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1 CHAPTER THESIS RESEARCH OVERVIEW 1.1 THE NECESSITY OF THE RESEARCH THEME Coffee is Vietnam's strategic agricultural product sector, the world's second largest export volume, contributing 10% of agricultural GDP, 5% of total export value, providing more than million jobs and creating 50% livelihoods for people in the Central Highlands Vietnamese coffee brand has affirmed its position in the world market and Vietnamese coffee products are loved by international consumers With more than 570 thousand hectares of coffee growing area being harvested, the average output is from 1.4 to 1.6 million tons / year According to statistics, there are over 550 thousand farmers directly involved in coffee production with more than 1.6 million workers In addition to working directly in the chain of production, purchasing, import and export business, the coffee industry also attracts idle workers in the neighboring provinces to focus on the Central Highlands during the collection time to work as hired laborers For the Central Highlands, promoting coffee exports is one of the important and urgent solutions for the following basic reasons: Firstly, Vietnam is the world's largest exporter of Robusta coffee (Robusta coffee), in which the Central Highlands is the capital of coffee trees with an output of about 92% of the country's coffee production Coffee has really become a key crop, a poverty reduction and a prosperous tree for the people of the Central Highlands With over 1.6 million tons of coffee beans per year Coffee contributes about 10% of agricultural GDP, 5% of total export value, providing more than million jobs and creates 50% of livelihoods for the Central Highlands people As one of Vietnam's strategic industries, coffee has an important significance especially for the economic lives of the people, especially the poor and ethnic minorities in the Central Highlands, the area where the largest coffee area in the country Second, sustainable development is a common trend that all humanity is striving towards, which is the strategic goal that the Party, State and people of Vietnam are determined to implement In the past years, especially after the Resolution No 26-NQ / TW of the 7th Central Conference (10th session) on agriculture, farmers and rural areas, our country's agriculture has achieved quite good achievements The Party and the State have many guidelines and measures to quickly develop economic sectors, including sustainable agricultural development Agricultural development has been associated with the effective exploitation of natural resources, minimizing environmental pollution, associated with solving social problems such as employment, economic restructuring, ensuring solidity, national food security, some export products including coffee occupy a high position in the world market Third, today, with the development of the science and technology revolution of 4.0, the trend of globalization is becoming an objective trend The implementation of these FTAs has positively contributed to the economic development, export market expansion, helping Vietnam to participate more deeply in the value chain, global production network In particular, with the development of crude export volume, Vietnam's coffee industry is growing, participating strongly in the value-added chain of the industry Coffee products of Vietnamese enterprises such as G7, Trung Nguyen, Vinacafe, etc were present and affirmed their position in many markets around the world However, before the trend of open integration, squeezing in the fierce competition today is not easy for Vietnamese brands to survive and develop All of the above analysis shows how to have a policy system to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands to the world market in an open economy effectively Contributing to solving these problems in both theoretical and practical aspects is essential in the immediate period Therefore, the study of the thesis topic: "Completing state policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands" is my doctoral thesis 1.2 OVERVIEW AND RESEARCH DISEASE In the process of researching the topic, the author has collected a number of related works both in the country and in the world, specifically as follows: - Group of coffee export related projects: Although there have been some projects assessing the status of coffee export in Vietnam, there are still few studies which offer assessment to the situation of coffee export in the Central Highlands and especially in the context of Vietnam's deep integration into the global economy There is also little research on proposed solutions (macro and micro) to improve policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands effectively - Group of projects related to coffee export policy in the Central Highlands, Vietnam: Research on export policies in general and coffee in particular has many works with many purposes, scope and internal different content But which policy in the current environment directly leads to faster growth than coffee exports, no one has gone deep to find ways to supplement and modify 3 Thus, it can be affirmed that until now, there has not been any research going into the study of state policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands especially in the context of climate change impacts on the region and the key coffee production and export of Vietnam 1.3 OBJECTIVES, TASKS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS The general objective of the thesis is to study theoretical issues on State policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands and propose solutions and recommendations to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands In order to achieve research objectives, the thesis must perform three tasks through answering research questions The tasks include: (1) Establishing a rationale system for export promotion policies, indicators to assess export promotion, factors affecting coffee promotion policy; (2) Surveying, measuring and assessing the situation of coffee exports, the state of policies of the State to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands; (3) Proposing highly feasible solutions to improve state policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands 1.4 SUBJECTS AND SCOPE OF RESEARCH OF THE THESIS - Research subjects: Policies of the State to promote coffee export in the Central Highlands and Vietnam in the period of 2011-2020, orientation to 2030 - Scope of research: Scope of content: The thesis approaches state policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands to market on the basis of implementing the policies of the Central and People's Committees of the Western provinces Originally building policies to promote coffee products (through policies) these are policies that directly affect coffee exports in the Central Highlands, Vietnam Scope of space: Investigation in provinces in the Central Highlands (Dak Lak, Lam Dong, Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Nong) and departments directly related to the construction and implementation of the main State books to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands Scope of time: The thesis conducts research to assess the status of coffee exports in Vietnam and the Central Highlands, the process of implementing policies for the period 2011-2020, oriented towards 2030, and at the same time assess the impact of state policies on the growth of coffee exports in the Central Highlands 1.5 METHOD OF RESEARCH OF THE THESIS In the study of the thesis, both groups of secondary and primary data collection methods were used Secondary data is collected from online and printed data sources of the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, General Statistics Office, Coffee Association, Vifaco and People's Committees of the Central Highlands provinces Primary data is collected by two methods: (1) In-depth interviews with experts, leaders of ministries and leaders of coffee production and trading enterprises; (2) Survey by survey with a sample of 300 survey forms to businesses and agencies issuing and implementing policies Combining qualitative research and quantitative research in order to have comparative conditions, combine their results with each other so that they can better understand the issues to be studied 1.6 NEW CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE THESIS (1) In theory, the thesis systematized the theoretical basis of state policies to promote exports, identify and clarify characteristics and objectives of state policies to promote exports and bases To improve policies in general and coffee products in particular, (2) In terms of practice, the dissertation has analyzed and evaluated the process of innovating each tool of agricultural policy to promote export of agricultural products in general and commodities coffee in particular through surveying the State's policy documents, the status of coffee export from 2011 to present; (3) In terms of applicability, the thesis has proposed solutions to improve policies, at the same time take initiative in coffee export business and to regulate the efficiency of production scale and export; solutions to combine business support policies to increase the competitive benefits of enterprises when exporting 1.7 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS In addition to sections such as Pledge, Table of Contents, List of acronyms, List of Tables and drawings (10 pages); General conclusions (1 page); List of references (13 pages) and Appendix (30 pages), thesis 139 pages long and structured into chapters as follows: Chapter 1: Overview of the thesis research; Chapter 2: Some theoretical issues and international experience on State policies to promote coffee exports; Chapter 3: Analysis of export situation and policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands; Chapter 4: Solutions to improve State policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands 5 CHAPTER SOME THEORETICAL ISSUES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE ON STATE POLICY TO PROMOTE COFFEE EXPORT 2.1 OVERVIEW ON PROMOTION OF AGRICULTURAL EXPORT 2.1.1 Concepts, views and contents promoting agricultural exports Concept and benefits of goods export Export is a basic external economic activity through which links the single market of countries together, strengthen trade and trade and is considered a means to promote economic growth and development The development of export is one of the main motivations for promoting the economic development of countries in the integration period, especially developing countries like Vietnam, so it has a very important role Delimit export promotion with export development, export expansion and import substitution Promoting exports is a way to promote product consumption Export development is the process of exporting goods in all aspects from quantity to quality Expanding export is the fact that the country can bring its products to expand market Import substitution is accelerating the replacement of some imports to encourage local production for domestic consumption, rather than for export markets Views and content promoting exports Promoting export increases export scale; Promoting export to change the level and export capacity; Promoting export to improve export efficiency; Promoting export towards sustainable development 2.1.2 The role and requirements of promoting agricultural exports in Vietnam The role of promoting XK of goods in Vietnam Promoting export is contributing a great role in the strategy of promoting export of agricultural products of Vietnam, developing agricultural economy, sustainable economic growth in the future Specific roles is promoting export to contribute to import capital for industrialization of the country; Promoting exportation contributes to accelerating the process of economic restructuring, supporting production development according to market orientation and sustainable growth; Promoting exports creates a positive impact on solving jobs and improving people's lives Request for export promotion in the integration period Promoting exports in the integration period must ensure the requirements associated with sustainable growth in the context of complicated world developments, coupled with unpredictable impacts from climate change, need focus on some of the following key issues: Promoting exports must keep pace with global trade liberalization; Promoting export must ensure increasing knowledge content in export products; Promoting exports must be in line with the objectives of economic development and associated with the development plan of sustainable agriculture; Promoting exports must combine measures to promote trade promotion at both macro and micro levels 2.1.3 Criteria to assess the level of promoting agricultural exports State policies in general and state policies to promote coffee exports in particular are the tools of the state that influence the export coffee industry and help export growth Therefore, the indicators to assess the level of export impact will reflect part or all of these policies: Scale of export products; Structure and quality of XKNS goods; Indicators for measuring competitiveness of export goods in the market; Export market growth 2.2 STATE POLICY PROMOTING EXPORT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 2.2.1 Concepts, objectives and characteristics of agricultural policies to promote agricultural exports Concept of state policy promoting agricultural exports The policy is set by a subject or management entity, which is based on the political policy and the actual situation, always aimed at a certain purpose; to accomplish a specific goal; policies are issued with clear calculations and intentions Policy characteristics to promote agricultural exports of Vietnam today Currently, the majority of Vietnam's NS products are mainly exported raw, the rate of processing less so the characteristics of agricultural production in Vietnam export are associated with the characteristics of agricultural production, agricultural economy and of the Vietnamese economy State policy on civil servants has some key characteristics as follows: The state policy on promoting the export of Vietnam is associated with the process of product diversification; Agricultural policies in order to promote XKNS in Vietnam associated with the trend of sustainable agricultural development; CSNN of state-owned export economy is characterized by a converted market economy; Agricultural policies to promote social responsibility are inseparable from other sector development strategies and policies Objectives of state-owned civil servants to promote exports Agricultural policies to promote export always orientate export activities in accordance with the desire of the State to show: Encouraging export and development activities; Contributing to promoting the good side of the market economy while limiting its negative aspects; Attaching the domestic production background to the activities of the world economy; Achieving a reasonable and sustained export growth rate for a long time, the export market is expanding, product quality is constantly improving; Export activities contribute to improving growth quality; promote economic restructuring towards industrialization and modernization; improve the balance of payments and reduce trade deficit; Improving the quality of the goods and improving the competitive competence of the goods industry and the prestige of export enterprises, Creating a firm foundation for enterprises in legal matters, policies to support and facilitate enterprises to export new opportunities receive modern science and technology, strengthen production organization, and enhance the status of enterprises in the international arena 2.2.2 State policies to promote agricultural exports: (1) Export market policy; (2) Development policy and restructuring of export products; (3) Export promotion policy; (4) Policy to encourage and support Policies to encourage and support enterprises producing and distributing exports; (5) Policy to link production with export; (6) science and technology policies to support production and post-harvest, (7) Policy on innovation of export management tools and institutions 2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING THE POLICY FOR PROMOTING AGRICULTURAL AND COFFEE EXPORT 2.3.1 Basic factors affecting agricultural promotion policy: (1) Social factors; (2) Political and legal factors; (3) Natural and technological factors; (4) Infrastructure factors for export activities; (5) Effect of world socio-economic situation and international economic relations; (6) Demand of foreign markets 2.3.2 Several factors affecting policies to promote Vietnamese coffee exports: External factors: (1) Characteristics of the world coffee market; (2) Policies of major coffee importers in the world; (3) The world's largest coffee importers; (4) Requirements and regulations for imports of coffee products of regional and international economic organizations in which Vietnam has been and will be participating; (5) Requirements outside the Law Internal factors: (1) Vietnam's socio-economic development strategy to 2020; (2) National export strategy; (3) International economic integration strategy for agriculture and coffee export; (4) Planning for coffee industry by 2020 2.4 EXPERIENCE ON POLICY TO PROMOTE EXPORT OF COFFEE AND LESSONS LEARNED FOR VIETNAM 2.4.1 Studies of policies to promote coffee export of some countries Brazil, Colombia, Indonexia are the three countries with coffee export turnover in the world which are capable of controlling prices, supply and demand of the world coffee market Trading moves of their coffee products are intertwined with Vietnam's export moves Therefore, enlisting and learning from other countries' successful and unsuccessful lessons are essential for Vietnam 2.4.2 Lessons learned for Vietnam Successful lessons can be applied to Vietnamese coffee in general, coffee in the Central Highlands in particular and failed lessons should be avoided: (1) environmental pollution caused by coffee production (2) The excessive use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides in cultivation also negatively impacts the natural environment (3) facing many unsustainable issues CHAPTER ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION OF STATE POLICIES TO PROMOTE THE EXPORT OF COFFEE IN TAY NGUYEN 3.1 CURRENT SITUATION OF COFFEE EXPORT IN THE PERIOD OF 2011-2018 3.1.1 The position and role of Vietnam's export coffee industry Coffee is the second most important export item after rice, creating livelihoods and jobs for millions of people involved in various stages in the coffee industry From the perspective of international trade, coffee exports generate a large amount of foreign currency revenue for the economy, increasing capital to serve the import demand of necessary goods: technology of machinery and electronic components; reduce the burden on national loans At the same time, with the world's second largest advantage in coffee export, the first in the world of Robusta coffee export, coffee export activities create conditions for Vietnam to expand the market of consumption and strengthen international economic relations So far, our country has exported Vietnamese coffee to more than 100 countries around the world, showing great prospects for foreign trade in Vietnam 3.1.2 Results of Vietnamese and Central Highlands coffee exports Table 3.2 Summary of area and volume of coffee in the period of 20102017 Area Output TT Year (Thousand (Thousan hectares) d tons) Area growth index (100%) Output Output Highland Output growth coffee in Highlands index (100 the whole coffee %) country (100-%) 2010 574 1,180 105 107.3 1,016.89 86 2011 597 1,600 104 135.6 1,439.00 90 2012 620 1,620 104 101.3 1,458 90 2013 641 1,780 103.4 109.9 1,621 91 2014 653 1,800 102 101.1 1,616 90 2015 641 1,735 98 97 1,510 87 2016 665 1,782 104 102 1,428 80 2017 640 1,700 95 95 1,412 83 2018 660 1,803 103 120 1,753 90 Source: Researchers synthesize themselves In terms of area and output: from 2010 up to now, coffee in the Central Highlands has always played a decisive role in production, area and export of Vietnamese coffee Quality: Although Vietnam is the leading coffee exporting country in the world in terms of production, the quality of coffee in the Central Highlands is not yet recognized High productivity but low quality, uneven price should be lower than the world price Export turnover: The export turnover of Vietnamese coffee and the Central Highlands mainly exports green coffee, instant coffee, roasted coffee, 10 and some other coffee products to the world Total export value of Vietnamese coffee products has increased continuously at nearly 15% annually, from 393 million USD in 2001 to 3.9 billion USD in 2017 Chart 3.2 Coffee export of Vietnam in the period of 2011 – 2017 Source: Vietdata About coffee export market: Currently, Vietnam's coffee has been exported to more than 90 countries Leading the way is Germany and the United States, the German market accounts for 15.5% in volume and 14.8% of the total coffee export turnover of the country; The US market accounted for 13.3% in volume and 13.5% in turnover Regarding export prices: Vietnam's coffee export price is only equal to 51.5% of the world average price The reason is that fierce competition in many major coffee exporting countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia has made Vietnam's export situation passive Evaluation of coffee export results of the Central Highlands 2011-2018 a Achievement In terms of output and export turnover, coffee in the Central Highlands in the past years has always been stable at over million tons In the period of 2010-2017, the average growth rate of coffee productivity reached 2% / year In particular, rejuvenated Robusta coffee can reach 4.5-6 tons / ha, with gardens up to tons / Along with this growth, Vietnam exported coffee to nearly 100 countries in the world with total export turnover in 2017 reaching 3.24 billion USD b Limitations: (1) Coffee production techniques; (2) Purchasing fruits, multiplying coffee buckets; (3) Processing coffee (freshly milled, dried, categorized export coffee) and deep processing (roasted-ground coffee, instant 11 coffee); (4) Consumption of products (green coffee XK, roasted - ground coffee, instant coffee) Summary of shortcomings - limitations in purchasing and processing consuming coffee Stitching the Existences - limited in coffee production work Subjects responsible Traders and Agents buy coffee with little Traders capital; storage facilities are not in accordance agents with technical standards Traders and agents and Traders and agents of coffee purchasing agents Traders operate without professionalism and are not yet agents transparent and The price for buying coffee does not follow the Commercial I quality standards, in fact, buying fruits and traders, agent Procurement multiplying coffee buckets owners and of fruits and coffee farmers coffee Traders and investors only know how to buy buckets coffee from farm households and farms but have not advised them on how to produce sustainable Trading traders, coffee on demand because traders and agents have agents little knowledge of the market Domestic coffee and export Buon Me Thuot Coffee Trading Center has not Buon Me been effective because the majority of customers Thuot Coffee are far away, the procedure is less convenient Trading Center II Processing coffee (freshly milled, dried, categorized export coffee) and deep processing (roastedground 1 Processing fresh, less developed and freshly ground coffee Freshly processed coffee is mainly Households, tea and is a small part of Robusta coffee of coffee Farms, companies (5% of coffee production) Households, Enterprises Farms, Enterprises Most coffee processing factories have small capacity, most of them are manufactured in the Processing and country, so technology is inferior to imported coffee facilities equipment Export processing coffee beans not meet the Processing and 12 requirements of the international coffee market Processing roasted, and grinded coffee is mainly household economy (10,000 households), only some enterprises have modern processing equipment 300-500kg / hour The quality of coffee coffee, instant after processing has not been tested - monitoring and selling price of roasted coffee is quite high coffee) compared to processing price Coffee coffee facilities processing facility and State Management Agency Instant coffee products also have low yields and consumers and lack of diversity, so they not meet the tastes of coffee Exported green coffee has no brand name and does not follow Vietnamese and international quality standards, accounting for large volumes should sell low prices III Consumption of products (XK green coffee, roasted grinded coffee, instant coffee) Viet Nam's export coffee exporters not sell directly to roasters - but most of them buy Enterprises and intermediaries so they are passive and easily coffee pressed Vietnam's coffee products lack diversity, poor quality and not meet the consumers' tastes well Branding, trade promotion, market expansion, but not strong enough and not high efficiency Selling prices of coffee products are processed Farmers at a high level while processing coffee is bought at businesses low prices coffee associations Source: Reports from Departments, Institutes, Associations, DARDs, coffee experts and directly survey and survey 3.1.3 Evaluate the growth rate of coffee exports in the Central Highlands through a number of criteria Scale of export products Table 3.8: Vietnam's coffee export turnover in the period of 2010 - 2017 Unit: billion USD Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 - 13 Value of export 1.851 2.752 3.672 2.717 3.556 2.674 3.33 3.33 Growth over the previous year6,9 48,6 33,43 -26 30,87 -24,8 24,7 -2,7 Source: General Department of Customs (%) Market: The largest markets for Vietnam's coffee exports are Germany, the United States, Spain, Italy and Japan Figure 3.7 Growth in export of Vietnamese coffee products 2010-2017 Average period 2010-2017 2017 Note: The ball size represents the export value of the commodity group Source: synthesized from UNComtrade, ITC, General Department of Customs Structure and quality of exported products: From 2011 to now, coffee has taken steps to shift the structure to instant coffee and export roasted coffee has increased because Vietnam has focused more on exporting coffee processing Figure 3.5 Coffee export by product type 2011-2016 (thousand bags) Source: General Department of Customs 14 Indicators to measure competitiveness of export coffee products on the market Evaluation of Vietnam's export economics and coffee export development in the world market shows that Vietnam's potential for coffee export development is very high and has a high NDE although the RCA index tends to decrease, in 2015 only 10.56% (see Table 3.9), however, coffee products still have a very high comparative advantage Table 3.9: Some indicators of coffee products 2011-2016 Target 2011 2012 Export / GDP 2,07 2,65 18,3 2013 2014 2015 2016 1,71 1,92 1,36 1,4 13,28 11,47 10,56 12,4 (%) RCA 13,3 Source: Summary of NCS from World Trade Center data, April 2016 Export market growth Figure 3.6: Vietnam's coffee export market from 2005-2015 Source: General Department of Customs According to the statistics of the General Department of Customs, from 2009 to 2017, coffee exports of the Central Highlands and Vietnam grew at an average rate of about 17.7% / year This shows that the main markets importing this product increasingly favor Vietnamese coffee and the number of export markets of coffee is increasingly expanding Regarding the processing content of coffee products, the product has the largest export turnover in the EU market In the period of 2011-2015, the export proportion of raw coffee (unroasted coffee) is at a very high level In the period 15 before 2013, this ratio remained above 99%; From 2013 onwards, although the rate has decreased to about 98% in 2013 and 97% in 2015, 95% in 2017, this improvement is not significant In short, almost all Vietnamese coffee exported to the EU market is green coffee 3.2 ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACTS OF THE STATE POLICY TO THE RESULT OF TAYYLAND COFFEE EXPORT GROWTH IN THE PERIOD OF 2011-2018 3.2.1 Analysis of state policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands Export market policy Development policy and restructuring of export products Export promotion policy Policies to encourage and support enterprises producing and distributing exports Policy to link production with export Policy of science and technology to support production and postharvest Policy on innovation of export management tools and institutions 3.2.2 Investigate the impact of policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands Sample size of the survey Investigate the level of influence of agricultural policies to support coffee exports in the Central Highlands Subjects of the survey are managers and directors of enterprises having coffee export activities and managers related to export, people look for coffee in the Central Highlands Descriptive statistics results Conduct descriptive analysis to determine the occurrence of comparative factors with the average of each component, to generalize the impact of policies promoting coffee exports Table 3.22 Results of descriptive statistical analysis N Minim Maximu Mean Std um Deviati ce m Varian Kurtos is 16 Statis Statisti Statistic Statistic Std Export market policy 204 tic Development policy and 204 item restructuring Export trade promotion 204 policy to encourage and Policies 204 support ME and distribute Policy to mount production 204 Science with exportand technology policy to support post 204 harvest Policy to innovate export 204 management tools and Valid N (listwise) Statistic Statisti Statisti 1c 3.39 081 Error 1.156 1.337 -.766 c c 3.61 077 1.099 1.209 -.802 1 1 5 5 3.39 3.44 3.47 3.41 081 080 079 078 1.336 1.326 1.280 1.234 3.39 081 1.156 1.156 1.152 1.131 1.111 -.939 -.691 -.821 -.852 1.336 -.939 Source: SPSS analysis results Policies to encourage and support ME and distribution of export goods are assessed by enterprises in the export industry as the main impact level 4; export market policy, level is the most frequently appearing answer; policies to develop and restructure goods, trade promotion, levels and are equally distributed; policy to mount production with export level is more appreciated; The policy of attaching production with export is level and the policy of science and technology supporting the post-harvest production level is mainly level and Thus, export enterprises surveyed have appreciated the support level of these policies to export their goods However, according to the assessment, the level of support is not really high and consistent, policies need to have better support levels, especially the policy on export coffee products should be paid more attention by the state and find appropriate solutions to promote the current coffee export activity 3.3 GENERAL EVALUATION OF THE STATE OF STATE POLICY TO PROMOTE THE EXPORT OF COFFEE IN TAY NGUYEN 3.3.1 Main advantages and results Advantages In recent years, the Government, People's Committees of the Central Highlands and Vietnam's coffee industry have issued a number of policies related to planning, investment, processing capacity improvement, market to remove difficulties for businesses and coffee producers, processors and sustainable development resources Along with policies, there are many big and breakthrough solutions in the new development stage The above policies in a 17 comprehensive and comprehensive manner from production to processing, trade and organizational innovation have contributed to the orientation of the industry with the development objectives to 2020; promoting coffee replanting, especially the big credit program of the State Bank; solve difficulties for coffee enterprises on VAT and promote innovation of commodity organization These policies have positively impacted the development of sustainable coffee production in the Central Highlands, contributing to increasing productivity, quality, output and export turnover The drawbacks In addition to the achievements, there are still some shortcomings to the policy of the coffee sector in the Central Highlands in the context of the integration as follows: (1) policies issued lack of flexible yet right target (2) Inconsistencies, even conflicting policy decisions have also occurred (3) The development strategy of the coffee industry in the overall agricultural sector develops in a discrete way, lacking consistency and consistency (4) the problem of rural infrastructure investment is not commensurate with the potential (5) a system of quality standards, post-harvest inspection is still weak and backward (6) our coffee production and trading enterprises are mainly small and medium enterprises, lack of experience and skills to participate in world trade (7) limited participation in international organizations and forums (8) policies on encouraging and adequately supporting capital, processing technology, technology, and fostering staff are still limited 3.3.2 Some shortcomings and shortcomings of the policy: The chain of production of the whole chain is still incomplete, and the phenomenon of class cut between the organization of production, processing and commercial organization; Processing, including two steps of preliminary processing and deep processing, we have not done well; Stitch the distribution organization; Although the Government has a policy of preferential loans for farmers to replenish coffee 3.3.3 Causes of success and limitations Domestic causes - On the part of the people: In the Central Highlands, people's awareness of scientific and technical issues, long-term economic efficiency, and sustainable coffee production is still low Due to lack of cooperation, linkage and protection among coffee growing households in the community, pestilent insects and product theft can occur 18 On the State side: The policy system is not guaranteed to create conditions for the development of production and sustainable export of coffee Propaganda, education and dissemination of laws, policies, state management regulations on coffee production development for people have not been effective due to inadequate methods of implementation become by the ability to mobilize all resources Budget capital is not enough to implement development policy objectives of coffee production Causes from abroad The competition of our rivals in the international coffee market is very strong and drastic: our quality and coffee brand problems have not been stable in the past time; The fluctuation of world coffee prices; The culture of Vietnamese coffee importing countries also affects the implementation and implementation of policies to promote our coffee export CHAPTER SOLUTIONS TO COMPLETE THE STATE POLICY TO PROMOTE THE EXPORT OF COFFEE IN TAY NGUYEN 4.1 TRENDS, FORECASTS AND BACKGROUND OF COFFEE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM 4.1.1 The trend of coffee production and consumption in the world a Production trend: The growth of global green coffee exports reached 8.12% annually during the period of 2004-2017, mainly driven by exports of instant coffee In the next period (2018-2030) the trend of exporting roasted coffee will increase faster (10-15% forecast) compared to instant coffee (8-10%) b Consumer trends On a global scale, coffee consumption is projected to grow 2.2% per year between now and 2020 Market segmentation has also increased strongly in recent years as certified coffee standards such as UTZ, Rainforest Alliance, organic and Fairtrade Both production and trading of sustainable coffee production increased more strongly than the common coffee segment 4.1.2 Forecast of Vietnam's coffee industry Vietnam's coffee industry is expected to continue to grow strongly in the coming years as the population continues to grow at a rate of million per year and the consumer tastes of people are increasing 19 Table 4.3 Forecast of export value of Vietnamese coffee products 2020, 2030 (according to 2017 prices) Unit: 1000 USD Coffee beans Instant coffee Coffee Roasters Total 2017 2020 2025 2030 15.3% 3748122 4783659 6105295 6.03% 424525 623767 916519 2.66% 404604 651619 1049439 4577251 6059045 8071253 Source: Analysis of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 4.1.3 The international and domestic context affects the policy of promoting coffee exports in the Central Highlands - International context: In 2017, the world witnessed the rise of multipolar - political, populist, protectionist and nationalism trends through various events, such as: the withdrew from the EU (Brexit), the United States withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and also changes in foreign policy of the two extremes of the US and China China is increasingly strengthening its influence through the "One Belt, One Road" initiative and the policy of promoting globalization The Industrial Revolution 4.0 will completely change the face of production facilities, with robots and automated chains In these factories machines will replace a large number of workers The change will be similar to the first industrial revolution in the 18th century, when workers replaced workers' labor The great political upheaval as well as the rapid development of technology, the sense of environmental protection and climate change issues, have had no small impact on the world economy in the past year - Domestic context: Besides, climate change is increasingly affecting the coffee industry In 2016 alone, drought caused damage to 116,000 hectares of coffee in the Central Highlands Since 2017, there has been a situation of unseasonal rain causing tens of thousands of coffee hectares to flower early, so the risk of reducing fructification and reducing productivity has existed In addition, the mild El Nino phenomenon may return to the second half of 2018 If this situation occurs, the quality of the beans may be affected In recent years, Vietnam has undergone a transition period to become the world's leading black pepper producer and exporter Because pepper is more profitable, many farmers have converted part of their coffee area to black pepper 20 4.2 VIEWPOINTS AND PRINCIPLES TO COMPLETE THE STATE POLICY TO PROMOTE VIETNAMESE COFFEE EXPORT 4.2.1 Opinion The viewpoint of completing state policies to promote coffee export in the Central Highlands includes the following contents: (1) The State's decisive role in the success of coffee export promotion must be clearly defined Highland; (2) Focus on innovating and improving export policies and mechanisms; (3) Based on promoting comparative advantages, competitive advantages, market demand; (4) Focus on improving VAT in export products through improving export processing content; (5) Positive and focused participation in global production and value chain, quickly and positively capture and take advantage of every opportunity 4.2.2 Principle: Building a market development strategy; Stabilizing coffee growing areas according to planning; practice sustainable farming processes; Forming a coffee industry alliance; Need to predict new trade issues 4.3 SOLUTIONS TO COMPLETE THE STATE POLICY TO PROMOTE THE EXPORT OF COFFEE IN TAY NGUYEN 4.3.1 Solutions on policies Export market policy The state should support and create conditions for enterprises to access export markets through the commercial counselor system, through international trade fairs and exhibitions, and enhance the support of providing information on fluctuations in the international coffee market and new technological advances in processing technology as well as trends in changing consumer tastes in export markets Linking to expand markets by organizing promotional activities, trade promotion, international fairs on international coffee and seminars; building a business website, etc to enhance the position and competitiveness of Vietnamese coffee in the international market; actively seek to sell directly to roasters to increase the value of exported coffee beans and at the same time reduce business costs Implementing the general model contract to help businesses be more active in negotiating with importers, avoiding the domination of importers Development policy and restructuring of coffee export products The state should consider the restructuring of crops, reduce the area of Robusta coffee and increase the area of Arabica coffee as a right direction and need to be implemented quickly Gradually modernizing recycling facilities; 21 classification of green bean coffee; Strengthening deep processing capacity, encouraging domestic and foreign enterprises to invest in processing instant coffee, roasted coffee, etc by 2020, the output will be between 15,000 and 20,000 tons / year, of which 60% will be exported Promotion policy of coffee export: Consistent policy of the State in supporting brand development; Develop an overall program of coffee brand development in the Central Highlands; Develop trade promotion system, promote branded products, strengthen training activities to improve capacity for staff, cooperatives, small and medium enterprises directly involved in construction work trademark; Enhance the role of state management agencies in forecasting, market information and export market development orientation Policy to encourage and support export coffee production and distribution enterprises Expand business rights for enterprises participating in coffee export, increase the ability to adapt quickly, and create a dynamic competitive environment Reviewing legal documents, mechanisms and policies related to the coffee industry, amending, supplementing or abolishing inappropriate documents, issuing new documents in accordance with the trend of development sustainable coffee development Research and establish organizations to direct and manage sustainable coffee development such as: Association, scientific and technical consultancy, market information services, brand promotion Policy to link production with export: Develop and implement the plan to change the structure of market-oriented agricultural production on areas taken out of sustainable coffee development areas; Further invest in research activities on new varieties, good varieties for high yield and quality, Implement replanting in accordance with the Plan approved by the provincial People's Committees in the Central Highlands; Encouraging the implementation of various forms of cooperation, association and expansion of production scale among households; Implementing the "4 houses" link; Encouraging links and mergers between agricultural product purchasing, processing and exporting establishments Policy on science and technology to support production and postharvest coffee export: Build in coffee production areas according to geographical indications, coffee production areas of ethnic minorities; Disseminate and support the application of sustainable coffee production processes (according to Viet Gap standards, or certified), application of biological products in the production and processing of clean coffee; Transfer and application of sloping land cultivation techniques, anti-erosion, leaching 22 and soil protection for coffee producers, application of science and technology to treat environmental pollution in coffee production and processing activities and preparations 4.3.2 Complete the conditions for implementing agricultural policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands For the central level: Reviewing the process of implementing commitments and strengthening international economic integration Promote and enforce trade facilitation measures; investment in key areas, focusing on investment in infrastructure projects with high socio-economic efficiency, allocating resources for coffee research institutes to continue to produce coffee varieties new ability to produce high yield, withstand drought, concentrated, with fragrance more suitable to the taste of foreign consumers; At the same time, there is a policy to support capital with a long enough time for coffee growing households to replenish the old, low-yielding coffee gardens to cultivate a high yielding clonal coffee For the local authorities: Establishing the Steering Committee for the project on sustainable coffee development based on the Steering Committee for coffee replanting in the provinces Closely coordinate activities of developing coffee industry among state management agencies such as Department of Planning and Investment, Department of Finance, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Department of Industry and Trade, Department of Natural Resources - Environment, Department of Science and Technology; Organize well and fully perform state management tasks; Develop and implement the plan to change the structure of market-oriented agricultural production on areas taken out of sustainable coffee development areas; Implement replanting of the plan as approved by the provincial People's Committee For companies trading and processing coffee import and export: Enterprises need to actively participate and become members of the world's coffee supply chains established by leading agricultural corporations Enterprises need to constantly improve and invest in new production technologies to match the demands and demands of increasingly demanding consumers today, proactively linking businesses to build brands national coffee Actively expanding new markets, especially the niche market in the world because Vietnamese coffee has not created a foothold because it has not created a reputable coffee brand in the market 23 For coffee farmers: Encourage adjacent households to produce, jointly invest in expensive mechanical equipment; Sign long-term contracts, Participate in sustainable coffee production programs to improve coffee quality as well as coffee selling prices, improve the skills of workers 4.3.3 Solution to support businesses to improve their policy beneficiary capacity In the current open trend conditions, it is necessary for enterprises to take initiative in making recommendations to competent state agencies when consuming difficult products, to protect their reputation time to recommend to the authorities to have timely preventive measures to ensure enterprises have a stable business environment, fair competition, healthy So every business must have an overall view of all these factors and understand the dynamics of each factor so that there are correct and accurate plans, decisions in promoting product consumption and increasing sales collection 4.3.4 Other solutions: Raising awareness about the role of coffee export among officials, business people and citizens; Enhancing the ability to adapt to the new context of the world market of exporting enterprises to facilitate the export of coffee products into markets with high potentials, diversifying products to serve all customers Enhancing the capacity of forecasting, recognizing policies as well as changes in the international market of international trade policy-making and management agencies; Increasing social investment for production of export goods 24 CONCLUDE In the tendency of regionalization and globalization is taking place strongly in the world, export plays an even more important role in an economy, especially for the economies of developing countries Vietnam is a country on the way to industrialize and modernize, integrate into the region and the world Export is therefore considered one of the most important tools for successful implementation of the above objectives In order to bring into full play the role of export, the Government of Vietnam has taken proper policy directions and measures to promote coffee exports such as trade liberalization, commodity and policy structure market books, investment incentive policies These policies have had a significant impact on Vietnam's coffee export activities in recent years The rapid growth of export, the positive structure of goods items, the number of key export products is increasing, the foreign currency earned to the country increased significantly However, export activities of Vietnam still face many obstacles due to objective and subjective factors So to help export operations overcome the difficulties and challenges that require us to implement the state's incentive export policies must be accompanied by the efforts of businesses in dominating the market export And it is important to see that the state's policies and measures to promote exports really need to be taken seriously in practice, not just at paper It is hoped that the potentials of human and material resources of Vietnam together with the system of policies and measures to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands in particular and Vietnam in general will be our factors promoting Vietnam's export activity on a growing basis, building a prosperous home country ... really high and consistent, policies need to have better support levels, especially the policy on export coffee products should be paid more attention by the state and find appropriate solutions... the local authorities: Establishing the Steering Committee for the project on sustainable coffee development based on the Steering Committee for coffee replanting in the provinces Closely coordinate... and Rural Development, General Statistics Office, Coffee Association, Vifaco and People's Committees of the Central Highlands provinces Primary data is collected by two methods: (1) In-depth
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