The dinosaur dealers

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Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page i The Dinosaur Dealers Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page ii This page intentionally left blank Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page iii The Dinosaur Dealers john long Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page iv First published in 2002 Copyright © Dr John Long, Alley Kat Productions Pty Ltd, Electric Pictures Pty Ltd, Australian Film Finance Corporation Limited, ScreenWest Inc 2002 All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of this book, whichever is the greater, to be photocopied by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act Allen & Unwin 83 Alexander Street Crows Nest NSW 2065 Australia Phone: (61 2) 8425 0100 Fax: (61 2) 9906 2218 Email: info@allenandunwin.com Web: www.allenandunwin.com National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication data: Long, John A., 1957– The dinosaur dealers: mission, to uncover international fossil smuggling ISBN 86508 829 Vertebrates, Fossil Smuggling I Title 560 Map by Ian Faulkner Typset by Midland Typesetters, Maryborough, Victoria Printed by McPherson’s Printing Group 10 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page v Contents 10 11 12 13 14 Prologue vii Broome Dinosaurs Violation Reopening the Case 18 Investigations in Eastern Australia 29 London Calling 46 Undercover in Hamburg 59 In Frankfurt 73 Denver, Utah and South Dakota 85 Dragon Bone Sale 106 The Fossil Fish Capital of the World 125 Fossil-related Crime in South America, India and Africa 137 The World’s Largest Fossil Fair 154 Back to Australia 178 The Future of the Fossil Industry 187 Epilogue: A Personal Story 200 Appendix: How to Check if that Fossil is Legal References 213 Acknowledgements 219 207 v Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page vi This page intentionally left blank Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page vii Prologue The theft of rare dinosaur footprints in late 1996 from an isolated beach near Broome, in the far north of Western Australia, sent shockwaves through the peaceful world of palaeontology The prints were thought to be the only known good trackway of a stegosaur in the world, and the only evidence for this dinosaur family having existed in Australia The theft so infuriated the local Aboriginal peoples that the Elders threw a curse upon the perpetrators Never before had such a site, sacred to palaeontologist and Aboriginal alike, been so publicly violated The crime made front-page news in the Australian newspaper on 16 October, and was reported on major news networks around the world Although local police conducted a thorough investigation into the crime, no firm leads were established and the case was left unsolved Then, in late 1998, another stolen fossil dinosaur footprint from Broome came into the public eye This time the thief, a local man by the name of Michael Latham, was caught He received two concurrent sentences of two years, for the thefts of fossilised human vii Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page viii The Dinosaur Dealers footprints from a remote site in the Dampier Peninsula, and a single large dinosaur footprint from near Broome, in addition to seven years for drug-related charges In pursuing their investigations, however, the police were unable to link this crime to the first theft of the rare stegosaur prints Perth filmmaker Alan Carter read about the thefts of the Broome dinosaur footprints, and had the idea of making a documentary about the case He approached me to see if I would help him investigate the whereabouts of the missing tracks Had they left the country, destined for some wealthy private collector’s house? Or were they still hidden in a backyard garage in Broome somewhere? Alan’s film would also be an excellent vehicle in which to explore the whole issue of fossil site protection and illegal fossil trading Would I like to be involved in the project? As a palaeontologist with the Western Australian Museum, my brief is to study the fossils of the State Naturally, I wanted to help recover the stolen prints, so I readily agreed Our first step was to contact Sergeant John Yates, of the Western Australia Police Force, who headed the original investigation at Broome in 1996 We then asked Wyoming lawman Sergeant Steve Rogers, a specialist who fights fossil-related crime in the USA, if he would help us Combining their specialist knowledge with my background in palaeontology, we set off to dig for more clues in Broome Little did we know that our investigation would lead us on an international hunt for the specimens—to Germany, London, the United States and China Along the way we would explore the issues of fossil site protection, fossil legislation, fossil export regulations, fossil smuggling, fossil poaching from government lands and the fossil fraud industry I want to use this information to try to inform governments of ways in which they can formulate better protection for their fossil sites and, in particular, to assist in viii Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page ix Prologue the formulation of local legislation in Western Australia But my main aim at the time was the same as Alan’s—to try to recover the stolen dinosaur footprints and return them to their local custodians Fossils are a multimillion-dollar business worldwide One specimen alone, a Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton, recently sold for over US$8 million Where big money is involved, often so is big crime We never expected our investigation to open up such a can of worms, but it did, as you will see Dates and places mentioned in this book are mostly correct In some cases, however, they have been changed for legal reasons ix Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page x London Lyme Regis Como Bluff Kemmerer Ham Frankf Rapid City Boulder Tucson ATLANTIC OCEAN Ariripe Plat PAC I F I C O C E A N Rio de Janiero Dinosaur eggs x Pa t a g o n i a Buenos Aires Auca Mahueva Erfoud MOROCCO mb f Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 206 The Dinosaur Dealers undescribed species, in fact to a genus that had not been previously recorded in Australia As an amateur collector, I only knew the fossils as interesting-looking bits of rock that I could keep in a box at home But they could have been of use to Dr Shergold, who at the time was studying the whole range of trilobites collected from that site I have told this story last of all, opening up a bit of my personal life, because the revelation that my first fossil was a new species hit me like a charging wombat Any fossil collector who isn’t a trained specialist can’t fully appreciate the significance of their fossils—they often appear to be rather paltry-looking bits of what were once more complete specimens The point is, unless collectors have some sort of professional input, both the scientific significance and the full commercial value of fossils will never be truly understood This is not to take away from those ardent and knowledgeable collectors who recognise the significance of most of the fossils they collect, it’s only to point out an example where someone can quite easily stumble upon a significant find and not realise it After all, I did We need professional palaeontologists to evaluate and signify discoveries, to place them in the big scheme of evolution, the unfolding story of life We also need fossil hunters Good ones may one day be the next generation of professional palaeontologists, contribute to the growing collections and new exhibitions of our major museums, or provide teaching specimens to schools and universities But even if they don’t, they may remain aficionados, lovers of fine fossils and avid collectors all their lives My final plea is for academics, governments and those with a commercial interest in fossils to open new lines of communication, to work together and to find a common ground where all can benefit I hope this book is a step towards such a partnership And to all the fossil hunters out there—keep looking Your new species is probably just around the corner 206 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 207 Appendix How to Check if that Fossil is Legal* ∗ Legal in the moral sense Buying a fossil that has been smuggled out of its country of origin may not be illegal in your country, but it is condoning the black-market fossil smuggling industry (which could also be condoning the smuggling of drugs or weapons), and greatly endangers fossil site protection back in that country Here is a quick summary of some countries’ problems with regard to loss of heritage specimens in the recent years I couldn’t find information about many other countries, so if in doubt, it’s best to contact the geological survey or a natural history museum in the relevant country and make enquiries Argentina Argentina has a set of national and provincial laws, all of which forbid the commercialisation of fossils All Argentinian fossil material on sale in the international market (this includes Patagonian dinosaur eggs and bones, mammalian reptiles and fossil fishes) has therefore been smuggled out of the country 207 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 208 The Dinosaur Dealers Australia Fossils from Australia which are sold outside the country must have an export permit from the Protection of Moveable Cultural Heritage Act 1986 and later amendments (POMCHA) or a letter of clearance from a registered expert examiner These letters are also sent to the POMCHA offices in Canberra so they can be checked if their authenticity is questioned No unique new species or articulated vertebrate skeleton would be granted an export permit, so any such specimen is immediately suspect This would also apply to any Precambrian stromatolites from the North Pole site in Western Australia; Ediacaran fossils from the Flinders Ranges; opalised vertebrate bones and some invertebrate species from Coober Pedy, Andamooka, or Lightning Ridge; any dinosaur bones; Gogo fishes; Riversleigh fossils; or any specimen from a UNESCO World Heritage listed site Jimbacrinus slabs from Western Australia are often approved exports, but not if they contain new, undescribed species such as starfish fossils Furthermore, Queensland and South Australia have their own (recent) legislation relating to collecting fossils Before the POMCHA, fossils were prohibited exports under the 1909 Customs Act Brazil Since 1942 (Decreto-Lei 4146) it has been illegal to exploit fossiliferous deposits without a licence issued by the Departamento Naỗional da Produỗóo Mineral (DNPM), the Geological Survey of Brazil A number of other laws were also enacted to prevent the export of items such as rare fossils considered Brazilian public heritage This includes all Santana Formation pterosaurs or dinosaurs and most fishes However, as Brazilian fossils have been collected and sold for well over 100 years, many specimens sold or exported before 1942 are quite legal Older collections can be sold or traded legitimately, as long as it can be documented that the specimens were exported prior to 1942 208 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 209 Appendix Britain Fossils have been collected and sold in Britain for nigh on 200 years, and there are many fine old collections in circulation from which specimens are legally sold or auctioned Most sites yielding good ammonites, ichthyosaur bones, or Old Red Sandstone fossil fishes (Scotland) are quite legal The only problems in recent years have been with specimens taken from designated Scientific Significant Sites, such at the Lanarkshire fossil fish and invertebrate material from Scotland that was sold in Germany Some Special Sites of Scientific Interest (SSSI) as designated by English Nature are protected, but others allow amateur collecting of surface material If in doubt, contact English Nature to check on the status of fossils from particular sites In general, most fossils on sale from the UK are OK Canada Federal Export Permits are required under the Canadian Cultural Property Export Control List (CCPE), Group I 3—Objects recovered from the soil or waters of Canada, Palaeontological: a type fossil specimen of any value; fossil amber of any value; a vertebrate fossil specimen of a fair market value in Canada of more than $500; an invertebrate fossil specimen of a fair market value in Canada of more than $500; fossil specimens in bulk weighing 25 pounds (11.25 kg) or more of vertebrate fossils or vertebrate trace fossils of any value; fossil specimens in bulk weighing 50 pounds (22.5 kg) or more, recovered from a specific outcrop, quarry or locality, that include one or more specimens of any value of the following: invertebrate fossils, plant fossils or fossiliferous rock containing fossils of plants or invertebrates Each State has its own fossil legislation: for example, in Alberta all fossils belong to the Crown Individual ownership of ammonites, oyster shells, leaves and wood is permitted, but the collector must apply to the Tyrrell Museum China Fossil invertebrates and plants are generally OK, except if it is something which might be in the scientifically 209 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 210 The Dinosaur Dealers unique catgeory (that is, a new or exceptionally rare species), or from a site that is a designated geological heritage park (for example, Chengjiang fauna) Fossil vertebrates of any kind (fish, amphibians, dinosaurs or dinosaur eggs, birds, mammals) receive the same State protection as ‘cultural relics’ under the cultural relics protection laws Fossils that may have come out of China in the early days before these laws (circa early–mid-1980s) may be ‘legally’ exempt Any Chinese vertebrate fossil for sale should have paperwork stating that it is allowed to be exported on the grounds of cultural exchange As ‘cultural exchange’ relates only to the trade of fossils between major museums or academic institutions, however, this means that Chinese fossils are not to be exported for sale Also, as ‘cultural exchange’ documents have been signed in the past by academics with vested interests, or forged for the buyer, it is safe to say that no vertebrate fossils coming out of China are truly legitimate This is especially true for dinosaur eggs, and any significant vertebrate fossils from the Liaoning Early Cretaceous sites Some of the commonest Liaoning fish fossils are permitted to be sold, and may soon be quite legal exports Europe This is not an easy one at all, because each country has its own approach to cultural heritage and export laws Not only that but, as we discovered in Germany, each State may have different restrictions on sites and collecting In general, only specimens from sites that have been designated as protected sites with UNESCO World Heritage status should be carefully considered Even so, amateur collectors may have collected specimens legally from the sites prior to their World Heritage status being confirmed; these can now be resold France has geological heritage parks, and fossils from these sites can’t be collected without a permit Kenya All fossils belong to the State, with no exceptions Anyone caught trying to take fossil material out of Kenya, 210 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 211 Appendix especially specimens from the hominid sites around Lake Turkana, will be in serious trouble Mongolia All Mongolian fossils are the property of the State In recent years, when American and Japanese museums have led expeditions into Mongolia, it has been with the cooperation of palaeontologists from the museum in Ulan Bator Important specimens can be studied in the USA or Japan, but only on the understanding that they will be returned to Mongolian museum collections Morocco Most fossils sold out of Morocco are quite legal The Cheftaine des Phosphates issues licences for a certain number of registered fossil collectors, who are then responsible for managing the resources and selling the specimens Within Morocco it is a different matter, as many individuals sell fossils but are probably not licensed to so Buying fossils from an unlicensed seller is illegal Russia The free enterprise system in Russia means that there are several thriving businesses which openly collect and sell Russian fossils The vast majority of these specimens are legal, but the buyer should be wary of anything unique or very special that may have come out of a museum collection A number of valuable fossils were stolen from the Palaeontological Institute in Moscow that have not yet been traced (fossil amphibian skulls, dinosaur bones from Mongolia) and are possibly still out there in the marketplace South Africa As of 31 March 2002, all fossils belong to the State, with no exceptions Permits are required for collecting, and these are only issued for academic purposes Collectors who have private fossil collections must have had them registered with SAHRA (South African Heritage Resources Agency) by the end of March 2002, having had since 2000 to so 211 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 212 The Dinosaur Dealers United States Most fossils from the USA sold on the international market are quite legal as they come from private lands If investing in something very large and expensive, like a real dinosaur skeleton, make sure it has come from privately-owned land; not Native American Reservation land, or any form of State or government land (especially national parks and forests services lands) Each State has its own rules and regulations as to what can be collected with or without a permit, so if in doubt, it’s best to check on the locality with the State authorities (the State museums or geological surveys can advise on this issue) For example, no permit is required for collecting or selling sharks’ teeth from Florida Fish fossils from Wyoming are usually fine, excepting some Green River Formation fossils that have come from State lands Be wary of any large, impressive reptile, bird or mammal fossil for sale from the Green River Formation, because if it’s from one of the State-leased quarries it has to be declared and handed in if it’s something very rare, or potentially new to science If it’s from private land it can be sold without any conditions 212 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 213 References Abbott, A 1996 Missing dinosaur skulls raise new fears of smuggling in Moscow Nature 384: 499 —1998 Moscow’s ‘missing fossils’ come under new scrutiny Nature 391: 724 —1999 Fossil dealer charged over Russian cache Nature 397: 189 Ackerman, J 1998 Dinosaurs take wing The origin of birds National Geographic 194: 74–99 Boyce, J.B 1994 Amateur and commercial collecting in palaeontology Dinofest, Proceedings of a conference for the general public Paleontological Society Special Publication 7: 99–107 Bunk, S 1992 Getting off on rocks The Bulletin 18 February: 56–7 Chatterjee, S and Rudra, D.K 1996 KT events in India: impact, rifting, volcanism and dinosaur extinctions Proceedings of the Gondwana Dinosaur Symposium Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 39: 489–532 213 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 214 The Dinosaur Dealers Chiappe, L.M., Salgado, L and Coria, R.A 2001 Embryonic skulls of titanosaur sauropod dinosaurs Science 293(5539): 2444–6 Chiappe, L.M., Dingus, L and Frankfurt, N 2001 Walking on Eggs: The Astonishing Discovery of Thousands of Dinosaur Eggs in the Badlands of Patagonia Scribner, New York Chure, D 2000 New threats to old bones The theft of fossil vertebrates from museum collections CRM 5: 18–22 Colbert, E.H 1968 Men and Dinosaurs Penguin, Middlesex, UK Colbert, E.H and Merrilees, D 1967 Cretaceous dinosaur footprints from Western Australia Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 50: 21–5 Dalton, R 2001a Elusive fossil could conceal answer to dinosaur debate Nature 412: 844 —2001b Wandering Chinese fossil turns up at museum Nature 414: 571 Feder, T and Abbott, A 1994 Concern grows over ‘trade’ in Russian fossils Nature 371: 729 Fiffer, S 2001 Tyrannosaurus Sue Freeman & Co., New York Grande, L 1984 Paleontology of the Green River Formation, with a review of the fish fauna Geological Society of Wyoming Bulletin 63: 1–333 Hawkins, T 1834 Memoirs of Ichthyosauri and Plesiosauri London Hecht, J 1996 Psst, wanna buy a Triceratops? New Scientist, 14 December: 12–13 Hou, L., Zhou, Z., Martin, L.D and Feduccia, A 1995 A beaked bird from the Jurassic of China Nature 377: 616–18 Kellner, A and Tomida, Y 2002 Description of a New Species of Anhangueridae (Pterodactyloidea) with Comments on the 214 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 215 References Pterosaur Fauna from the Santana Formation (AprianAlbian), northeastern Brazil National Science Museum Monographs, Tokyo, 17: 1–135 Larson, P.L 1994 Tyrannosaurus sex Dinofest, Proceedings of a conference for the general public Paleontological Society Special Publication 7: 139–55 Long, J.A 1990 Dinosaurs of Australia Reed Books, Sydney —1995 The Rise of Fishes—500 Million Years of Evolution University of New South Wales Press, Sydney & Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore —1998 Dinosaurs of Australia and New Zealand University of New South Wales Press, Sydney & Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass Long, J.A., Vickers-Rich, P., Hirsch, K., Bray, E and Tuniz, C 1998 The Cervantes egg: an early Malagasy tourist to Australia Records of the Western Australian Museum 19: 39–46 Maisey, J.G (ed.) 1991 Santana Fossils An Illustrated Atlas T.F.H Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey Martill, D.M., Cruickshank, A.R.I., Frey, E., Small, P.G and Clarke, M 1996 A new crested maniraptoran dinosaur from the Santana Formation (lower Cretaceous) of Brazil Journal of the Geological Society of London 153: 5–8 McAlpine, Alistair 1998 Once a Jolly Bagman Phoenix Press, London McFarling, U.L 2001 Fossils: auctioning of dinosaurs and other natural history relics angers scientists Website: www.museum-security.org/01/017.html#5, accessed 23 January 2001 Norell, M., Ji, Q., Gao, Yuan K., Zhao, Y and Wang, L 2002 Palaeontology: ‘Modern’ feathers on a non-avian dinosaur Nature 416: 36–7 Peters, D.S and Qiang, J 1998 The diapsid temprod 215 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 216 The Dinosaur Dealers construction of the fossil Chinese bird Confuciusornis Senckenbergiana lethaea 78: 153–5 Peters, D.S and Qiang, J 1999 Musste Confuciusornis klettern? Journal of Ornithology 140: 41–50 Rich, P.V and Rich, T.H 1994 Neoceratopsians and ornithomimosaurs: dinosaurs of Gondwana origin? Research and Exploration 10: 129–31 Rowe, T., Ketcham, R.A., Denison, C., Colbert, M., Xu, X and Currie, P.J 2001 The Archaeoraptor forgery Nature 410: 539–40 Sampson, S.D., Witmer, L.M., Forster, C.A., Krause, D.W., O’Connor, P.M., Dodson, P and Ravoavy, F 1998 Predatory dinosaur remains from Madagascar: implications for the Cretaceous biogeography of Gondwana Science 280: 1048–51 Sampson, S.D., Carrano, M.T and Forster, C.A 2001 A bizarre predatory dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar Nature 409: 504–6 Schlosser, M 1903 Die fossilien Saugethiere nebts einer Odontographie der recenten Antilopen Abhanglungen Bayerische Akademiens Wiss 22: 1–221 Schmidt, A.C 2000 The ‘Confuciusornis sanctus’ An examination of Chinese Cultural Property law and policy in action Boston College of International and Comparative Law Review 23 (202): 185–228 Shergold, J.H 1968 On the occurrence of the trilobite genera Acaste and Acasteralla in Victoria Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 81: 19–30 Shu, D.G., Conway Morris, S., Han, J., Zhang, X.L, Liu, H.Q and Liu, J.N 2001 Primitive deuterostomes from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (lower Cambrian, China) Nature 424: 419–24 Simons, L.M 2001 Archaeoraptor fossil trail National Geographic October: 128–32 216 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 217 References Sloan, C.P 1999 Feathers for T rex? National Geographic 196: 98–107 Talent, J.A 1995 Chaos with Conodonts and Other Fossil Biota: V.J Gupta’s career in academic fraud: Bibliographies and a short biography Courier Forchsunginstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt Thulborn, R.A 1990 Dinosaur Tracks Chapman & Hall, London Thulborn, R.A., Hamley, T and Foulkes, P 1996 Preliminary report on sauropod dinosaur tracks in the Broome Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous) of Western Australia Gaia 10: 85–96 Tooher, J 1998 Jamie and the elephant egg Australian Property Law 6: 117–43 Walker, C and Ward, D 1992 Fossils Eyewitness Handbooks Dorling Kindersley, London, New York, Stuttgart Waterston, C.D., Oelofsen, B.W and Oosthuizen, R.D.F 1985 Cyrtoctenus wittebergensis sp nov Chelicerata, Merostomata, with observations on the Scottish Silurian Stylonuroidea Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 70: 251–322 Xu, X and Wang, X.L 1998 New psittacosaur (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia) occurrence from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China and its stratigraphical significance Vertebrata Palasiatica 36 (2) 81–101 Xu, X., Xhou, Z and Wang, X.L 2001 The smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur Nature 408: 705–8 Xu, X., Zhao, X and Clark, J.M 2001 A new therizinosaur from the Lower Jurassic lower Lufeng Formation of Yunnan, China Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 21: 477–83 Xu, X., Makovicky, P.J., Wang, X.L., Norell, M.A and Hou, H.L 2002 A ceratopsian dinosaur from China and the early evolution of Ceratopsia Nature 416: 314–17 217 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 218 Zhao, X.J., Cheng Z.W and Xu, X 1999 The earliest ceratopsian from the Tuchengzi Formation of Liaoning, China Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19 (4): 681–91 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 219 Acknowledgements First of all my deepest thanks to Alan Carter and Andrew Ogilvie, the producers of the TV series, for their ideas and the financial wherewithal for getting me around to visit so many people and locations around the world I also thank Robin Eastwood, film crew members Ian Pugsley, Laurie Chlanda and Glenn Martin for their assistance and companionship on the journey, and Sergeant Steve Rogers of the Wyoming Sheriff ’s department for his friendship, information and advice Sergeant John Yates, Geraldton police, was also a great help, as was the staff of the Broome police station This project could not have been completed without the direct participation of the many fossil dealers, traders and private collectors who allowed themselves to be filmed and freely gave us their opinions Wholehearted thanks to: Tom Kapitany (Melbourne), Charlie McGovern (Boulder), Mike Triebold (South Dakota), Mike Hammer, Fred and Candy Nuss (Kansas), and David Herskowitz (New York) Many international scientists also allowed themselves to be 219 Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 220 The Dinosaur Dealers filmed, or assisted through correspondence: Dr Bob Bakker (Boulder, USA), Dr Rupert Wild and Professor Rieschel, (Stuttgart, Germany), Dr Dieter Peters (Frankfurt, Germany), Dr Scott Sampson (Utah, USA), Dr Mark Goodwin and Dr Kevin Padian (California, USA), Dr Phil Currie (Drumheller, Canada), Dr Martha Richter (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Billy De Klerk (Grahamstown, South Africa), Professor Meeman Zhang, Professor Qi Jiang, Dr Xu Xing and Dr Zhu Min (Beijing, China) Dr Ken McNamara is thanked for his helpful advice on fossil matters, as are David Vaughn and Robert Seleicki And finally, for her support through the long weeks of travel, filming and writing, I thank Heather Robinson and, for their patience, my kids, Sarah, Peter and Madeleine 220 .. .Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page ii This page intentionally left blank Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:06 PM Page iii The Dinosaur Dealers john long Dinosaur Dealers. .. however, the police were unable to link this crime to the first theft of the rare stegosaur prints Perth filmmaker Alan Carter read about the thefts of the Broome dinosaur footprints, and had the. .. rocks in the dim moonlight Dinosaur Dealers text pages 2/9/03 1:07 PM Page 10 The Dinosaur Dealers The man must work quickly, because it won’t be long before the water rises again and covers the beach
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