biomass and seed yield per plant in CRTM-2 and checks/parents, Teosinte, Harsha and African tall over mean data of four seasons viz; 2016k,2016R, 2017k and 2018k are presented in table The results revealed that CRTM-2 was significantly different from Teosinte, African tall and Harsha for all the characters studied CRTM-2 had tillers per plant as that of Teosinte 3356 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(6): 3355-3360 Fig.1 The tillers, leaves, cobs and seed of tillering maize CRTM-2 Table.1 Anova for No of tillers, total plant height, No of leaves, No of cobs, total biomass and seed yield per plant in CRTM-2 and checks/parents, teosinte, harsha and African tall over mean data of four seasons viz; 2016k, 2016R, 2017k and 2018k Parameters CRTM-2 Genotypes Teosinte African tall Harsha No of tillers 5 - - Plant Height (cm) No of leaves 1223.5 a 62.0 a 1057.3 b 47.3 b 250.3 c 15.0 c 194.8 c 11.9 d No of filled cobs 25.8 a 55.0 b 1.1 c 1.2 c Total biomass(g/pl) 411.0 a 202.8 d 338.4 b 251.2 c Seed Yield(g/pl) 132.1 a 40.3 c 103.7 b 107.8 b Note: values followed by the same letter in a row are not significantly different at P=0.01 3357 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(6): 3355-3360 Table.2 Number of tillers, height, number of leaves and number of filled cobs on main stem and tillers in CRTM-2 and its superiority over Teosinte, African tall and Harsha for four seasons viz., 2016k 2016R, 2017k and 2018k CRTM-2 Main stem /Tiller Height (cm) 2017 2018 K K 257 262 241 248 225 223 210 215 200 198 192 190 1325 1336 2016 K 247 217 187 180 125 109 1065 2016 R 233 231 206 175 168 155 1168 185 180 175 169 152 143 1004 233 175 192 187 189 181 159 146 1054 243 176.5 195 190 190 180 165 142 1062 255 197.8 % inc or dec of CRTM-2 over Teosinte 6.1 10.8 Main stem Tiller Tiller Tiller Tiller Tiller Total Checks/parents Teosinte Main stem Tiller Tiller Tiller Tiller Tiller Total African tall Harsha No of leaves 2017 2018 K K 12 11 11 11 11 10 11 10 10 10 10 64 62 249.8 234.3 208.5 196.8 172.8 161.5 1223.5 2016 K 10 10 10 10 10 10 60 2016 R 12 10 10 10 10 10 62 202 197 192 186 175 157 1109 270 230 193.5 188.5 186.5 179.0 162.8 147.0 1057.3 250.3 194.8 8 8 7 46 15.5 11 8 7 45 15.5 11 8 8 7 46 14 13.3 24.8 20.5 15.5 30.4 37.8 Mean No of filled cobs 2016 201 201 R 7K 8K 5 7 3 4 21 32 30 11.3 10.5 10.3 10.3 10.0 9.8 62.0 2016 K 3 20 8 8 8 48 14.8 12.2 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.8 7.3 7.3 46.3 15.0 11.9 22 7 6 55 1.2 20 7 6 53 1.3 21 7 6 54 1.3 24 7 6 57 1.2 21.8 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.0 6.0 54.8 1.1 1.2 39.1 29.2 34.1 -63.6 -60.4 40.7 310 236 47.4 240 290 53.0 235 208 Mean African tall 357.1 380.7 419.6 394.8 388.0 287.1 300.0 357.1 318.9 315.8 1900 2000 Harsha 508.6 561.8 569.9 480.9 530.3 445.5 416.7 424.6 408.2 423.7 1567 1515 3358 Mea n 5.8 5.0 5.0 3.5 3.8 2.8 25.8 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(6): 3355-3360 Table.3 Total biomass and seed yield per plant of CRTM-2 and its superiority over checks/parents viz., Teosinte, African tall and Harsha for four seasons viz 2016k 2016R, 2017k and 2018k CRTM-2 Biomass (g/pl) 2016 2016 2017 2018 Main stem K R K K /Tiller 112.5 100.5 100.7 100.5 Main stem 68.3 67.3 86.7 78.1 Tiller 55 65.4 78 86.5 Tiller 51.6 72.8 50.9 51.4 Tiller 57.7 51 60.2 61.3 Tiller 38.9 41.5 46.4 60.9 Tiller Total 384.0 398.5 422.9 438.7 Checks/parents 186.1 199.2 217.4 208.6 Teosinte* 321.0 323.8 357.4 351.4 African tall 225.5 246 274.3 259.2 Harsha % inc or dec of CRTM-2 over 106.3 100.1 94.5 110.3 Teosinte 19.6 23.1 18.3 24.8 African tall 70.3 62.0 54.2 69.3 Harsha Seed Yield (g/pl) 2016 2017 2018 R K K 26.9 24.9 34 19.1 34.7 30.1 17.9 33.9 31.7 28 13.7 16.4 15.8 22 21 9.7 15.4 19.6 117.4 144.6 152.8 Mean 2016K 103.6 75.1 71.2 56.7 57.6 46.9 411.0 35.12 23.8 17.8 16.046 15.708 5.112 113.6 202.8 338.4 251.3 38.5 91 91 40 95 101 102.7 21.5 63.5 195.6 25.1 25.1 193.5 23.6 16.2 43.8 116.9 121 230.1 23.7 19.5 Mean 30.2 26.9 25.3 18.5 18.6 12.5 132.1 38.9 112 118 40.3 103.7 107.8 292.8 36.4 29.5 227.8 27.4 22.5 CRTM-2 recorded 1223.5cm, 62.0, 25.8, 411.0g/pl, 132.1g/pl for plant height, number of leaves, number of cobs, total biomass and seed yield respectively The values of CRTM2 are significantly higher than Teosinte, African tall and Harsha for above characters mentioned except for no of filled cobs over Teosinte and 11.9 for Teosinte, African tall and Harsha respectively The average no of filled cobs on the main plant was 5.8 in CRTM-2, while for the five tillers it ranged from 2.8-5.0 numbers with total no of filled cobs for single plant being 25.8 while the checks Teosinte, African tall and Harsha recorded 55.0, 1.1 and 1.2 respectively Number of tillers, height, number of leaves and number of filled cobs on main stem and tillers in CRTM-2 and its superiority over Teosinte, African tall and Harsha for four seasons viz., 2016k, 2016R, 2017k and 2018k are presented in table CRTM-2 showed an average height of 249.8 cm for main stem with a range of 161.5 cm to 234.3 cm in the height of five tillers The total height of main stem and tillers put together was 1223.5 cm while the checks Teosinte, African tall and Harsha recorded 1057.0, 250.3 and 194.8 cm respectively The average no of leaves was 11.3 on main plant with a range of 9.8 to 10.5 in five tillers The total no of leaves per plant was 62.0 while for checks it was 46.3, 15.0 The mean data for total biomass and seed yield over four seasons are given in table CRTM-2 recorded an average biomass of 103.6 g for main stem with a range of 46.9g to 75.1g biomass for five tillers The total biomass of main stem and tillers put together was 411.0g/plant in CRTM-2 while the checks Teosinte, African tall and Harsha recorded 202.8, 338.4 and 251.3 g/plant respectively The average seed yield was 30.2g on main stem with a range of 12.5 to 26.9g in five tillers The total seed yield per plant was 132.1 for CRTM-2, while for checks it was 40.3, 103.7 and 107.8 for Teosinte, African tall and Harsha respectively It is interesting to note at this 3359 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(6): 3355-3360 stage that the cobs of Teosinte are too small in size while CRTM-2 had bigger size of cobs as evident from number of cobs and seed yield in teosinte (54.8 cobs and 40.3g/pl) and CRTM-2 (25.8 cobs and 132.1 g/pl) CRTM-2 had seeds similar to maize The percentage of superiority of CRTM-2 over Teosinte, African tall and Harsha for plant height was 15.5%, 388.0% and 530.3 % averaged over seasons (Table 2) For number of leaves, the superiority of tillering maize was 34.1%, 315.8%, and 423.7% over Teosinte, African tall and Harsha respectively Similarly for no of cobs the superiority of CRTM-2 over African tall and Harsha was 2350.0% and 2086.0 % respectively However there was decrease in number of cobs in CRTM-2 (-53.0%) compared to Teosinte The percentage of superiority of CRTM-2 over Teosinte, African tall and Harsha for total biomass was 102.7, 21.5% and 63.5% while for seed yield/plant it was 227.8, 27.4% and 22.5% respectively averaged over seasons (Table 3) The superiority of tillering maize, CRTM-2 for tillering trait, biomass and seed yield over the checks African tall and Harsha and with maize type cobs and seed reveals it to be very potential innovative genotype CRTM-2 can be source material for innovative concept of developing new tillering maize varieties with effective cobs for higher productivity of fodder, poultry feed and human food apart from industrial uses How to cite this article: References Casas SJF, Sánchez GJJ, Ramírez DJL, Ron PyS, Montes HJ 2001 Rendimiento y sus componentes en retrocruzas maízteocintle Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 24, 17 –26 Cohen JI, Galinat WC 1984 Potential use of alien germplasm for maize improvement Crop Science 24, 1011–1015 Doyle, J.J and Doyle J.L Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue Focus, v.12, p.13-15, 1990 Jaccard, P.1901 Etude comparative de la distribution florale dans une portion desalpes et des jura, Bull Soc Vaud Sci Nat 37: 547-579 Murray, H.G and W.F Thompson, 1980 Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA, Nucleic Acids Res 8: 4321-4325 Perrier X., A Flori and F Bonnot, 2003 Data analysis methods, in: P Hamon, M Seguin, X Perrier, J.C Glaszmann (Eds.), Genetic Diversity of Cultivated Tropical Plants, Enfield, Science Publishers, Montpellier, pp 43-76 Reeves RG 1950 The use of teosinte in the improvement of corn inbreds Agronony Journal 42, 248–251 Weber, A L., William H.B., Rucker J., Baltazar M.B., J de Jesus sanchezgonzalez, Feng P., Buckler E.S and Doebley J., 2008 The Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Teosinte (Zea mays ssp parviglumis): New Evidence From Association Mapping Genetics, 180: 1221-1232 Jyothi Lakshmi, N., P Raghuram Reddy, Amol Patil, M Vanaja, K Salini, B Sarkar, S.S Shishodia, S.K Yadav, V Maruthi, M Maheswari, K Sammi Reddy and Ravindra Chary, G 2019 Biomass and Seed Yield of Maize with Effective Tillering Trait: CRTM-2 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 8(06): 3355-3360 doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.806.398 3360 ... tillers, leaves, cobs and seed of tillering maize CRTM-2 Table.1 Anova for No of tillers, total plant height, No of leaves, No of cobs, total biomass and seed yield per plant in CRTM-2 and checks/parents,... maize, CRTM-2 for tillering trait, biomass and seed yield over the checks African tall and Harsha and with maize type cobs and seed reveals it to be very potential innovative genotype CRTM-2. .. Shishodia, S.K Yadav, V Maruthi, M Maheswari, K Sammi Reddy and Ravindra Chary, G 2019 Biomass and Seed Yield of Maize with Effective Tillering Trait: CRTM-2 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 8(06): 3355-3360
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