The bees of the world

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The Bees of the World The Bees of theWorld SECOND EDITION Charles D Michener Entomology Division University of Kansas Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center and Entomology Program, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Kansas The Johns Hopkins University Press Baltimore © 2000, 2007 The Johns Hopkins University Press All rights reserved Published 2007 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper The Johns Hopkins University Press 2715 North Charles Street Baltimore, Maryland 21218-4363 www.press.jhu.edu Library of Congress Cataloging-in Publication Data Michener, Charles Duncan, 1918– The bees of the world / Charles D Michener.—2nd ed p cm Includes bibliographical references ISBN-13: 978-0-8018-8573-0 (hardcover : alk paper) ISBN-10: 0-8018-8573-6 (hardcover : alk paper) Bees—Classification I Title QL566.M53 2007 595.79Ј9—dc22 2006023201 A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library Title page illustration from H Goulet and J T Huber (1993) Used with permission To my many students, now scattered over the world, from whom I have learned much and to my family, who lovingly tolerate an obsession with bees This page intentionally left blank Contents Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition xi Abbreviations xvi 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 ix About Bees and This Book What Are Bees? The Importance of Bees Development and Reproduction Solitary versus Social Life 12 Floral Relationships of Bees 16 Nests and Food Storage 23 Parasitic and Robber Bees 30 Body Form, Tagmata, and Sex Differences 42 Structures and Anatomical Terminology of Adults 44 Structures and Terminology of Immature Stages 57 Bees and Sphecoid Wasps as a Clade 59 Bees as a Monophyletic Group 60 The Origin of Bees from Wasps 63 Classification of the Bee-Sphecoid Clade 65 Bee Taxa and Categories 66 Methods of Classification 76 The History of Bee Classifications 77 Short-Tongued versus Long-Tongued Bees 83 Family-Level Phylogeny and the Proto-Bee 88 The Higher Classification of Bees 93 Fossil Bees 98 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 49 The Geological History of Bees 100 Diversity and Abundance 102 Dispersal 105 Biogeography 106 Reduction or Loss of Structures 110 New and Modified Structures 112 Family-Group Names 117 Explanation of Taxonomic Accounts in Sections 36 to 121 118 Some Problematic Taxa 120 The Identification of Bees 121 Key to the Families, Based on Adults 122 Notes on Certain Couplets in the Key to Families (Section 33) 126 Practical Key to Family-Group Taxa, Based on Females 127 Family Stenotritidae 129 Family Colletidae 132 38 Subfamily Colletinae 136 39 Tribe Paracolletini 138 40 Tribe Colletini 167 41 Tribe Scraptrini 171 42 Subfamily Diphaglossinae 173 43 Tribe Caupolicanini 174 44 Tribe Diphaglossini 177 45 Tribe Dissoglottini 179 46 Subfamily Xeromelissinae 180 47 Subfamily Hylaeinae 187 48 Subfamily Euryglossinae 220 Family Andrenidae 235 50 Subfamily Alocandreninae 238 51 Subfamily Andreninae 239 vii 61 68 75 85 52 Subfamily Panurginae 270 53 Tribe Protandrenini 273 54 Tribe Panurgini 285 55 Tribe Nolanomelissini 290 56 Tribe Melitturgini 291 57 Tribe Protomeliturgini 295 58 Tribe Perditini 296 59 Tribe Calliopsini 306 60 Subfamily Oxaeinae 316 Family Halictidae 319 62 Subfamily Rophitinae 322 63 Subfamily Nomiinae 332 64 Subfamily Nomioidinae 345 65 Subfamily Halictinae 348 66 Tribe Halictini 354 67 Tribe Augochlorini 393 Family Melittidae 413 69 Subfamily Dasypodainae 416 70 Tribe Dasypodaini 417 71 Tribe Promelittini 422 72 Tribe Sambini 423 73 Subfamily Meganomiinae 426 74 Subfamily Melittinae 429 Family Megachilidae 434 76 Subfamily Fideliinae 436 77 Tribe Pararhophitini 437 78 Tribe Fideliini 438 79 Subfamily Megachilinae 441 80 Tribe Lithurgini 444 81 Tribe Osmiini 448 82 Tribe Anthidiini 491 83 Tribe Dioxyini 538 84 Tribe Megachilini 543 Family Apidae 587 86 Subfamily Xylocopinae 592 87 Tribe Manueliini 595 88 Tribe Xylocopini 596 89 Tribe Ceratinini 611 Color plates follow pages 46 and 78 viii 90 Tribe Allodapini 619 91 Subfamily Nomadinae 633 92 Tribe Hexepeolini 637 93 Tribe Brachynomadini 639 94 Tribe Nomadini 643 95 Tribe Epeolini 646 96 Tribe Ammobatoidini 653 97 Tribe Biastini 656 98 Tribe Townsendiellini 659 99 Tribe Neolarrini 660 100 Tribe Ammobatini 661 101 Tribe Caenoprosopidini 666 102 Subfamily Apinae 667 103 Tribe Isepeolini 672 104 Tribe Osirini 674 105 Tribe Protepeolini 678 106 Tribe Exomalopsini 680 107 Tribe Ancylini 685 108 Tribe Tapinotaspidini 687 109 Tribe Tetrapediini 694 110 Tribe Ctenoplectrini 697 111 Tribe Emphorini 700 112 Tribe Eucerini 707 113 Tribe Anthophorini 742 114 Tribe Centridini 753 115 Tribe Rhathymini 762 116 Tribe Ericrocidini 763 117 Tribe Melectini 770 118 Tribe Euglossini 778 119 Tribe Bombini 785 120 Tribe Meliponini 803 121 Tribe Apini 830 Literature Cited 833 Addenda 905 Index of Terms 907 Index of Taxa 913 Preface to the Second Edition Of course I was pleased when Johns Hopkins University Press indicated an interest in a revised edition of The Bees of the World A large review or revisional work like the original The Bees of the World inevitably goes out of date as new findings or interpretations are made, and also as errors or omissions in the original book are discovered For the original edition (usually referred to below as Michener, 2000) relevant publications were surveyed through 1997, with some additional material being included as addenda or otherwise as it came to my notice into 1999 Some publications that appeared in 1998 and 1999 were not cited or were inadequately utilized and are now properly incorporated, as are the items in the Addenda of the original edition For the second edition, I have tried to cover literature through 2005, with additional material for 2006 As in the original edition, arbitrary decisions about rank or recognition of taxa were often needed Some recently proposed genera and subgenera are synonymized below, even though they constitute recognizable and even useful groups, because I am following so far as possible the practices involved in writing the first edition The main point is that the classification should represent relationships, or similarities when phylogenetic relationships are in doubt A classification that emphasizes differences can result in an unnecessary multiplication of taxa that (1) often can be distinguished only with difficulty or (2) represent odd derivatives whose relationships are better represented by inclusion within the recognized groups There is no doubt, however, that some of the taxa here synonymized will be resurrected when new classifications are proposed, based on phylogenetic hypotheses that are yet to be developed Noteworthy developments in recent years are the number of phylogenetic analyses based on molecular characters, morphological characters, or both, prepared for groups of bees, and the classificatory changes based on these analyses When the hypotheses are robust, I have modified the text in response When it seems that changes in taxa studied or in the characters included in the analyses would change the outcome considerably, I usually report the study but, for the sake of stability, I not change the classification Changes in classifications as a result of cladograms subject to major change are not justified, because stability is an important feature for classifications We should change a classification when we know that the change is justified, but otherwise we should not ix Index of Taxa Melissodes fonscolombei, 732 Melissodes fulvitarsis, 725 Melissodes intorta, 732 Melissodes latreillei, 764 Melissodes leprieuri, 732 Melissodes lupina, 701f, 731 Melissodes luteicornis, 729 Melissodes nigrifrons, 703 Melissodes nigroaenea, 714f Melissodes pallidisignata, 709 Melissodes pygmaea, 681 Melissodes s str., 74t, 714f, 730k-731k, 732 Melissodes stearnsi, 717 Melissodes tepaneca, 714f Melissoptila, 74t, 648, 711k, 716k, 719k, 726-727, 732, 735, 740, 895 Melissoptila (Comeptila), 732 Melissoptila (Melissoptila s str.), 732 Melissoptila (Ptilomelissa), 709f710f, 714f, 718f, 728, 732 Melissoptila bonaerensis, 714f, 732 Melissoptila s str., 732 Melissoptila tandilensis, 732 Melitoma, 74t, 80t, 652, 679, 700-701, 701k, 704, 705 Melitoma ameghinoi, 705 Melitoma euglossoides, 703, 705 Melitoma paraensis, 704 Melitoma taurea, 702f Melitome, 705 Melitomella, 74t, 701, 702k, 705 Melitomella grisescens, 704-705 Melitomella murihirta, 705 Melitomella schwarzi, 705 Melitomina (Subtribe), 700 Melitomini (Tribe), 81, 700 Melitribus, 131 Melitribus greavesi, 131 Melitta, 35, 77, 78t, 79, 79t-81t, 96, 131, 414416, 422, 429, 429f, 430k, 431-432, 431k432k, 432f, 645 Melitta (Dolichochile), 71t, 414415, 429f, 431, 432, 432f, 432k Melitta (Melitta s str.), 71t, 429f, 431, 432, 432f, 432k Melitta (Promelitta), 422 Melitta americana, 432f Melitta annularis, 208 Melitta barbilabris, 263 Melitta bimaculata, 265 Melitta californica, 432 Melitta dimidiata, 430f, 432 Melitta dorsata, 266 Melitta haemorrhoidalis, 429 Melitta labialis, 262 Melitta leporina, 124f, 413f, 429f, 432 Melitta melittoides, 429f, 431-432, 432f Melitta minutissima, 377 Melitta minutula, 263 Melitta nigriceps, 260 Melitta ovatula, 266 Melitta s str., 71t, 429f, 431, 432, 432f, 432k Melitta smeathmanella, 377 Melitta swammerdamiella, 418 Melitta tibialis, 265 Melitta tricincta, 414f, 432 Melitta trimmerana, 262 Melitta xanthopus, 380 Melittidae (Family), 16-18, 21, 24, 28, 34-35, 61, 65t, 70t-71t, 76, 80, 80t, 83, 87-89, 91-96, 101, 111f, 112, 117, 123k, 124f, 126-127, 127k, 129, 131, 133, 188, 236, 345, 389, 413-415, 413f-415f, 415k, 418, 426, 434, 645, 674, 685, 695, 697, 905 biogeography of, 107t Melittidae (Subfamily), 78t Melittidia, 338 melittids See Melittidae (Family) Melittinae (Subfamily), 18, 20, 35, 70t-71t, 80t, 81, 81t, 413f, 414-416, 415f, 415k, 422, 429-433, 430f, 430k biogeography of, 107t Melittini, 429 Melittoides, 68t-69t, 236-237, 240, 253k, 255k, 263, 269f Melittosmithia, 68t, 223k, 231 Melittosmithia carinata, 223f Melittoxena, 656-657 Melitturga, 69t, 77, 78t-79t, 80, 80t-81t, 83, 86-87, 114, 236-237, 291k, 292, 316, 353, 389 Melitturga (Australomelitturga), 292 Melitturga (Petrusianna), 292, 895 Melitturga capensis, 292 Melitturga clavicornis, 124f, 291f, 293f Melitturga spinosa, 292, 895 Melitturgini (Tribe), 69t, 80t, 105, 270-271, 272k, 290, 291-294, 291f, 291k, 295, 895 biogeography of, 107t Meliturga, 292, 655 Meliturgopsis, 751 Meliturgula, 69t, 270-272, 291-292, 291k, 292-293, 655 Meliturgula (Popovmeliturgula), 292 Meliturgula arabica, 291 Meliturgula braunsi, 292, 293f Meliturgula dzheddaensis, 293 Meliturgula ornata, 293 Meliturgula scriptifrons, 293 Meliturgulini (Tribe), 270 Meliwillea, 75t, 814k, 819 Meliwillea bivea, 819 Mellinus bipunctatus, 212 Mellinus variegatus, 212 Mellitidia, 69t, 334k, 338, 342-343, 538 Mellitidia gressitti, 333f, 343f Mellitidia metallica, 338 Mellitidia simplicinotum, 334, 338 Mellitosphecidae (Family), 905 Mellitosphex, fossil, 905 Mellitosphex burmensis, fossil, 905 Melliturga, 292 Meloponinae (Subfamily), 79t Mendacibombus, 75t, 76, 789, 791k, 794, 794k, 799 Mentzelia decapetela, 16 Merilegides (Family), 78t Mermiglossa, 69t, 271, 291k, 293-294 Mermiglossa rufa, 293-294, 293f Mermiglossini (Tribe), 270 Meroglossa, 68t, 90-93, 126, 132, 188-189, 189k, 191, 214, 214 Meroglossa (Meroglossula), 214 Meroglossa canaliculata, 190f, 196f, 214 Meroglossa eucalypti, 214 Meroglossa impressifrons penetrata, 192f Meroglossa lactifera, 218 Meroglossa sculptifrons, 191 Meroglossa torrida, 187f Meroglossula, 214 Merrophites, 326 Mesanthidiellum, 71t, 499, 499k, 500, 500-501, 502 Mesanthidiellum amoenum, 500 Mesanthidium, 71t, 498, 498k, 499-500, 501 Mesocheira, 74t, 763k, 764, 767-768 Mesocheira azurea, 769 Mesocheira bicolor, 765f-767f, 768, 768f Mesocheira velutina, 767 M[eso]chira, 768 Mesocoelioxys, 72t, 547k Mesonychium, 74t, 673, 764k, 766, 768 Mesonychium coerulescens, 768 Mesonychium garleppi, 766f Mesoplia, 78t, 80t, 651, 673, 764, 764k, 768, 768-769, 768k-769k Mesoplia (Eumelissa), 74t, 768k, 769 Mesoplia (Mesoplia s str.), 74t, 768k, 769 Mesoplia azurea, 763f, 765f767f Mesoplia imperatrix, 768f Mesoplia s str., 74t, 768k, 769 Mesotrichia, 73t, 597f, 598, 602k-604k, 606-607, 608-609 Mesotrichia chiyakensis, 609 Mesotrichia torrida, 606 Mesoxaea, 69t, 317f, 317k, 318 Metadioxys, 72t, 538, 539k, 541 positions of spines and carinae on thoracic sclerites of, 539t Metallinella, 25, 71t, 442t, 477k-478k, 483, 509 Metamegachile, 572 Metapsaenythia, 69t, 236f, 274k, 278, 279k, 280-281, 280k, 655 Metapsithyrus, 800 Metasamba, 70t, 423, 424f, 424k, 425 Metatrachusa, 72t, 533, 534k, 535-536, 536 Metylaeus, 68t, 198t, 202k, 206, 207f, 209, 210 Metylaeus cribratus, 209 Metziella, 68t, 93, 198t, 199k, 209-210 939 Mexalictus, 70t, 320, 354, 356, 358-359, 359k-360k, 382, 386 Mexalictus (Georgealictus), 382 Mexalictus micheneri, 382 Mexalictus polybioides, 356, 382 Michanthidium, 72t, 517, 518k, 520 Michenerapis, 68t, 215, 215k, 218 Michenerella, 71t, 458, 459k, 460, 487-488 Micheneria, 817 Michenerula, 69t, 328, 330, 330k Michenerula beameri, 330 Michmelia, 817 Micralictoides, 69t, 322, 324k, 328 Micralictoides altadenae, 322f Micramegilla, 743 Micrandrena, 68t, 246k, 250k, 252k, 253, 253k-256k, 258k, 261, 263 Micrandrena pacifica, 263 Micranthidium, 72t, 526, 526k, 527, 528 Micranthophora, 748 Micrapis, 831 Micraugochlora, 411 Micraugochlora sphaerocephala, 411 Micreriades, 467, 472 Microcolletes, 153, 159 Microdasypoda, 418 Microdontura, 68t, 222, 227, 228f, 228k, 229 Microdontura mellea, 229 Microhalictus, 377 Microhesma, 68t, 215, 222f223f, 224, 224k Microhoplitis, 71t, 463, 464k, 468, 471-472 Micromelecta, 777 Micrommation, 70t, 394k, 398k, 408, 409 Micrommation larocai, 409 Micronomada, 644 Micronomadopsis, 69t, 236f, 309, 310k, 312, 660, 663 Micronychapis, 74t, 713k, 716k, 733 Micronychapis duckei, 733 Micropanurgus, 289 Micropasites, 73t, 657, 657k, 663 Microrophites, 326 Microsphecodes, 30, 31t-32t, 70t, 352-354, 358k, 360k, 382-383, 389 Microsphecodes kathleenae, 383 Microsphecodes truncaticaudus, 356f Microstelis, 533 Microthurge, 71t, 444-445, 445k, 446, 446-447 Microthurge corumbae, 7-8 Microthurge pharcidontus, 444f-446f Mielkeanthidium, 72t, 518k, 520 Mielkeanthidium nigripes, 520 Mimandrena, 266 Mimoxylocopa, 605 Mimulapis, 326-327 Mimulapis versatilis, 326 Minutodufourea, 326 940 Mirnapis, 74t, 710, 713, 713k, 733 Mirnapis inca, 733, 895 Mischocyttarus (wasp), 193, 207 Mitchellapis, 72t, 553, 555, 556t-557t, 565k-566k, 570, 579 Mitsukuriapis, 265 Mitsukuriella, 265 Momordica, 18 Monia, 167 Monia grisea, 167 Monidia, 167 Monilapis, 70t, 365f, 367k, 368 Monilosmia, 482-483 Monoeca, 74t, 687-688, 688k, 690-691, 693 Monoeca brasiliensis, 690 Monoeca haemorrhoidalis, 674 Monoeca lanei, 688f, 691f Monoepeolus, 649 Monomorphides (Family), 78t Monosmia, 71t, 475, 477k-478k, 483-484, 484 Monoxylocopa, 73t, 599k, 601k, 605, 607 Monumetha, 71t, 463, 464k465k, 466, 466k, 467, 469, 471-472, 472, 477 Morawitzella, 69t, 325k, 328 Morawitzella nana, 328 Morawitzia, 69t, 83, 323, 325k, 328, 329 Morawitzia panurgoides, 328 Morgania, 663-664 Morphanthidium, 506 Morphella, 568-569 Moureana, 578 Moureanthidium, 72t, 519k, 520, 520, 518519 Moureapis, 72t, 557t, 558k-559k, 579 Mourecotelles, 136, 167, 167k, 168, 169-170, 169k Mourecotelles (Hemicotelles), 67t, 169, 169k Mourecotelles (Mourecotelles s str.), 67t, 169, 169k, 170 Mourecotelles (Xanthocotelles), 67t, 169, 169k, 170 Mourecotelles mixta, 170 Mourecotelles s str., 67t, 169, 169k, 170 Mourella, 822 Mucidobombus, 75t, 789, 793k, 796k, 799 Mucidobombus (Exilobombus), 798 Mucidobombus eversmanniellus, 798 Mucidobombus exil, 798 Mucoreohalictus, 370 Mutillidae (Family) (wasps), 60 Mycterochlora, 402 Mydrosoma, 67t, 179, 179k Mydrosoma bohartorum, 179f Mydrosoma brooksi, 173f Mydrosoma metallicum, 179 Mydrosomella, 67t, 173, 179, 179k Mydrosomella gaullei, 179 Mydrosomini, 179 Mystacanthophora, 74t, 745f, 746k-747k, 749 Mystacosmia, 71t, 476, 479k, 481, 483, 484 Index of Taxa Nananthidium, 509, 895 Nananthidium bettyae, 509 Nannotrigona, 75t, 811-812, 814k, 817, 819, 819, 820, 822-823 Nanocolletes, 167 Nanorhathymus, 74t, 762, 762k Nanosmia, 71t, 469, 486, 487k, 488 Nanoxylocopa, 73t, 598, 599k, 601k, 607, 609 Nasutapis, 73t, 623, 624k, 627, 632 Nasutapis straussorum, 31t, 34f, 622f, 631f, 632 Nasutitermes, 803, 823 Nasutosmia, 71t, 462, 464, 464k-465k, 470, 472, 472, 473 Navicularia, 212 Neagapostemon, 70t, 387, 387k Nealictus, 70t, 367k, 368 Neanthidium, 72t, 491t, 493, 493k, 522 Neanthidium octodentatum, 522 Nectarodiaeta, 74t, 710, 739, 739k, 740 Nectarodiaeta oliveirae, 739 Neffapis, 69t, 110, 271, 272k274k, 278 Neffapis longilingua, 8f, 86f, 278 Neglectella, 581 Nemandrena, 68t, 245k-246k, 248k, 263 Neoashmeadiella, 453, 570 Neoceratina, 73t, 614k, 615, 617 Neoceratina australensis, 617 Neochalicodoma, 72t, 586 Neochelynia, 72t, 557t, 559k-560k, 579, 584 Neochelynia paulista, 579 Neocoelioxys, 72t, 546k, 549550 Neocorynura, 70t, 348, 378, 397k, 400-401, 400k, 405, 409-410, 905 fossil, 393 Neocorynura (Neocorynuroides), 410 Neocorynura colombiana, 410 Neocorynura perpectinata, 405 Neocorynura pubescens, 396f Neocorynurella, 70t, 397k, 400k, 401 Neocorynurella seeleyi, 401 Neocorynuroides, 410 Neocressoniella, 72t, 555f, 562k, 574, 579-580 Neoeutricharaea, 573-574 Neofidelia, 71t, 438, 438k, 440 Neofidelia longirostris, 438f, 440 Neofidelia profuga, 436f, 440 Neohalictoides, 326 Neolarra, 660, 660f, 660k Neolarra (Neolarra s str.), 73t, 660, 660f, 660k Neolarra (Phileremulus), 73t, 660, 660f, 660k Neolarra pruinosa, 660 Neolarra s str., 73t, 660, 660f, 660k Neolarra verbesinae, 634f, 660f Neolarra vigilans, 634f, 660f Neolarrini (Tribe), 73t, 589k, 656, 659, 660 Neoliphanthus, 69t, 276k, 277, 277k Neomegachile, 579 Neopanurgus, 294 Neopanurgus richteri, 294 Neopasiphae, 67t, 139k, 145, 164 Neopasiphae mirabilis, 164 Neopasites, 653, 655f, 656, 656k, 657, 657k, 657t, 660 Neopasites (Micropasites), 73t, 657, 657k Neopasites (Neopasites s str.), 73t, 657, 657k Neopasites (Odontopasites), 655 Neopasites (Trichopasites), 655 Neopasites arizonicus, 655 Neopasites cressoni, 657 Neopasites fulviventris, 634f, 656f Neopasites insoletus, 655 Neopasites s str., 73t, 657, 657k Neopasitini (Tribe), 653 Neoperdita, 303 Neoscirtetica, 721 Neosmia, 71t, 477k-478k, 484 Neotrypetes, 71t, 458f, 459k, 460 Neoxylocopa, 73t, 105, 598, 598f, 600k, 601, 605, 607, 609 Neshylaeus, 210 Nesocolletes, 67t, 144, 145f, 147t, 149k, 156-157, 160 Nesoeupetersia, 70t, 364k, 365 Nesohalictus, 376-377 Nesohylaeus, 208 Nesomelecta, 75t, 770f, 776, 776, 776k Nesomonia, 70t, 427, 428, 428k Nesoprosopis, 32t, 34, 68t, 194, 198t, 200k, 202f, 202k, 210, 212 Nesosphecodes, 32t, 70t, 353354, 359k, 361k, 383, 389 Nesosphecodes anthracineus, 383 Nesothrincostoma, 391 Nesylaeus, 68t, 194, 198t, 210 Nevadensibombus, 797 Nigranthidium, 71t, 498k, 500, 501, 502, 507, 538 Nigranthidium tergofasciatum, 502 Nigrocoelioxys, 547, 549 Niltonia, 67t, 85, 138k, 145, 165-166 Niltonia virgilii, 132f, 165-166 Nitocris, 340 Nivanthidium, 71t, 505, 506k, 508, 529 Nobandrena, 68t, 253k, 255k, 263-264 Nobilibombus, 797 Noctoraptor, 32t, 70t, 352, 407f, 408, 408k Nodocolletes, 145f, 155-156 Nodocolletes dentatus, 155 Nodula, 73t, 596, 602k, 603, 603k, 605-606, 607, 608, 610 Nogueirapis, 75t, 808f, 812, 814k, 819-820, 821, 829 fossil, 819 Nogueirapis silacea, fossil, 819, Plate 20 Nolanomelissa, 69t, 290 Nolanomelissa toroi, 290 Nolanomelissini (Tribe), 69t, 271, 272k, 290 biogeography of, 107t Nomada, 3, 33, 35-36, 41-42, 73t, 77, 77t-78t, 79, 79t-81t, 108, 278, 533, 590, 636-637, 639, 643645, 643f, Plate Nomada (Adamon), 644 Nomada (Asteronomada), 644 Nomada (Callinomada), 644 Nomada (Heminomada), 644 Nomada (Holonomada), 634f Nomada (Laminomada), 644 Nomada (Melanomada), 640 Nomada (Micronomada), 644 Nomada (Nomada s str.), 644 Nomada (Nomadula), 644 Nomada (Pachynomada), 644 Nomada (Phelonomada), 644 Nomada adducta, 644 Nomada albilabris, 388 Nomada americana, 644 Nomada annulata, 644f Nomada antonita, 644 Nomada armata, 644, Plate Nomada articulata, 644 Nomada basalis, 644 Nomada belfragei, 644 Nomada bella, 644 Nomada bifasciata, 644 Nomada cinctiventris, 645 Nomada coxalis, 643f Nomada crotchii, 634f Nomada cruralis, 644 Nomada erigeronis, 644 Nomada furva, 644-645 Nomada gibba, 388 Nomada gigas, 644-645 Nomada grindeliae, 640 Nomada hattorfiana, 260 Nomada hesperia, 644 Nomada histrio, 775 Nomada imbricata, 639f Nomada integerrima, 644 Nomada integra, 644-645 Nomada japonica, 645 Nomada koikensis, 644 Nomada luteola, 644 Nomada modesta, 644 Nomada obliterata, 644 Nomada odontophora, 644 Nomada penangensis, 643f Nomada pilosula, 675 Nomada roberjeotiana, 644-645 Nomada ruficornis, 644-645 Nomada s str., 644 Nomada schottii, 656 Nomada scutellaris, 775 Nomada scutellata, 775 Nomada superba, 644-645 Nomada texana, 644 Nomada tibialis, 776 Nomada trispinosa, 644 Nomada truncata, 656 Nomada vegana, 644-645 Nomada vincta, 644-645 Nomadidae (Family), 79, 79t-80t Nomadina (Tribe), 78t Nomadinae, Nomadinae (Subfamily), 33, 33t, 34-35, 37-40, 37f, 39f, 41, 41f, 54, 61, 73t, 77, 80, 80t, 81, 81t, 83, 95, 97, 116, 126, 128k, 317, 434, 533, 538, 587-588, 589k-590k, 592, 633-636, 633f-634f, 636f, 639f, 643, 649, Index of Taxa 657t, 659, 661, 666-667, 668f, 672, 674, 678, 770 biogeography of, 108t tribal relationships, cladograms of, 635f Nomadini (Tribe), 73t, 80t, 81, 590k, 636, 639, 641, 643645, 646 biogeography of, 108t Nomadita, 643, 645-646 Nomadita montana, 643 Nomadopsis, 69t, 236f, 270f, 309, 310k, 312-313, 663 Nomadopsis (Macronomadopsis), 312-313 Nomadopsis (Micronomadopsis), 312 Nomadopsis fracta, 312 Nomadopsis micheneri, 312 Nomadosoma, 644 Nomadula, 644 Nomia, 66, 78t-81t, 94, 116, 157, 333, 334k, 336, 338341, 339k, 345, 383 Nomia (Acunomia), 69t, 332, 332f, 333, 333f, 339, 339340, 339k, 341, 343 Nomia (Austronomia), 333, 336 Nomia (Clavinomia), 337 Nomia (Crocisaspidia), 69t, 339, 339k, 340 Nomia (Curvinomia), 339, 341 Nomia (Dinomia), 344 Nomia (Epinomia), 337 Nomia (Halictonomia), 335 Nomia (Hoplonomia), 69t, 333, 333f, 339, 339k, 340, 341, 342f Nomia (Leuconomia), 69t, 332, 339k, 340 Nomia (Lobonomia), 341 Nomia (Macronomia), 337 Nomia (Maculonomia), 339 Nomia (Meganomia), 427 Nomia (Nomia s str.), 69t, 338, 339k, 340-341 Nomia (Nomiapis), 341 Nomia (Nubenomia), 338 Nomia (Pachynomia), 341 Nomia (Paranomia), 339 Nomia (Paranomina), 339 Nomia (Paulynomia), 69t, 339, 339k, 341, 342f, xiv Nomia (Ptilonomia), 342-343 Nomia (Reepenia), 342-343 Nomia (Spatunomia), 343 Nomia (Trinomia), 338 Nomia amboinensis, 339 Nomia amoenula, 341 Nomia andrei, 337 Nomia andrenoides, 337 Nomia angustitibialis, 333f Nomia aurantifer, 341, 342f Nomia australica, 333, 336 Nomia binghami, 427 Nomia burmica, 337 Nomia californiensis, 339 Nomia candida, 332, 340 Nomia chalybeata, 339 Nomia chlorosoma, 333f Nomia clavicornis, 337 Nomia coelestina, 383 Nomia diversipes, 340-341 Nomia filifera, 343 Nomia flavilabris, 685 Nomia flavipennis, 339 Nomia flaviventris, 428 Nomia fuscipennis, 339 Nomia halictoides, 376 Nomia japonica, 265 Nomia joergenseni, 156 Nomia kirbii, 335 Nomia lobata, 341 Nomia lutea, 340 Nomia luteofasciata, 341 Nomia lyonsiae, 333f, 342f Nomia maynei, 338 Nomia megasoma, 339 Nomia melanderi, 28, 319f, 332, 332f, 340, Plate Nomia melanderi howardi, 333f Nomia melanosoma, 338 Nomia nortoni, 332, 339 Nomia nubecula, 338 Nomia persimilis, 335 Nomia picardi, 336 Nomia platycephala, 337 Nomia plumosa, 342 Nomia pulawskii, 340 Nomia punctulata, 333, 340 Nomia robinsoni, 333f Nomia ruficornis, 333 Nomia rugiventris, 341 Nomia s str., 69t, 338, 339k, 340-341 Nomia senticosa, 340 Nomia speciosa, 339 Nomia swainsoniae, 341 Nomia taiwana, 344 Nomia terminata, 339 Nomia testacea, 338 Nomia tetrazonata, 333, 333f, 339 Nomia theryi, 339 Nomia thoracica, 339 Nomia triangulifera, 335 Nomia tridentata, 338 Nomia tsavoensis, 428 Nomia variabilis, 343 Nomia viridicinctula, 339 Nomia yunnanensis, 339 Nomiapis, 341 Nomiidae (Family), 79t Nomiinae (Subfamily), 34, 69t, 79-80, 80t, 85, 101, 116, 128k, 319, 319f, 321k, 323, 332-344, 332f-333f, 342f-343f, 345, 348, 383, 664 biogeography of, 107t of Eastern hemisphere, 334k of North America, 334k-335k Nomiini (Tribe), 80t biogeography of, 109 Nomiocolletes, 67t, 142, 144, 147k, 147t, 151, 157, 158, 164 Nomioides, 44, 70t, 80t-81t, 323, 345, 345k, 347, 389, 418, 663 Nomioides (Cellaria), 346 Nomioides (Cellariella), 346 Nomioides (Erythronomioides), 347 Nomioides (Eunomioides), 346 Nomioides (Paranomioides), 347 Nomioides arnoldi, 346 Nomioides karachensis, 346 Nomioides minutissimus, 345f-346f Nomioides socotranus, 347 Nomioides somalica, 346 Nomioides steinbergi, 347 Nomioidinae (Subfamily), 69t70t, 128k, 320, 321k, 345-347, 345f, 345k346k, 346f-347f, 348, 353, 370, 906 biogeography of, 107t Nomioidini (Tribe), 80t, 81, 112, 348 biogeography of, 109 Noonadania, 68t, 216k, 218 Notagapostemon, 363 Notandrena, 68t, 245k, 249k, 253k, 256k-258k, 262, 264 Notanthidium, 491t, 496, 497k, 522-523, 522k-523k Notanthidium (Allanthidium), 72t, 522, 523, 523k Notanthidium (Chrisanthidium), 72t, 522k, 523 Notanthidium (Notanthidium s str.), 72t, 522, 522k, 523 Notanthidium rodolfi, 523 Notanthidium s str., 72t, 522, 522k, 523 Notanthidium steloides, 523 Noteopsis, 208-209 Noteriades, 71t, 449, 449k, 449t, 451k, 475, 484, 490 Nothosmia, 479, 482-483 Nothylaeus, 68t, 198t, 202k, 204, 206, 209, 210, 211f Nothylaeus (Anylaeus), 210 Nothylaeus aberrans, 210 Notocolletes, 152 Notocolletes heterodoxus, 152 Notolonia, 74t, 720k, 733 Notolonia astragali, 733 Notomegilla, 743 Notomelitta, 432 Notoxaea, 69t, 317k, 318 Notoxaea ferruginea, 318 Notoxylocopa, 73t, 596f-597f, 600k, 607, 607f Nubenomia, 69t, 336, 336k, 338, 338 Nyctomelitta, 73t, 601k, 603k, 607 Nylaeus, 208 Nyssonidae (Family) (wasps), 63 Obertibombus, 801 Obertobombus, 801 Ochreriades, 71t, 442t, 449t, 450k, 475 Ocymoromelitta, fossil, 99t Ocymoromelitta sorella, fossil, 99t Odontalictus, 70t, 365f, 367k, 368 Odontanthocopa, 71t, 474f, 474k-475k, 475 Odonterythrosmia, 475 Odontobombus, 799 Odontochlora, 402 Odontocolletes, 67t, 143-144, 147t, 149k, 157 Odontopasites, 655 Odontostelis, 517 Odontotrigona, 826 Odyneropsina (Subtribe), 646 Odyneropsis, 589, 646, 646f, 647, 647k, 650, 650-651, 650k, 762 Odyneropsis (Odyneropsis s str.), 73t, 650, 650, 650k 941 Odyneropsis (Parammobates), 650, 650-651, 650k, 651 Odyneropsis holosericea, 650 Odyneropsis s str., 73t, 650, 650, 650k Odyneropsis veseyi, 633f Odynoeropsis (Parammobates), 73t Oediscelis, 67t, 181-182, 182k, 183, 184 Oediscelis (Pseudiscelis), 185 Oediscelis friesei, 184 Oediscelis herbsti, 182 Oediscelis inermis, 182 Oediscelis paradoxus, 184 Oediscelis plebeia, 184 Oediscelis prosopoides, 184 Oediscelis styliventris, 184 Oediscelis vernalis, 184 Oediscelisca, 184 Oestropsis, 131 Oestropsis pubescens, 131 Oligandrena, 68t, 243k, 249k, 264 Oligeucera, 74t, 724, 724k, 725 Oligochlora, fossil, 99t, 353, 393, Plate 17 Oligochlora (Soliapis), fossil, 99t Oligochlora eickworti, fossil, 99t, Plate 17 Oligochlora rozeni, fossil, 99t Oligotropus, 570 Oligotropus campanulae, 570 Olmecanthidium, 537 Omachtes, 664 Omachtes capensis, 664 Omachthes, 663-664 Omachthes capicola, 664 Omachthes carnifex, 663 Onagrandrena, 68t, 243, 245k, 247k, 250k, 264 Opacula, 74t, 723, 723k Opacula donatica, 723 Opandrena, 262 Oragapostemon, 388 Orandrena, 68t, 251k, 255k, 264 Oranthidium, 71t, 494, 498k, 499-501, 501, 502, 505, 512 Orbitella, 606 Oreodiscelis, 184 Oreomelissa, 68t, 251, 254k, 258k, 264 Oreopasites, 33, 73t, 634f, 661, 662k, 663, 664 Oreopasites (Perditopasites), 663 Oreopasites arizonica, 663 Oreopasites barbarae, 661, 666 Oreopasites euphorbiae, 661f Oreopasites linsleyi, 663 Oreopasites scituli, 663 Oreopasites vanduzeei, 634f Orfilana, 648 Orientalibombus, 75t, 789, 791k, 794k, 799-800 Orientalobombus, 799 Orientocoelioxys, 547, 549 Orientocressoniella, 568, 584585 Orientoheriades, 460 Orientosmia, 71t, 476, 477k-478k, 484, 486 Orientotrachusa, 527 Oroediscelis, 67t, 181, 182k, 184 Orohylaeus, 68t, 210-211 942 Orphana, 69t, 131, 236-239, 239k-240k, 267, 268-269 Orphana inquirenda, 267f, 268 Orthanthidium, 72t, 533, 534k, 536, 536 Osirini (Tribe), 33t, 34, 73t, 80t, 127, 587, 590k-591k, 667, 668f, 671, 674-677, 674f, 674k-675k, 675f676f, 678, 762 biogeography of, 108t Osirinus, 73t, 675-676, 675k, 677, 762 Osirinus lemniscatus, 675 Osirinus rutilans, 676f Osiris, 40, 73t, 79t-80t, 674, 674f, 675, 675k, 676, 676f, 677-678 Osiris obtusus, 676 Osiris pallidus, 676 Osiris variegatus, 676f Osmia, 20, 25, 77, 79t-81t, 120, 448-449, 449f, 449k-450k, 449t, 450k-451k, 452-455, 461-463, 471, 473, 475486, 482f, 533, 570, 895, Plate of Eastern Hemisphere, 477k-478k of Western Hemisphere, 478k-479k Osmia (Acanthosmia), 466 Osmia (Acanthosmioides), 71t, 476, 479, 479k, 482-483, 482f, 483 Osmia (Aceratosmia), 484-485 Osmia (Allosmia), 71t, 451, 475-476, 477k-478k, 480, 485 Osmia (Annosmia), 467 Osmia (Arctosmia), 467 Osmia (Aspidosmia), 509 Osmia (Atoposmia), 455 Osmia (Caerulosmia), 485 Osmia (Caposmia), 490 Osmia (Centrosmia), 482-483 Osmia (Cephalosmia), 71t, 476, 476f, 478k-479k, 480, 484 Osmia (Ceratosmia), 484 Osmia (Chalcosmia), 481 Osmia (Chenosmia), 482-483 Osmia (Cryptosmia), 481 Osmia (Ctenosmia), 470 Osmia (Diceratosmia), 71t, 476477, 478k, 480, 481, 486 Osmia (Erythrosmia), 71t, 451, 475-476, 477k-478k, 480, 480 Osmia (Euthosmia), 71t, 453, 476, 479k, 481, 483-484 Osmia (Exosmia), 482 Osmia (Foveosmia), 457 Osmia (Furcosmia), 468 Osmia (Glossosmia), 468 Osmia (Helicosmia), 71t, 468, 471, 476, 477k-478k, 478, 479k, 481, 482, 482f, 483-485, Plate 16 Osmia (Hemiosmia), 71t, 476, 477k, 478, 478k, 480, 482 Osmia (Heterosmia), 485 Osmia (Hoplosmia), 475 Osmia (Liosmia), 467 Osmia (Lithosmia), 468 Index of Taxa Osmia (Megalosmia), 471 Osmia (Melanosmia), 71t, 472, 476-477, 477k, 478, 478k, 479, 479k, 481, 482-483, 482f, 484, 486 Osmia (Metallinella), 71t, 442t, 477k-478k, 483, 509 Osmia (Microhoplitis), 471 Osmia (Monilosmia), 483 Osmia (Monosmia), 71t, 475, 477k-478k, 483-484, 484 Osmia (Mystacosmia), 71t, 476, 479k, 481, 483, 484 Osmia (Neosmia), 71t, 477k-478k, 484 Osmia (Nothosmia), 483 Osmia (Orientosmia), 71t, 476, 477k-478k, 484, 486 Osmia (Osmia s str.), 71t, 448f, 468, 471, 475f, 477, 477k-478k, 484, 484485, 509, Plate 16 Osmia (Ozbekosmia), 71t, 476, 477k-478k, 484, 485, 486 Osmia (Pachyosmia), 484 Osmia (Pentadentosmia), 472 Osmia (Platosmia), 473 Osmia (Protosmia), 488 Osmia (Pyrosmia), 71t, 112, 448, 475-477, 477k, 478, 478k, 480-481, 485, 485486 Osmia (Tergosmia), 71t, 475476, 477k, 478, 478k, 484-485, 486 Osmia (Trichinosmia), 71t, 479k, 483, 486 Osmia (Tridentosmia), 467 Osmia (Viridosmia), 485 Osmia agilis, 486 Osmia albiventris, 482 Osmia alticola, 482f Osmia andrenoides, 480 Osmia annulata, 467 Osmia apicata, 483-484 Osmia argyropyga, 482 Osmia armaticeps, 480 Osmia arnoldi, 509 Osmia atriventris, Osmia atrocaerulea, 483 Osmia aurulenta, 481, Plate 16 Osmia avosetta, 485-486 Osmia azteca, 477, 480 Osmia balearica, 482 Osmia bicolor, 484 Osmia bidentata, 475 Osmia bischoffi, 480 Osmia brachyura, 458 Osmia braunsi, 490 Osmia brevicornis, 483 Osmia bruneri, 483 Osmia bucephala, 479, 482-483 Osmia californica, 480 Osmia canadensis, 482 Osmia capensis, 420 Osmia cephalotes, 112, 448, 450, 475-476, 478, 486 Osmia claviventris, 467 Osmia coerulescens, 481-482 Osmia conjuncta, 480 Osmia copelandica, 455 Osmia cordata, 482 Osmia cornifrons, Osmia cornuta, 485 Osmia curvipes, 473 Osmia cylindrica, 472 Osmia denudata, 469 Osmia difficilis, 482 Osmia dimidiata, 481 Osmia distincta, 482 Osmia emarginata, 484-485 Osmia enceliae, 455 Osmia eremoplana, 490 Osmia excavata, 485 Osmia fallax, 475 Osmia fedtschenkoi, 485 Osmia ferruginea, 477, 485-486 Osmia flavicornis, 489 Osmia fuciformis, 482 Osmia fulgida, 472 Osmia gallarum, 485 Osmia gaudiosa, 483 Osmia gemmea, 485 Osmia georgica, 481 Osmia glauca, 481 Osmia gracilicornis, 484 Osmia grandis, 471 Osmia hohmanni, 471 Osmia hypocrita, 469 Osmia indigotea, 481 Osmia inermis, 478, 483 Osmia integra, 479 Osmia laboriosa, 471 Osmia latipes, 458 Osmia latisulcata, 486 Osmia latreillei, 481 Osmia lignaria, 448f, 475f, 485 Osmia lunata, 486 Osmia maritima, 476, 482-483 Osmia maxillaris, 484 Osmia melanogaster, 481 Osmia mirhyi, 483 Osmia mongolica, 485 Osmia montana, 480 Osmia montivaga, 466-467 Osmia mustelina, 484-485 Osmia nana, 485 Osmia nasuta, 472 Osmia nemoris, 484 Osmia nigrifrons, 482f Osmia nigriventris, 478, 483 Osmia nigrobarbata, 476 Osmia nigrohirta, 484 Osmia niveata, 482f Osmia notata, 481 Osmia odontogaster, 479 Osmia oxypyga, 469 Osmia paradoxa, 488 Osmia penstemonis, 482 Osmia pinquis, 475 Osmia platalea, 473 Osmia platycera, 468 Osmia pumila, 483 Osmia 4-dentata, 480 Osmia quinquespinosa, 472 Osmia remotula, 473 Osmia rhodoensis, 486 Osmia ribifloris, 484-485 Osmia robusta, 470 Osmia robustula, 455 Osmia rufa, 485, Plate 16 Osmia rufigastra, 484 Osmia rufohirta, 480 Osmia rutila, 480 Osmia s str., 71t, 448f, 468, 471, 475f, 477, 477k478k, 484, 484-485, 509, Plate 16 Osmia sanrafaelae, 483 Osmia satoi, 481 Osmia saxicola, 485 Osmia schultzei, 487 Osmia signata, 481 Osmia simillima, 482 Osmia singularis, 468 Osmia spoliata, 472 Osmia subaustralis, 476f Osmia sybarita, 480 Osmia tanneri, 479, 483 Osmia tenuicornis, 471 Osmia tergestensis, 486 Osmia teunisseni, 485 Osmia texana, 481 Osmia tigrina, 471 Osmia tridentata, 467 Osmia triodonta, 455 Osmia versicolor, 477, 485-486 Osmia viridana, 485 Osmia xanthomelana, 482, 482f, 483 Osmia xerophila, 473 Osmia zandeni, 471 Osmiina (Subtribe), 448-449, 449t Osmiinae (Subfamily), 79t-80t, 458, 471, 475 Osmiini (Tribe), 20, 32t, 34, 71t, 79, 79t, 110, 116, 120, 435, 435f, 441, 442t, 443k, 446, 448-490, 448f-449f, 449t, 475, 502, 509-510, 538, 543, 545, 556, 574, 583, Plate biogeography of, 107t of Eastern Hemisphere, 449k-451k fossil, 98t, Plate 18 of Western Hemisphere, 451k-452k Osychnyukandrena, 68t, 251, 264, xiv Othinosmia, 448-449, 449t, 450k-451k, 474, 486487, 486k Othinosmia (Afrosmia), 71t, 450, 451k, 486, 486k, 487 Othinosmia (Megaloheriades), 71t, 449, 486k, 487 Othinosmia (Othinosmia s str.), 71t, 486k, 487, 488 Othinosmia globicola, 487 Othinosmia s str., 71t, 486k, 487, 488 Othinosmia stupenda, 487 Oxaea, 69t, 79, 79t, 80, 80t, 81, 81t, 95, 110, 317k, 318, 651, 905 Oxaea ferruginea, 318 Oxaea flavescens, 94f, 317f, 318 Oxaea nigerrima, 318 Oxaeidae (Family), 81 Oxaeinae (Subfamily), 69t, 80t, 91, 93-95, 111-112, 114, 123k, 126, 128k, 130131, 173, 235-237, 237k, 316-318, 316f-317f, 317k, 651-652, 905 biogeography of, 107t, 109 Oxyandrena, 68t, 245k, 251k, 264 Oxyanthidium, 528-529 Oxybelini (Tribe) (wasps), 63 Oxybiastes, 649 Oxybiastes bischoffi, 649 Oxyhalictus, 376-377 Oxynedis, 767 Oxynedys, 767 Oxynedys beroni, 767 Oxystoglossa, 402 Oxystoglossa decorata, 402 Index of Taxa Oxystoglossa ephyra, 402 Oxystoglossa jocasta, 410 Oxystoglossa theia, 403 Oxystoglossella, 70t, 401, 401k, 402 Oxystoglossidia, 402 Oxystoglossidia uraniella, 402 Oxytrigona, 75t, 812, 813k, 820, 824, 827 Oxytrigona obscura, 820f Oxyxylocopa, 606 Ozbekosmia, 71t, 476, 477k478k, 484, 485, 486 Pachyanthidium, 112, 491t, 492, 493k-495k, 508, 516-517, 523-524, 523k, 535 Pachyanthidium (Ausanthidium), 72t, 523, 523-524, 523k Pachyanthidium (Micranthidium), 527 Pachyanthidium (Pachyanthidium s str.), 72t, 523k, 524 Pachyanthidium (Trichanthidiodes), 72t, 523k, 524 Pachyanthidium (Trichanthidium), 72t, 523, 523k, 524, 527 Pachyanthidium ausense, 524 Pachyanthidium bicolor, 524 Pachyanthidium micheneri, 523 Pachyanthidium occipitale, 524 Pachyanthidium prionognathum, 517 Pachyanthidium s str., 72t, 523k, 524 Pachyanthidium semiluteum, 524 Pachyceble, 70t, 366, 367k, 368, 369 Pachyceble lanei, 368 Pachycentris, 690 Pachycentris schrottkyi, 690 Pachycephalopanurgus, 289 Pachycerapis, 682 Pachycolletes, 167 Pachyhalictus, 70t, 106, 370, 383-384, 383f, 384k, 385-386, 385f, 386 Pachyhalictus (Dictyohalictus), 385 Pachyhalictus (Pachyhalictus s str.), 384 Pachyhalictus (Rugalictus), 385 Pachyhalictus binghami, 384 Pachyhalictus s str., 384 Pachyhalonia, 74t, 727, 727k, 728, 729 Pachyheriades, 71t, 459k, 460, 461 Pachymelopsis, 74t, 111, 751, 751k, 752 Pachymelus, 743k, 751-752, 751k Pachymelus (Pachymelopsis), 74t, 111, 751, 751k, 752 Pachymelus (Pachymelus s str.), 74t, 751-752, 751k Pachymelus bicolor, 752 Pachymelus conspicuus, 751 Pachymelus heydenii, 752 Pachymelus hova, 752 Pachymelus micrelephas, 751752 Pachymelus ocularis, 751-752 Pachymelus peringueyi, 751-752 Pachymelus reichardti, 752 Pachymelus s str., 74t, 751-752, 751k Pachymelus unicolor, 752 Pachynomada, 644-645 Pachynomia, 69t, 341, 341k, 344 Pachyodonta, 140 Pachyosmia, 484 Pachyprosopina, 68t, 228-229, 228k, 229 Pachyprosopis, 94, 134, 220-222, 222k, 224, 228-230, 231-232, 231k Pachyprosopis (Pachyprosopina), 229 Pachyprosopis (Pachyprosopis s str.), 68t, 228, 231-232, 231k Pachyprosopis (Pachyprosopula), 68t, 230-231, 231k, 232 Pachyprosopis (Parapachyprosopis), 68t, 231, 231k, 232 Pachyprosopis angophorae, 231232 Pachyprosopis atromicans, 230 Pachyprosopis cornuta, 228, 231 Pachyprosopis flavicauda, 231232 Pachyprosopis haematostoma, 231 Pachyprosopis indicans, 231-232 Pachyprosopis kellyi, 232 Pachyprosopis mirabilis, 231 Pachyprosopis s str., 68t, 228, 231-232, 231k Pachyprosopis xanthodonta, 231 Pachyprosopula, 68t, 230-231, 231k, 232 Pachysvastra, 74t, 111, 710, 711k, 716k, 722, 733, 735-736 Pachysvastra leucocephala, 733 Paedia, 653 Paidia, 653 Palaeapis, fossil, 98 Palaeorhiza, 90-91, 93, 126, 132, 188, 189k-190k, 191, 193, 207, 214-218, 215k-216k, 219 Palaeorhiza (Anchirhiza), 68t, 190f, 216, 216k Palaeorhiza (Callorhiza), 68t, 190f, 196f, 215, 216, 216k Palaeorhiza (Ceratorhiza), 68t, 190f, 214-215, 215k, 216, 217 Palaeorhiza (Cercorhiza), 68t, 215, 216-217, 216k Palaeorhiza (Cheesmania), 68t, 216k, 217 Palaeorhiza (Cnemidorhiza), 68t, 215, 216k, 217 Palaeorhiza (Eupalaeorhiza), 68t, 216k, 217 Palaeorhiza (Eusphecogastra), 68t, 215k, 217 Palaeorhiza (Gressittapis), 68t, 215k, 217 Palaeorhiza (Hadrorhiza), 68t, 216k, 217 Palaeorhiza (Heterorhiza), 68t, 215, 215k, 217 Palaeorhiza (Michenerapis), 68t, 215, 215k, 218 Palaeorhiza (Noonadania), 68t, 216k, 218 Palaeorhiza (Palaeorhiza s str.), 68t, 216k, 218 Palaeorhiza (Paraheterorhiza), 68t, 215k, 218 Palaeorhiza (Sphecogaster), 217 Palaeorhiza (Trachyrhiza), 68t, 216k, 218 Palaeorhiza (Xenorhiza), 219 Palaeorhiza (Zarhiopalea), 68t, 216k, 218 Palaeorhiza amabilis, 217 Palaeorhiza bicolor, 190, 215, 218 Palaeorhiza conica, 190f, 214-216 Palaeorhiza flavomellea, 215 Palaeorhiza gigantea, 209 Palaeorhiza gratiosa, 217 Palaeorhiza gressittorum, 216 Palaeorhiza hamada, 219 Palaeorhiza hilara, 218 Palaeorhiza mandibularis, 190f, 216 Palaeorhiza melanura, 217 Palaeorhiza melliceps, 191 Palaeorhiza miranda, 217 Palaeorhiza paradisea, 217 Palaeorhiza paradoxa, 218 Palaeorhiza parallela, 89f Palaeorhiza rugosa, 218 Palaeorhiza s str., 68t, 216k, 218 Palaeorhiza sculpturalis, 218 Palaeorhiza stygica, 190f, 196f Paleoeuglossa, fossil, 99t, 781, 783 Paleoeuglossa melissiflora, fossil, 99t, 895 Paleomelitta, fossil, 99t Paleomelitta nigripennis, fossil, 99t Paleomelittidae (Family), fossil, 99t Palinepeolus, 673 Pallandrena, 68t, 252k, 255k, 264 Pallhalictus, 380 Panomalopsis, 681 Panurgidae (Family), 77-78, 78t, 79, 79t Panurgidae (Subfamily), 78t Panurgillus, 69t, 280, 283k, 284, 895 Panurginae, 24 Panurginae (Subfamily), 9, 14, 18, 20-21, 24, 28, 45, 58, 69t, 79t, 80, 80t, 83, 8587, 91-95, 101, 110, 111f, 112, 114, 123k, 126, 127k, 235-238, 236f, 237, 237k, 239, 270-272, 270f, 271k272k, 295, 316, 323, 345, 418, 639-640, 655, 660, 663, Plate fossil, 99t Panurgini (Tribe), 69t, 80t, 270-271, 272k, 285-289, 285k, 288f biogeography of, 107t Panurginini (Tribe), 270 Panurginus, 69t, 77, 78t, 285, 285k, 286, 287, 288-289 Panurginus albopilosus, 287 Panurginus calcaratus, 113f Panurginus clavatus, 285, 287, 288f Panurginus niger, 287 943 Panurginus occidentalis, 285f Panurginus polytrichus, 287, 288f Panurginus vagabundus, 284, 895 Panurgites (Tribe), 78t Panurgomia, 70t, 419k, 420, 421, 659 Panurgomia fuchsi, 421 Panurgus, 47, 77, 78t-81t, 271272, 285, 285k, 287-289, 288k, 645 Panurgus (Avpanurgus), 285, 285k, 286 Panurgus (Clavipanurgus), 287 Panurgus (Euryvalvus), 289 Panurgus (Flavipanurgus), 69t, 272, 285, 288-289, 288f, 288k, 289 Panurgus (Micropanurgus), 289 Panurgus (Pachycephalopanurgus), 289 Panurgus (Panurgus s str.), 69t, 288, 288f, 288k, 289 Panurgus (Simpanurgus), 69t, 288k, 289 Panurgus (Stenostylus), 289 Panurgus aethiops, 282 Panurgus anatolicus, 287 Panurgus andrenoides, 264 Panurgus annulatus, 287 Panurgus calcaratus, 124f, 285f, 288, 288f Panurgus chalybaeus, 261 Panurgus cinerarius zizus, 294 Panurgus clavatus, 287 Panurgus farinosus, 287 Panurgus flavofasciatus, 286 Panurgus flavus, 288 Panurgus lustrans, 380 Panurgus manifestus, 259 Panurgus marginatus, 326 Panurgus maurus, 326 Panurgus nadigi, 286 Panurgus novaeangliae, 326 Panurgus ovatulus, 287, 289 Panurgus phyllopodus, 289 Panurgus rungsii, 289 Panurgus s str., 69t, 288, 288f, 288k, 289 Panurgus venustus, 288f Papualictus, 70t, 371, 371, 371k Papuanorhiza, 21 Papuatrigona, 75t, 812, 822, 824, 825k, 827 Paraanthidiellum, 527 Paraanthidium, 72t, 510, 524, 534k, 535, 536 Paraanthidium (Orthanthidium), 536 Paracella, 72t, 555f, 557t, 562k, 564k-565k, 574, 580 Paracentris, 18f, 74t, 754, 756-757, 756k, 757, 758-759, 765f Paracentris fulvohirta, 757 Parachalicodoma, 72t, 553, 555, 557t, 561k-562k, 569570, 580, 580 Paracoelioxys, 548, 586 Paracoelioxys barrei, 586 Paracolletes, 79t-80t, 139k, 144-145, 164, 165, 165-166, 165k, 166 Paracolletes (Anthoglossa), 67t, 165, 165, 165k Paracolletes (Heterocolletes), 155 944 Paracolletes (Lysicolletes), 152 Paracolletes (Paracolletes s str.), 67t, 165, 165k Paracolletes capillatus, 155 Paracolletes crassipes, 144, 165 Paracolletes cygni, 165 Paracolletes halictiformis, 159 Paracolletes minutus, 159 Paracolletes montanus, 139, 165 Paracolletes moretonianus, 141 Paracolletes pachyodontus, 157 Paracolletes plumatus, 165 Paracolletes s str., 67t, 165, 165k Paracolletes singularis, 152 Paracolletinae, 905 Paracolletini (Tribe), 67t, 80t, 89, 93, 116-117, 133134, 136, 137k, 138-166, 164f, 171-172, 905 of Australian region, 138k139k biogeography of, 107t, 108-109 of Western Hemisphere, 138k Paracrocisa, 75t, 772, 773, 773k, 774, 774, 776 Paracrocisa sinaitica, 774 Paradialictus, 32t, 70t, 352, 371t, 374k, 380f, 381 Paradialictus synavei, 381 Paradioxys, 72t, 538, 539k, 541-542 positions of spines and carinae on thoracic sclerites of, 539t Parafidelia, 71t, 434, 439, 439k, 440 Parafidelia friesei, 440 Parafriesea, 308 Paragapostemon, 70t, 80t, 354, 356, 359, 359k, 364, 383, 388 Paragapostemon coelestinus, 383 Parahalictoides, 326 Parahesma, 68t, 226, 227, 227k Paraheterorhiza, 68t, 215k, 218 Paralictus, 31, 353, 357, 372, 377-378, 381, 623 Paramacropis, 70t, 422, 429430, 431, 431k Paramegachile, 573 Paramegalochila, 573 Paramegilla, 74t, 746k-747k, 749 Paramelittergini (Tribe), 270 Parammobates, 73t, 650, 650651, 650k, 651 Parammobates brasiliensis, 650 Parammobatodes, 43, 73t, 661, 661k, 663 Parammobatodes gussakovskii, 906 Parammobatodes indicus, 663 Parandrena, 68t, 244k, 247k, 256k, 262, 264 Parandrena atypica, 264 Parandrenella, 68t, 252k, 255k, 264 Paranomada, 73t, 590, 639, 639k, 641 Paranomada nitida, 641 Paranomada velutina, 641f Paranomia, 79t, 339 Paranomina, 339 Paranomioides, 347 Index of Taxa Paranthidiellum, 527 Paranthidium, 491, 491t, 496k-497k, 513, 524525, 524k, 536 Paranthidium (Mecanthidium), 513 Paranthidium (Paranthidium s str.), 72t, 524, 524k, 525 Paranthidium (Rapanthidium), 72t, 524, 524k, 525 Paranthidium jugatorium, 513 Paranthidium jugatorium perpictum, 491f, 495f, 524 Paranthidium s str., 72t, 524, 524k, 525 Paranthidium sonorum, 513 Paranthidium vespoides, 525 Paranthocopa, 71t, 474k, 475 Paranychium, 69t, 314, 314k Parapachyprosopis, 68t, 231, 231k, 232 Parapartamona, 75t, 821, 821, 821k Parapolyglossa, 171 Paraprosopis, 68t, 194, 198t, 199k-200k, 201f, 201k, 202f, 210, 211, 212 Parapsaenythia, 69t, 112, 273k, 274, 278, 283 Parapsaenythia paspali, 278, 282f Parapsaenythia serripes, 278 Pararhophites, 71t, 81, 81t, 92, 97, 121, 127, 434-435, 437, 440, 510 Pararhophites orobinus, 436f-437f Pararhophites quadratus, 437 Pararhophitinae (Subfamily), 434 Pararhophitini (Tribe), 71t, 81, 89, 96-97, 127k, 434, 435f, 436, 436k, 437, 437f biogeography of, 107t, 108 Parasarus, 69t, 278, 279k-280k, 281, 640 Parasarus atacamensis, 281 Paraseladina, 361 Paraseladonia, 32t, 70t, 352, 361, 361k, 366, 367k, 368-369 Parasphecodes, 70t, 371t, 373, 373f, 374k, 375, 375k, 380, 381 Parasphecodes (Aphalictus), 381 Parasphecodes bribiensis, 381 Parasphecodes hilactus, 381 Parasphecodes tooloomensis, 376 Paratetrapedia, 674, 687-688, 688f, 689, 689k, 691-692, 691k, 693, 695 Paratetrapedia (Amphipedia), 74t, 688, 691, 691k, 692 Paratetrapedia (Lophopedia), 74t, 691f, 691k, 692 Paratetrapedia (Paratetrapedia s str.), 74t, 687, 691k, 692 Paratetrapedia (Tropidopedia), 74t, 691k, 692 Paratetrapedia (Xanthopedia), 74t, 687, 691k, 692 Paratetrapedia calcarata, 687f Paratetrapedia haeckeli, 692 Paratetrapedia lugubris, 589f, 687f-688f Paratetrapedia pygmaea, 691f Paratetrapedia s str., 74t, 687, 691k, 692 Paratetrapedia seabrai, 692 Paratetrapedia swainsonae, 692 Paratetrapedia tricolor, 692 Parathrincostoma, 32t, 70t, 352, 354, 361k, 383, 390 Parathrincostoma seyrigi, 383 Paratrigona, 75t, 803, 811, 814k, 820, 821, 828 Paratrigona (Aparatrigona), 820-821 Paratrigona opaca, 820 Paratrigona prosopiformis, 820 Paratrigonoides, 75t, 814, 814k, 821 Paratrigonoides mayri, 821 Paraugochlora, 404 Paraugochloropsis, 70t, 399f, 404-405, 404f, 404k, 410 Paremisia, 758 Parepeolus, 674k, 676, 676k Parepeolus (Ecclitodes), 73t, 674, 676, 676k Parepeolus (Parepeolus s str.), 73t, 674, 676, 676k Parepeolus minutus, 674f Parepeolus niger, 674, 675f Parepeolus s str., 73t, 674, 676, 676k Parepeolus stuardi, 674, 676 Parepicharis, 74t, 760k, 761 Pareucera, 724-725 Parevaspis, 516 Parevaspis basalis, 516 Pariotrigona, 75t, 810, 815k, 816, 821 Paroxystoglossa, 70t, 394k, 399k, 400, 400k, 408, 410 Paroxystoglossa jocasta, 395f Paroxystoglossa transversa, 401f Partamona, 42, 803, 808f, 812, 814k, 819, 821, 821k, 822, 826 Partamona (Nogueirapis), 819 Partamona (Parapartamona), 75t, 821, 821k Partamona (Partamona s str.), 75t, 821, 821k Partamona bilineata, 809f, 813f Partamona grandipennis, 821 Partamona s str., 75t, 821, 821k Partamona testacea, 27f Partamona xanthogastra, 821 Pasiphae, 160 Pasiphae caerulescens, 160 Pasiphae flavicornis, 157 Pasites, 43, 73t, 641, 653, 661, 662k, 663-664 Pasites (Ebmeriana), 663 Pasites (Micropasites), 663 Pasites (Spinopasites), 665 Pasites dichroa, 663 Pasites gnoma, 664 Pasites maculata, 663 Pasites maculatus, 110, 641, 664 Pasites punctatus, 656 Pasites pygmaeus, 664 Pasites spinotus, 665 pasitines, 77, 78t-80t, 81, 81t Pasitomachtes, 664 Pasitomachthes, 664 Pasitomachthes nigerrimus, 664 Passiflora lutea, 20 Patagiata, 208, 210 Patellapis, 320, 354, 356-357, 362k, 365, 370, 383-386, 384k, 385f, 389 Patellapis (Archihalictus), 70t, 384, 384-385, 384k, 386 Patellapis (Chaetalictus), 70t, 384k, 385, 385f, 386 Patellapis (Dictyohalictus), 70t, 384, 384k, 385-386 Patellapis (Lomatalictus), 70t, 384, 384k, 385, 386 Patellapis (Madagalictus), 362 Patellapis (Pachyhalictus), 70t, 370, 383-384, 383f, 384k, 385-386, 385f, 386 Patellapis (Patellapis s str.), 70t, 356, 383, 384k, 385, 385f, 386 Patellapis (Zonalictus), 70t, 361-362, 384, 384k, 385f, 386 Patellapis albofasciata, 385f Patellapis braunsella, 356, 365, 383, 386 Patellapis carinostriata, 384 Patellapis concinnula, 361-362 Patellapis intricata, 386 Patellapis joffrei, 384 Patellapis laevata, 384-385 Patellapis malachurina, 384 Patellapis merescens, 383f, 385f Patellapis partita, 385f Patellapis pearstonensis, 385f Patellapis perineti, 384-385 Patellapis plicata, 384 Patellapis retigera, 384 Patellapis s str., 70t, 356, 383, 384k, 385, 385f, 386 Patellapis schultzei, 385f Patellapis suarezensis, 362, 383 Patellapis zacephala, 385f Patera, 821 Paulynomia, 69t, 332, 339, 339k, 341, 342f, xiv Pauphalictus, 377 Pavostelis, 533 Pectinapis, 74t, 711f, 718f, 718k, 720k, 737, 738, 738k, 749 Pectinapis fasciata, 738 Pectinata, 208 Pelandrena, fossil, 99t Pelandrena reducta, fossil, 99t Pelicandrena, 68t, 246k-247k, 264 Pemphredoninae (Subfamily) (wasps), 3, 61-63 Penapini (Tribe), 322-323 Penapis, 69t, 322-323, 324k, 325, 328, 328, 329 Penapis penai, 323f, 328 Peniella, 314 Pentadentosmia, 71t, 458, 462, 464, 464k-465k, 471, 472-473 Pentaperdita, 69t, 300, 301k, 303, 305 Penteriades, 71t, 452, 462, 465, 465k, 466, 466k, 470, 473, 473-474, 476 Penthemisia, 757 Peponapis, 74t, 652, 708-709, 711, 711f, 713k, 715k, 717k, 719k-720k, 722, 733, 733, 736, 740-741 Index of Taxa Peponapis (Austropeponapis), 733 Peponapis (Colocynthophila), 733 Peponapis (Eopeponapis), 733 Peponapis (Xenopeponapis), 733 Peponapis (Xeropeponapis), 733 Peponapis crassidentata, 733 Peponapis fervens, 23f, 722, 733 Peponapis pruinosa, 709f, 715f, 717f Peponapis timberlakei, 719, 733 Perdita, 24, 28, 86-87, 110-112, 118, 235, 271, 289, 296, 296f, 297, 297k, 299-305, 300f, 300k-302k, 301f, 345, 353, 389, 418, 660, 663 Perdita (Allomacrotera), 69t, 300, 301k, 302 Perdita (Alloperdita), 69t, 299, 301k, 302, 305 Perdita (Callomacrotera), 69t, 296f, 300, 301k, 302 Perdita (Cockerellia), 69t, 300, 301k, 302, 302f, 305 Perdita (Epimacrotera), 69t, 300k, 302-303, 302f, 663 Perdita (Geoperdita), 303 Perdita (Glossoperdita), 69t, 300k, 302, 303 Perdita (Hesperoperdita), 69t, 300k, 303 Perdita (Heteroperdita), 69t, 300, 300k, 303 Perdita (Hexaperdita), 69t, 300, 301k, 302f, 303, 663 Perdita (Lutziella), 297 Perdita (Macroterella), 298 Perdita (Pentaperdita), 69t, 300, 301k, 303, 305 Perdita (Perdita s str.), 69t, 296, 296f, 302, 302f, 302k, 303, 304f, 305, 663, Plate Perdita (Perditella), 69t, 301k, 304 Perdita (Procockerellia), 69t, 300, 301k, 302, 302f, 304 Perdita (Pseudomacrotera), 69t, 300k, 304 Perdita (Pygoperdita), 69t, 300, 301k, 305 Perdita (Tetraperdita), 303 Perdita (Xeromacrotera), 69t, 300, 301k, 305 Perdita (Xerophasma), 69t, 299, 300k, 305, 305f Perdita acapulconis, 296f Perdita ainsliei, 302 Perdita albipennis, 90f, 111f, 302 Perdita albonotata, 302f, 304 Perdita albovittata, 303 Perdita beata, 302 Perdita bequaertiana, 305, 305f Perdita bishoppi, 302f Perdita cephalotes, 305 Perdita chamaesarachae, 303 Perdita chihuahua, 296f Perdita coreopsidis, 302f Perdita euphorbiae, 302f Perdita floridensis, 296 Perdita graenicheri, 271 Perdita halictoides, 296, 302f, 303 Perdita hyalina, 302 Perdita ignota, 303 Perdita interrupta, 305 Perdita kiowi, 16 Perdita laneae, 304 Perdita larreae, 304 Perdita latior, 298 Perdita maculigera maculipennis, 296, 296f Perdita maritima, 302 Perdita maura, 303 Perdita mortuaria, 298 Perdita novaeangliae, 302 Perdita octomaculata, 300f-302f Perdita opuntiae, 297 Perdita rhodogastra, 303 Perdita ruficauda, 303 Perdita s str., 69t, 296, 296f, 302, 302f, 302k, 303, 304f, 305, 663, Plate Perdita sexmaculata, 303 Perdita sphaeralceae, 302f Perdita stathamae, 304f Perdita stephanomeriae, 302 Perdita tridentata, 114f Perdita turgiceps, 304 Perdita zebrata, 303 Perdita zebrata zebrata, 114f Perdita zonalis, 302f, 312 Perditella, 69t, 301k, 304 Perditini (Tribe), 21, 58, 69t, 110, 271k, 287, 296-305, 296f, 297k, 298f-302f, 304f-305f biogeography of, 107t Perditomorpha, 60f-61f, 67t, 144, 146f, 147, 147f, 147t, 148k, 151-152, 154, 157-158, 159-160, 640 Perditomorpha brunerii, 157 Perditopasites, 663 Pereirapis, 70t, 396f, 402, 402k, 403 Pereirapis rhizophila, 403 Perezia, 573 Perezia maura, 573 Perissander, 69t, 309, 310k, 312, 313, 313f, 314 Perixylocopa, 610 Petalosternon, 74t, 746k-747k, 748, 750 Petrusia, 292 Petrusianna, 292, 895 Phaceliapis, 69t, 323f, 325-326, 325k Phaenosarus, 555, 584-585 Phaeosmia, 455 Phanomalopsis, 73t, 683f, 683k, 684 Pharohylaeus, 68t, 189k, 192, 215, 218 Pharohylaeus lactiferus, 190f, 192f, 196f, 218 Pharohylaeus papuanus, 218 Phelonomada, 644 Phenacolletes, 67t, 139k, 141, 145, 165 Phenacolletes mimus, 141f, 145f, 165 Phiarus, 653 Phiarus minutus, 663 Philanthinae (Subfamily) (wasps), 62-63 Philanthini (Tribe) (wasps), 63 Philanthus gibbosus, 63f Phileremidae (Subfamily), 78t Phileremides (Tribe), 78t Phileremulus, 73t, 660, 660f, 660k Phileremulus vigilans, 660 Phileremus, 662 Phileremus (Melanempis), 663 Phileremus abdominalis, 653 Phileremus ater, 663 Phileremus emarginatus, 656 Phileremus fulviventris, 657 Phileremus illinoiensis, 655 Phileremus oraniensis, 662 Phileremus productus, 540 Philoxanthus, 302 Phor, 644 Phyllotoma, 467 Physostetha, 460 Pileteucera, 724 Pithitis, 73t, 612, 613k, 617 Placidohalictus, 369 Planiandrena, 68t, 251, 265 Planihylaeus, 68t, 188, 195f, 197k, 198t, 211, 213214 Plastandrena, 68t, 243k, 248k, 250k, 252k, 254k, 256k258k, 265 Platandrena, 266 Platinopoda, 606 Platosmia, 71t, 464k-465k, 471, 473 Platychile, 566 Platycoelioxys, 72t, 546k, 550 Platyhalictus, 70t, 367k, 369 Platynopoda, 606-607 Platyspatulariella, 213 Platysta, 72t, 557t, 563k, 565k, 574, 580-581 Platysvastra, 74t, 708, 710, 715k, 716, 734 Platysvastra macraspis, 734 Platytrigona, 826 Plebeia, 103, 587, 807-809, 808f, 811-812, 814k, 817, 819, 822-823, 822k, 823825, 829 fossil, 819 Plebeia (Nogueirapis), fossil, 819 Plebeia (Plebeia s str.), 75t, 669f, 804f, 805, 805f, 813f, 815, 818, 822, 822-823, 822k, 823 Plebeia (Scaura), 75t, 805, 814, 822, 822-823, 822f, 822k, 824 Plebeia (Schwarziana), 75t, 807, 822k, 823 Plebeia caerulea, 805f, 822-823 Plebeia frontalis, 53f, 669f, 804f, 813f Plebeia intermedia, 822 Plebeia latitarsis, 822-823, 822f Plebeia s str., 75t, 669f, 804f, 805, 805f, 813f, 815, 818, 822, 822-823, 822k, 823 Plebeia schrottkyi, 804f, 822, 829 Plebeia silacea, fossil, 819 Plebeia tica, 822 Plebeia timida, 814, 822-823 Plebeiella, 818-819 Plebeina, 75t, 808-809, 811, 815, 815k, 818, 823 Plebeina denoiti, 812f, 823 Plesianthidium, 491t, 494k, 510, 525-526, 525k, 528 Plesianthidium (Carinanthid- 945 ium), 72t, 510, 525, 525, 525k Plesianthidium (Plesianthidium s str.), 72t, 525, 525k, 526 Plesianthidium (Spinanthidiellum), 72t, 494, 525, 525k, 526, 526 Plesianthidium (Spinanthidium), 72t, 494, 525, 525k, 526 Plesianthidium calescens, 526 Plesianthidium cariniventre, 525 Plesianthidium fulvopilosum, 525 Plesianthidium rufocaudatum, 526 Plesianthidium s str., 72t, 525, 525k, 526 Plesianthidium volkmanni, 526 Plesiopanurgus, 69t, 271-272, 291k, 293, 294 Plesiopanurgus (Zizopanurgus), 294 Plesiopanurgus cinerarius, 293f, 294 Plistotrichia, 685 Plusia, 783 Plusia superba, 783 Podalirius, 77t, 747 Podalirius (Amegilla), 743 Podalirius (Paramegilla), 749 Podalirius grisescens, 705 Podalirius vallorum, 748 Podasys, 418 Podilegidae, 78t Podilegides (Family), 78t Poecilandrena, 68t, 253k, 255k, 257k-258k, 265 Poecilobombus, 801 Poecilocentris, 756 Poecilomelitta, 292-293 Poecilomelitta flavida, 292 Poecilomelitta lacrymosa, 291 Poecilomelitta ornata, 292 Poliandrena, 68t, 253k, 255k256k, 265, 266 Policana, 177 Polistes (wasps), 650, 663 Polybiapis, 644 Polybiapis mimus, 644 Polyglossa, 171 Polyglossa (Parapolyglossa), 171 Polyglossa capensis, 171 Polyglossa heterodoxa, 171 Pomibombus, 801 Pomobombus, 801 Pontanthidium, 506-507 Popovapis, 70t, 418k, 419 Popovia, 292 Popovmeliturgula, 292-293 Porterapis, 67t, 158f, 162, 162k, 163-164, 164f Pratibombus, 801 Pratobombus, 801 Presbia, 595 Pressibombus, 75t, 793k, 794, 794k, 796k, 800 Prionohoplitis, 71t, 464, 464k, 467, 473 Priorapis, fossil, 99t, 831 Proanthidium, 71t, 493, 497, 505, 506k, 507, 508, 527 Probombus, fossil, 99t, 790 Probombus hirsutus, fossil, 99t Prochelostoma, 71t, 448f, 456, 456k, 457, 458 946 Procockerellia, 69t, 300, 301k, 302, 302f, 304 Prodasyhalonia, 74t, 727, 727k, 728 Prodioxys, 72t, 442, 538, 539k, 542 positions of spines and carinae on thoracic sclerites of, 539t Prodioxys cinnabarina, 542 Prohalictus, 369 fossil, 99t Prohalictus schemppi, fossil, 99t Promelitta, 70t, 415-416, 422 Promelitta alboclypeata, 417f, 422 Promelitta plumipes, 422 Promelittini (Tribe), 70t, 416, 416k, 417f, 422 biogeography of, 107t Pronomia, 340 Pronomia pulawskii, 340 Proplebeia, fossil, 99t, 812 Prosamba, 70t, 423, 424k, 425 Prosapis, 212 Prosopalictus, 377-378 Prosopalictus micans, 377 Prosopella, 68t, 198t, 199k, 207, 210-211, 211-212 Prosopidae (Family), 79t Prosopidae (Subfamily), 78t Prosopinae (Subfamily), 80t Prosopis, 68t, 78t-79t, 192, 198t, 199k-201k, 202f, 202k, 210, 212 Prosopis (Abrupta), 203 Prosopis (Amblyspatulariella), 213 Prosopis (Auricularia), 212 Prosopis (Barbata), 209 Prosopis (Brachyspatulariella), 213 Prosopis (Campanularia), 211 Prosopis (Cingulata), 212 Prosopis (Dentigera), 204 Prosopis (Fasciata), 212 Prosopis (Fascista), 212 Prosopis (Hoploprosopis), 206 Prosopis (Imperfecta), 204 Prosopis (Koptobaster), 208 Prosopis (Koptogaster), 208 Prosopis (Lambdopsis), 208 Prosopis (Mehelya), 209 Prosopis (Navicularia), 212 Prosopis (Nylaeus), 208 Prosopis (Paraprosopis), 211 Prosopis (Patagiata), 208, 210 Prosopis (Pectinata), 208 Prosopis (Platyspatulariella), 213 Prosopis (Pseudobranchiata), 208 Prosopis (Spatularia), 213 Prosopis (Spatulariella), 213 Prosopis (Trichota), 208 Prosopis alcyonea, 209 Prosopis annulata, 207 Prosopis apicatus, 216 Prosopis aterrima, 203 Prosopis basalis, 203 Prosopis bifasciata, 208 Prosopis cenibera, 213 Prosopis chalybaea, 209 Prosopis cruenta, 206 Prosopis curvicarinata, 204 Prosopis cyanophila, 208 Prosopis difformis, 208 Prosopis dromedaria, 204 Prosopis eburniella, 205 Index of Taxa Prosopis elegans, 217 Prosopis elegantissima, 217 Prosopis euxantha, 205 Prosopis facialis, 212 Prosopis facilis, 210 Prosopis fijiensis, 209 Prosopis freisei, 209 Prosopis frontalis, 286 Prosopis fulvicornis, 205 Prosopis heraldica, 210 Prosopis husela, 204 Prosopis imperialis, 217 Prosopis mexicana, 207 Prosopis morosa, 191 Prosopis nubilosa, 207 Prosopis nubilosellus, 191 Prosopis perhumilis, 212 Prosopis perviridis, 218 Prosopis philoleucus, 205 Prosopis potens, 209 Prosopis pulchricrus, 207 Prosopis punctata, 213 Prosopis quadricornis, 206 Prosopis ruficeps, 205 Prosopis sparsa, 209 Prosopis sulphuripes, 213 Prosopis trilobata, 211 Prosopis trinotata, 212 Prosopis variegata, 212 Prosopis vidua, 209 Prosopis xanthopoda, 205 Prosopisteroides, 68t, 193, 196k, 198t, 212, 213 Prosopisteron, 68t, 188, 191, 193, 195, 197f, 197k, 198t, 202k, 203-205, 208-209, 211, 212-213, 214 Prosopisteron serotinellum, 212 Prosopites (Tribe), 78t Prosopoides, 67t, 181, 182f, 182k, 184, 185 Prosopoxylocopa, 73t, 601k, 604k, 608, 610 Protandrena, 79t-80t, 112, 126, 235, 273, 273k-274k, 278-281, 283, 655 Protandrena (Austrandrena), 281 Protandrena (Austropanurgus), 69t, 278-279, 279k, 280, 280k Protandrena (Heterosarus), 69t, 94, 274-275, 275f, 279, 279k, 280, 280k, 284-285, 655, 895 Protandrena (Metapsaenythia), 69t, 236f, 274k, 279k, 280-281, 280k, 655 Protandrena (Parasarus), 69t, 278, 279k-280k, 281, 640 Protandrena (Protandrena s str.), 69t, 272, 272k, 273, 273k, 274-275, 278-280, 279f, 279k, 281, 283 Protandrena (Pseudosarus), 273 Protandrena (Pterosarus), 69t, 278, 279f, 279k, 281, 283, 655 Protandrena abdominalis, 280-281 Protandrena abdominalis tricolor, 236f Protandrena atacamensis, 281 Protandrena bakeri, 280 Protandrena bancrofti, 114f Protandrena evansi, 279 Protandrena maculata, 274, 278, 281 Protandrena meridionalis, 275 Protandrena mexicanorum, 279f, 281 Protandrena neomexicana, 275f Protandrena nigra, 280 Protandrena platycephala, 280 Protandrena punctata, 280 Protandrena readioi, 280 Protandrena rudbeckiae, 279f Protandrena s str., 69t, 272, 272k, 273, 273k, 274-275, 278-280, 279f, 279k, 281, 283 Protandrena sonorana, 281 Protandrena virescens, 280 Protandreninae (Subfamily), 79t Protandrenini (Tribe), 69t, 272k, 273-284, 273k274k, 282f, 285, 306, 895 biogeography of, 107t Protandrenopsis, 282 Protandrenopsis fuscipennis, 282 Protanthidium, 536 Protepeolini (Tribe), 33, 33t, 73t, 80t, 116, 127, 587, 591, 591k, 633, 636, 667, 668f, 671-672, 678-679 biogeography of, 108t Protepeolus, 80t, 679 Protepeolus singularis, 679 Proteraner, 388 Proteriades, 20, 71t, 448, 452, 461-463, 465, 465k, 466, 466k, 469-470, 473-474, 476 Proteriades (Penteriades), 473 Proteriades group (of Hoplitis), 20 Proteriades semirubra, 473 Protoanthidium, 536 Protoanthidium rufobalteatum, 536 Protoanthidium rufomaculatum, 504 Protobombus, fossil, 99t, 670671, 831, Plate 19 Protobombus indecisus, fossil, 99t, Plate 19 Protodiscelis, 60f, 67t, 147t, 148k, 153, 158-159, 158f, 160 Protodiscelis fiebrigi, 158 Protodufourea, 69t, 324, 324k, 328-329, 656, 658 Protodufourea parca, 326f Protodufourea wasbaueri, 328 Protohalictus, 70t, 365f, 367k, 368, 369 Protolithurgini (Tribe), fossil, 99t Protolithurgus, fossil, 99t Protolithurgus ditomeus, fossil, 99t Protomelecta, fossil, 99t Protomelecta brevipennis, fossil, 99t Protomelissa, 775 Protomelissa iridescens, 775 Protomeliturga, 69t, 83, 126, 295, 295f, 323 Protomeliturga turnerae, 29, 270f, 295f Protomeliturgini (Tribe), 69t, 271k, 295 biogeography of, 107t Protomorpha, 67t, 143, 145f, 147t, 149, 149k, 150-151, 150k, 153, 157, 159 Protomorpha tarsalis, 159 Protopithitis, 73t, 612, 613k, 617 Protosiris, 73t, 675, 675k, 676677 Protosiris gigos, 674 Protosiris obtusus, 677 Protosmia, 43, 448-449, 449k, 449t, 451k-452k, 461, 472, 474, 476, 487-488, 487k, 489 Protosmia (Afrosmia), 487 Protosmia (Chelostomopsis), 71t, 487k, 488, 488f Protosmia (Dolichosmia), 71t, 449, 487, 487k, 488 Protosmia (Nanosmia), 71t, 469, 486, 487k, 488 Protosmia (Protosmia s str.), 71t, 486, 487k, 488 Protosmia asensioi, 488 Protosmia burmanica, 487-488 Protosmia capitata, 488 Protosmia rubifloris, 488, 488f Protosmia s str., 71t, 486, 487k, 488 Protostelis, 72t, 530, 530f, 530k, 531, 532 Protoxaea, 69t, 106, 317k, 318, 652 Protoxaea (Mesoxaea), 317f, 318 Protoxaea (Notoxaea), 318 Protoxaea (Protoxaea s str.), 317f, 318 Protoxaea gloriosa, 124f, 316f-317f Protoxaea nigerrima, 317f Protoxaea s str., 317f, 318 Proxylocopa, 73t, 101, 592, 596-597, 597f, 598, 601k, 604k, 608 Proxylocopa (Ancylocopa), 608 Proxylocopa s str., 608 Psaenythia, 69t, 272, 273k, 274-275, 281, 281-282, 284, 640 Psaenythia (Parapsaenythia), 278 Psaenythia argentina, 278 Psaenythia bergi, 274f Psaenythia nigra, 277 Psaenythia parvula, 278 Psaenythia philanthoides, 281, 282f Psammandrena, 68t, 247k, 251k, 265 Pseudagapostemon, 350, 352f, 354, 356, 358k-359k, 386-387, 387k, 388 Pseudagapostemon (Brasilagapostemon), 70t, 387, 387, 387k Pseudagapostemon (Neagapostemon), 70t, 387, 387k Pseudagapostemon (Pseudagapostemon s str.), 70t, 387, 387k Pseudagapostemon amabilis, 387 Pseudagapostemon brasiliensis, 387 Pseudagapostemon cyanomelas, 387 Index of Taxa Pseudagapostemon fluminensis, 387 Pseudagapostemon jenseni, 356, 387 Pseudagapostemon perzonatus, 387 Pseudagapostemon puelchanus, 356 Pseudagapostemon s str., 70t, 387, 387k Pseudapis, 332-333, 334k, 337, 341-342, 341k, 344, 664 Pseudapis (Pachynomia), 69t, 341, 341k, 344 Pseudapis (Pseudapis s str.), 69t, 333f, 341-342, 341k, 343f Pseudapis anomala, 341 Pseudapis bispinosa, 333 Pseudapis diversipes, 333 Pseudapis s str., 69t, 333f, 341-342, 341k, 343f Pseudapis s strrictissimo, 341 Pseudapis umesaoi, 333f Pseudaugochlora, 44, 70t, 101, 393, 398k, 400k, 405, 410 Pseudaugochlora graminea, 349f, 395f-396f, 410f Pseudaugochlora sordicutis, 394f, 410 Pseudaugochloropsis, 404, 410 Pseudaugochloropsis costaricensis, 405 Pseudepeolus, 73t, 647-648, 648k, 651, 651 Pseudepeolus angustata, 651 Pseudepeolus angustatus, 651 Pseudepeolus fasciatus, 651 Pseudepeolus willinki, 648 Pseudeucera, 74t, 723, 723, 723k Pseudhylaeus, 68t, 197k, 198t, 207, 211, 213, 214 Pseudiscelis, 67t, 181, 182f, 182k, 184, 185 Pseudiscelis rostrata, 185 Pseudoanthidium, 491t, 493k, 497, 499, 508, 517, 522, 526-528, 526k Pseudoanthidium (Carinellum), 527 Pseudoanthidium (Exanthidium), 72t, 493, 526, 526527, 526k Pseudoanthidium (Micranthidium), 72t, 526, 526k, 527, 528 Pseudoanthidium (Paraanthidiellum), 527 Pseudoanthidium (Pseudoanthidium s str.), 72t, 526k, 527 Pseudoanthidium (Royanthidium), 72t, 493, 526, 526k, 527-528, 528 Pseudoanthidium (Semicarinella), 72t, 526k, 528 Pseudoanthidium (Tuberanthidium), 72t, 492f, 526, 526k, 527, 528 Pseudoanthidium brachiatum, 492f, 526, 528 Pseudoanthidium eximium, 527 Pseudoanthidium latitarse, 528 Pseudoanthidium ochrognathum, 527 Pseudoanthidium reticulatum, 493 Pseudoanthidium s str., 72t, 526k, 527 Pseudoanthidium truncatum, 528 Pseudoanthidium wahrmanicum, 527 Pseudobranchiata, 208 Pseudocentron, 72t, 551-552, 557t, 558k-559k, 567, 577-579, 581 Pseudocentron (Grafella), 577 Pseudocentron (Leptorachina), 577 Pseudocentron (Moureana), 578 Pseudocentron crotalariae, 577 Pseudochilalictus, 70t, 371t, 373f, 374k, 381 Pseudocilissa, 432 Pseudocosmia, 468 Pseudodichroa, 73t, 663, 664, 664k Pseudoheriades, 71t, 442t, 449, 449t, 450k-451k, 453, 458, 461, 475, 489 Pseudoheriades (Afroheriades), 452 Pseudoheriades (Stenoheriades), 489 Pseudoheriades hofferi, 489 Pseudoheriades primus, 452 Pseudoliphanthus, 69t, 276f, 277, 277k Pseudomacrotera, 69t, 300k, 304 Pseudomegachile, 72t, 551, 555f, 557t, 558k, 560k-563k, 564f, 564k, 569, 572, 575, 577-578, 581, 906 Pseudomegalochila, 581 Pseudomelecta, 75t, 773, 773k, 774, 776 Pseudoosmia, 467 Pseudo-osmia, 467 Pseudopanurgus, 69t, 273k274k, 278-281, 282-283, 655 Pseudopanurgus aethiops, 124f, 275f, 279f, 282f Pseudopanurgus carinulatus, 282 Pseudopanurgus crenulatus, 282f Pseudopanurgus fasciatus, 282 Pseudopanurgus fulvicornis, 282 Pseudopanurgus trifasciatus, 282 Pseudopanurgus trimaculatus, 282 Pseudoparasitae, 78t Pseudopasites, 664 Pseudopeolus, 651 Pseudophilanthus, 426k, 427-428, 427k Pseudophilanthus (Dicromonia), 70t, 427-428, 427k Pseudophilanthus (Pseudophilanthus s str.), 70t, 427k, 428 Pseudophilanthus s str., 70t, 427k, 428 Pseudophilanthus taeniatus, 428 Pseudophilanthus tsavoensis, 426f-427f Pseudophilanthus wenzeli, 428 Pseudosarus, 273, 280 Pseudosarus virescens, 280 Pseudoscolia (wasp), 90, 92 Pseudosmia, 467-468 Pseudostelis, 72t, 531k, 532, 532 Psilomelissodes, 74t, 730k-731k, 732 Psilylaeus, 212 Psilylaeus sagiops, 212 Psithyridae (Subfamily), 78t79t Psithyrides (Family), 78t Psithyrus, 30, 31t, 37, 41, 75t, 76-78, 78t-80t, 623, 699, 786f-787f, 788-791, 791k, 794k, 800, 800f, 802 Psithyrus (Allopsithyrus), 800 Psithyrus (Ashtonipsithyrus), 800 Psithyrus (Ceratopsithyrus), 800 Psithyrus (Eopsithyrus), 800 Psithyrus (Fernaldaepsithyrus), 800 Psithyrus (Laboriopsithyrus), 751 Psithyrus (Metapsithyrus), 800 Psithyrus cornutus, 800 Psithyrus fernaldae, 800 Psithyrus klapperichi, 800 Pteneucera, 74t, 724, 724k, 725 Pterandrena, 259 Pterandrena pallidifovea, 266 Pterandrena pallidiscopa, 265 Pterosarus, 69t, 278, 279f, 279k, 281, 283, 655 Ptilandrena, 68t, 244k, 249k250k, 253k, 256k, 265 Ptilocentris, 74t, 754-755, 755k, 757-758 Ptilocleptis, 32t, 70t, 352-354, 358k, 361k, 364, 382, 387-388, 389 Ptilocleptis polybioides, 40f Ptilocleptis tomentosa, 40f, 355f, 387 Ptiloglossa, 67t, 174k, 176, 650, 652 Ptiloglossa (Ptiloglossodes), 176 Ptiloglossa chalybaea, 175 Ptiloglossa ducalis, 176 Ptiloglossa guinnae, 174f Ptiloglossa mexicana, 175f Ptiloglossa tarsata, 176 Ptiloglossa zikani, 175 Ptiloglossidia, 67t, 179, 179k Ptiloglossidia fallax, 179 Ptiloglossidiini, 179 Ptiloglossodes, 176 Ptilomelissa, 709f-710f, 714f, 718f, 728, 732 Ptilonomia, 69t, 334k, 342, 343 Ptilonomia plumosa, 333, 333f, 343f Ptilopoda, 167 Ptilosaroides, 72t, 557t, 559k-560k, 579, 581-582 Ptilosarus, 72t, 550, 557t, 559k-560k, 579, 582, 582 Ptilothrix, 21, 74t, 79t-80t, 106, 111, 679, 700-701, 702k, 704, 705-706 Ptilothrix bombiformis, 90f, 706 Ptilothrix fructifer, 702f Ptilothrix plumatus, 583, 701, 705 Ptilothrix relatus, 705 Ptilothryx, 705 Ptilotopus, 18f, 74t, 753-754, 754f, 755k, 757, 758, 759, 764 Ptilotopus americanus, 758 Ptilotrigona, 812, 827 Ptoleglossa, 268 Puncthalictus, 377-378 Puncticolletes, 167 Pycnanthidium, 71t, 503, 503k, 504 947 Pycnanthidium solomonis, 504 Pyganthophora, 74t, 744f, 745k747k, 749, 750 Pyghalictus, 377 Pygidialia, 62, 79, 79t Pygnanthidiellum, 504 Pygnanthidium, 504 Pygnanthidium (Pygnanthidiellum), 504 Pygomelissa, fossil, 99t Pygomelissa lutetia, fossil, 99t Pygopasiphae, 60f, 67t, 147t, 148k, 157, 159 Pygoperdita, 69t, 300, 301k, 305 Pyrobombus, 75t, 792k, 794-795, 796k, 800-801, 800f Pyrobombus (Festivobombus), 798 Pyrosmia, 71t, 112, 448, 475477, 477k, 478, 478k, 480-481, 485, 485-486 Pyrrhobombus, 800 Pyrrhomelecta, 649 Pyrrhopappus, 21 Quasihesma, 68t, 228-229, 228f, 228k, 229, 229-230 Quasihesma moonbiensis, 229 Quasilictus, 70t, 370k, 371 Radoszkowskiana, 32t, 34, 72t, 543k, 586 Radoszkowskiana rufiventris, 586 Ramalictus, 70t, 366k, 369 Ramphorhina, 454 Ranthidiellum, 71t, 503, 503k, 504-505, 511 Rapanthidium, 72t, 524, 524k, 525 Raphidostoma, 488 Raphidostoma ceanothi, 488 Rathymus, 762 Reanthidium, 527-528 Rediviva, 16, 16f, 18, 71t, 96, 415, 429-430, 430k, 432, 433, 695 Rediviva colorata, 16f Rediviva emdeorum, 16f-17f Rediviva longimanus, 16f Rediviva neliana, 432 Rediviva peringueyi, 16f, 430f Rediviva rufocincta, 16f Redivivini (Tribe), 430 Redivivoides, 71t, 430, 430k, 432-433 Redivivoides simulans, 432 Reedapis, 60f, 67t, 138k, 144, 147k, 147t, 151, 157, 159 Reepenia, 69t, 332, 334k, 342, 343 Reepenia bituberculata, 333f, 343f Rhacandrena, 68t, 246k-247k, 251k, 265 Rhamphorhina, 454 Rhanthidiellum, 504 Rhaphandrena, 68t, 245k, 249k, 265 Rhathymidae (Subfamily), 78t Rhathymini (Tribe), 33t, 34, 74t, 80t, 104, 127, 589, 589k, 668, 668f, 671, 762, 762k, 763, 768 biogeography of, 108t Rhathymites (Tribe), 78t 948 Rhathymodes, 762 Rhathymus, 74t, 77, 78t, 80t, 110, 674f, 762, 762, 762k Rhathymus acutiventris, 762 Rhathymus bicolor, 762 Rhectomia, 70t, 393, 396k, 400k, 407, 410-411, 411 Rhectomia pumilla, 410 Rhinepeolus, 73t, 647, 647k-648k, 651, 651 Rhinepeolus rufiventris, 651 Rhineta, 656 Rhinetula, 70t, 112, 354, 356, 359k, 363, 388 Rhinetula denticrus, 359f, 388 Rhinochaetula, 420 Rhinochaetula ogilviei, 424 Rhinochaetula plumipes, 422 Rhinocoelioxys, 72t, 546k, 550 Rhinocolletes, 167-168 Rhinocorynura, 70t, 393, 396k, 399k, 411, 411, 412 Rhinocorynura briseis, 396f Rhinocorynura inflaticeps, 397f Rhinomegilla, 74t, 746k, 747, 747k, 748-749, 750 Rhodanthidium, 491t, 495k, 522, 528-529, 528k Rhodanthidium (Asianthidium), 72t, 497, 528, 528-529, 528k Rhodanthidium (Meganthidium), 72t, 494, 528, 528k, 529 Rhodanthidium (Rhodanthidium s str.), 72t, 494, 528, 528k, 529, 529 Rhodanthidium (Trianthidium), 528 Rhodanthidium aculeatum, 528529 Rhodanthidium caturigense, 528 Rhodanthidium glasunovi, 528529 Rhodanthidium infuscatum, 529 Rhodanthidium s str., 72t, 494, 528, 528k, 529, 529 Rhodanthidium septemdentatum, 529 Rhodanthidium siculum, 529, Plate Rhodanthidium sticticum, 529 Rhodobombus, 75t, 793k, 796k797k, 801 Rhodocentris, 757 Rhodohylaeus, 68t, 196k, 197f, 198t, 213 Rhodomegachile, 72t, 442t, 552553, 557t, 565k-566k, 576, 582 Rhodosmia, 488 Rhogepeolina (Subtribe), 646 Rhogepeolus, 73t, 646-647, 647k-648k, 650, 651 Rhogepeolus bigibbosus, 651 Rhopalictus, 406 Rhopaloheriades, 71t, 459k, 460-461, 489 Rhopalolemma, 41, 73t, 590, 656, 656k, 657-658 Rhopalolemma robertsi, 657, 658f Rhopalomelissa, 333, 336-337 Rhopalomelissa (Lepidorhopalomelissa), 337 Rhopalomelissa (Trichorhopalomelissa), 337 Index of Taxa Rhopalomelissa (Tropirhopalomelissa), 337 Rhopalomelissa hainanensis, 337 Rhopalomelissa nigra, 337 Rhopalomelissa xanthogaster, 337 Rhophites See Rophites Rhophites (Pararhophites), 437 Rhophites dispar, 419 Rhophites s str., 83 Rhophites vitellinus, 418 Rhophitidae (Subfamily), 78t Rhophitoides, 69t, 329, 329k Rhophitoides distinguendus, 329 Rhophitulus, 274k, 283-284, 283k Rhophitulus (Cephalurgus), 69t, 272, 273k, 280, 283, 283, 283k Rhophitulus (Panurgillus), 69t, 280, 283k, 284 Rhophitulus (Rhophitulus s str.), 69t, 273k-274k, 275, 275f, 283k, 284 Rhophitulus frisei, 275f, 284 Rhophitulus s str., 69t, 273k274k, 275, 275f, 283k, 284 Rhophitulus testaceus, 275 Rhynchalictus, 377-378 Rhynchalictus rostratus, 377 Rhynchocolletes, 167-168 Rhynchocolletes albicinctus, 167 Rhynocorynura, 411 Rhynostelis, 72t, 496, 497k, 517k, 518 Rhysoceratina, 73t, 614k, 617-618, xiv Rhysoxylocopa, 73t, 602k-603k, 605, 607, 608, 610 Rhyssomegachile, 72t, 557t, 559k-560k, 567, 579, 582 Rhyteucera, 724 Rivalisia, 404 Rivalisia metallica, 404 Robertsonella, 71t, 462, 465k-466k, 474 Robertsonella gleasoni, 474 Robustobombus, 75t, 793k, 795k, 801 Rophites, 77-78, 78t-81t, 323325, 325k, 327-328, 329, 329k, 656-657 Rophites (Carinorophites), 326 Rophites (Cyprirophites), 326 Rophites (Dentirophites), 326 Rophites (Flavodufourea), 69t, 325, 329, 329k Rophites (Merrophites), 326 Rophites (Microrophites), 326 Rophites (Rhophitoides), 69t, 329, 329k Rophites (Rophites s str.), 20, 69t, 83, 323, 325, 329, 329k Rophites algirus trispinosus, 113f Rophites atrata, 326 Rophites cana, 329 Rophites canus, 329 Rophites gusenleitneri, 329 Rophites quadridentatus, 326 Rophites quinquespinosus, 329 Rophites s str., 20, 69t, 323, 325, 329, 329k Rophitidae (Family), 78 Rophitinae (Subfamily), 20-21, 43, 61, 69t, 79, 83, 85, 95, 112, 127k, 319, 319f, 320, 320f, 321k, 322-331, 322f-323f, 330f, 335, 345, 633, 656-658 biogeography of, 107t of Eastern Hemisphere, 324k-325k of Western Hemisphere, 324k Rophitini (Tribe), 323 Rostratilapis, 391 Rostrohalictus, 377-378 Roussyana, fossil, 99t, 670-671, 831 Royanthidium, 72t, 493, 526, 526k, 527-528, 528 Rubicundobombus, 75t, 791f, 793k, 795k, 798, 801 Rubrihalictus, 376-377 Ruderariobombus, 802 Rufandrena, 68t, 251k, 254k, 265 Rufipedibombus, 75t, 792k, 794k, 801 Rufipedobombus, 801 Rufocinctobombus, 798 Rugalictus, 385 Ruginomia, 341 Ruizantheda, 70t, 354, 356, 359k-360k, 387, 388 Ruizantheda (Ruizanthedella), 388 Ruizantheda divaricata, 350f, 388 Ruizantheda divaricatus, 113f Ruizantheda mutabilis, 388 Ruizantheda proxima, 388 Ruizanthedella, 388 Ruiziella, 309 Ruzapis, 309 Ruziapis, 309 Sabulapis, 291 Sabulicola, 388 Sabulicola cirsii, 388 Sakagamilla, 823 Sakagamilla affabra, 823 Salemanthidium, 72t, 494, 514k, 515 Salix, 20 Salvia, 20 Samba, 70t, 414, 423, 424k, 425 Samba calcarata, 423f-424f, 425 Sambini (Tribe), 70t, 95, 416, 416k, 422, 423-425, 423f-424f, 424k biogeography of, 107t Santiago, 74t, 711, 713k, 715, 716k, 727, 733, 734, 895 Santiago mourei, 734 Saranthidium, 72t, 517, 518k, 520, 521 Sarocolletes, 67t, 147t, 148k, 151, 160 Sarogaster, 570 Saropoda, 748 Saropoda bombiformis, 743 Sayapis, 25, 72t, 439, 550-554, 555f, 556t-557t, 558k, 560k, 570, 573, 575, 579, 582-583, Plate Scaphandrena, 69t, 246k-247k, 250k-251k, 253k, 255k, 265 Scaptotrigona, 75t, 810, 812, 814k, 817, 819-822, 823, 826 Scaptotrigona barrocoloradensis, 810f Scaptotrigona mexicana, 809f-810f, 813f Scaura, 75t, 805, 812, 814, 822, 822-823, 822f, 822k, 824 Sceliphron (wasp), 463, 481 Schisthemisia, 74t, 755k, 758 Schizandrena, 265 Schizocoelioxys, 547 Schizomegachile, 72t, 557t, 565k-566k, 576, 583 Schmiedeknechtia, 73t, 653, 653k, 655, 655 Schmiedeknechtia (Cyrtopasites), 655 Schmiedeknechtia oraniensis, 655 Schmiedeknechtia verhoeffi, 655 Schoenherria, 608 Schönherria, 608 Schonnherria, 73t, 598, 598f, 599k-601k, 605-607, 608, 609 Schrottkya, 690 Schrottkyapis, 72t, 551-552, 556t-557t, 558k, 560k, 570, 575, 582, 583 Schwarziana, 75t, 807, 822k, 823 Schwarzula, 812, 822 Scirtetica, 721 Scirtetica antarctica, 721 Scirteticops, 721 Scitandrena, 69t, 252k, 254k, 265 Scoliandrena, 69t, 244k, 250k, 265-266 Scrapter, 67t, 112, 133, 136, 142, 171-172, 171f-172f, 220, 287, 664, 699 Scrapter albitarsis, 171 Scrapter armatipes, 172 Scrapter bicolor, 171 Scrapter brullei, 287 Scrapter calx, 171 Scrapter carinata, 231 Scrapter heterodoxus, 171f, 172, Plate Scrapter niger, 171 Scrapter nitidus, 171f Scrapterinae, 905 Scrapteroides, 287 Scrapteroides difformis, 287 Scrapteropsis, 69t, 244k, 250k, 259, 266 Scraptrinae (Subfamily), 136, 905 Scraptrini (Tribe), 67t, 90, 134, 136, 137k, 905 biogeography of, 107t Seladonia, 70t, 365f, 366, 367k, 368, 369, 370 Sellalictus, 70t, 371t, 373, 374k, 381-382 Semicarinella, 72t, 526k, 528 Senexibombus, 75t, 793, 793k, 796k, 799, 801 Separatobombus, 75t, 792k, 795k, 801 Serapis, 529 Serapis denticulatus, 529 Serapista, 72t, 491t, 493k, 495k, 529 Sericogaster, 68t, 223k, 232 Sericogaster fasciatus, 223f, 232 Index of Taxa Sericohalictus, 380 Series Apiformes, 64-65 Series Spheciformes, 64-65 Severanthidium, 71t, 505, 506k, 507-508, 508 Shornherria, 608 Sibericobombus, 75t Sibiricibombus, 801 Sibiricobombus, 792k, 794, 794k, 796, 796k, 801 Sigmatapis, 831 Silphium, 21 Simandrena, 69t, 246k-247k, 250k-252k, 255k, 257k258k, 266 Simanthedon, 74t, 708, 718k719k, 729, 734 Simanthedon linsleyi, 708f, 711f, 734 Simcolletes, 167 Simiceratina, 73t Simioceratina, 614k, 616, 618 Simpanurgus, 69t, 288k, 289 Sinomacropis, 70t, 430, 431, 431k Sinomelecta, 75t, 771, 771k, 774-775 Sinomelecta oreina, 774 Smeathhalictus, 377 Smithia, 231 Solamegilla, 749 Solenopalpa, 261 Solenopalpa fertoni, 261 Soliapis, fossil, 99t, 393 Sophrobombus, fossil, 99t, 674 Sophrobombus fatalis, fossil, 99t Soroeensibombus, 799 Spatularia, 213 Spatulariella, 68t, 198k, 198t, 199k-200k, 201f, 201k, 210, 213 Spatulariella helenae, 213 Spatunomia, 69t, 334, 334k, 343 Sphaerhylaeus, 68t, 188, 195f, 196k, 198t, 213-214 Sphecidae (Family) (wasps), 62-65, 65t Spheciformes (wasps), 3, 63, 65, 65t, 88f fossil, 100 Sphecinae (Subfamily) (wasps), 62-63 Sphecodes, 30-34, 31t-32t, 36, 70t, 77-78, 78t-81t, 141, 278, 319-320, 348, 352-354, 359k, 361k, 364, 382-383, 387-388, 388-389, 784 Sphecodes (Austrosphecodes), 388-389 Sphecodes (Callosphecodes), 388389 Sphecodes (Microsphecodes), 382 Sphecodes antennariae, 388 Sphecodes antipodes, 140 Sphecodes carolinus, 355f Sphecodes chilensis, 40f, 388 Sphecodes confertus, 388 Sphecodes cribrosa, 337 Sphecodes falcifer, 388 Sphecodes gibbus, 320f, 356f Sphecodes kathleenae, 382 Sphecodes monilicornis, 35f, 38f, 40f-41f, 360f Sphecodes ranunculi, 388 Sphecodes scotti, 365 Sphecodes stygius, 388 Sphecodes texana, 382 Sphecodidae (Subfamily), 78t Sphecodina (Subtribe), 320, 354 Sphecodinae (Subfamily), 79, 79t Sphecodium, 388 Sphecodium cressonii, 388 Sphecodogastra, 20, 70t, 320f, 348, 371t, 373k, 382 Sphecodopsis, 661k, 663, 664, 664k Sphecodopsis (Pseudodichroa), 73t, 663, 664, 664k Sphecodopsis (Pseudopasites), 664 Sphecodopsis (Sphecodopsis s str.), 73t, 664, 664k Sphecodopsis s str., 73t, 664, 664k Sphecodosoma, 322, 324k, 325, 329, 330, 330k Sphecodosoma (Michenerula), 69t, 328, 330, 330k Sphecodosoma (Sphecodosoma s str.), 69t, 330, 330k Sphecodosoma dicksoni, Sphecodosoma pratti, 320f, 323f, 330 Sphecodosoma s str., 69t, 330, 330k Sphecogaster, 217 Sphecoidea (superfamily) (wasps), 65 See also Apoidea Sphecophala, 344 Sphegocephala, 69t, 334k, 336, 338, 344 Sphegocephala philanthoides, 344 Sphegodes, 388 Sphex (wasps), 65 Sphex gibba, 388 Sphex signata, 212 Spinanthidiellum, 72t, 494, 525, 525k, 526, 526 Spinanthidium, 72t, 494, 525, 525k, 526 Spinanthidium (Spinanthidiellum), 526 Spinanthidium volkmanni, 114f Spinasternella, 489 Spinasternella mevatus, 489 Spinokelita, 73t, 640, 640k Spinolapis, 67t, 144, 147f, 147t, 148k, 157, 158f`, 159, 160 Spinoliella, 69t, 306, 307k, 309, 314, 314-315 Spinoliella (Claremontiella), 312 Spinoliella (Peniella), 314 Spinoliella euxantha, 312 Spinoliella nomadoides, 314f Spinopasites, 73t, 662k, 663, 665 Spinopasites spinotus, 665 Steganomus, 69t, 332, 334k, 344 Steganomus javanus, 344 Stegocephala, 344 Stelidae (Family), 79t Stelidae (Subfamily), 78t Stelidiella, 533 Stelidina, 533 Stelidinae (Subfamily), 79t Stelidini (Tribe), 79t Stelidium, 388, 533 Stelidium trypetinum, 533 Stelidomorpha, 72t, 495, 530, 530k, 532 Stelis, 510 Stelis, 33-34, 33t, 78t-81t, 116, 442t, 491t, 494, 495k496k, 502, 517, 522-524, 529-533, 530f, 530k, 537-538 Stelis (Dolichostelis), 72t, 512f, 517, 530, 530f, 531, 531f, 531k Stelis (Heterostelis), 72t, 530f, 530k-531k, 531, 532 Stelis (Hoplostelis), 784 Stelis (Leucostelis), 533 Stelis (Malanthidium), 72t, 497, 530, 530k, 532 Stelis (Pavostelis), 533 Stelis (Protostelis), 72t, 530, 530f, 530k, 531, 532 Stelis (Pseudostelis), 72t, 531k, 532, 532 Stelis (Stelidiella), 533 Stelis (Stelidina), 533 Stelis (Stelidomorpha), 72t, 495, 530, 530k, 532 Stelis (Stelis s str.), 72t, 530f, 530k-531k, 531, 532-533 Stelis abnormis, 517 Stelis annulata, 531 Stelis anthidioides, 531 Stelis australis, 530f Stelis bidentata, 540 Stelis freygessneri, 532 Stelis hemirhoda, 533 Stelis hurdi, 531 Stelis labiata, 533 Stelis lateralis, 533 Stelis laticincta, 512f, 531 Stelis louisae, 530f Stelis malaccensis, 497, 532 Stelis malaisei, 511 Stelis montana, 533 Stelis rubi, 497f, 530f, 532 Stelis rudbeckiarum, 531f Stelis s str., 72t, 530f, 530k-531k, 531, 532-533 Stelis signata, 532 Stelis simillima, 530 Stelis strandi, 532 Stellenigris, 72t, 586 Stellenigris vandeveldii, 586 Stelodides, 72t, 551-553, 556t-557t, 558k, 560k, 570, 582, 583 Stenandrena, 266 Stenanthidiellum, 71t, 511, 511-512, 511k Stenanthidium, 506-507 Stenocolletes, 69t, 138, 281, 284 Stenocolletes pictus, 273, 284 Stenodiscelis, 182 Stenoheriades, 71t, 105, 449, 449t, 450k-451k, 453, 461, 487, 489 Stenoheriades asiaticus, 451 Stenoheriades coelostoma, 451 Stenohesma, 68t, 223k, 232 Stenohesma nomadiformis, 232 Stenomegachile, 72t, 557t, 563k-564k, 568, 575, 583 Stenomelissa, 69t, 251, 256k, 258k, 264, 266 Stenosmia, 71t, 449t, 450, 450k-451k, 462, 489 Stenostylus, 289 Stenothisa, 651 949 Stenotritidae (Family), 18, 65t, 67t, 91-94, 123k, 125f, 126, 127k, 129-131, 129f, 130, 130k, 133, 173, 235, 316 biogeography of, 107t stenotritids See Stenotritidae (Family) Stenotritinae (Subfamily), 80t Stenotritus, 67t, 79t-80t, 93, 129, 130k, 131, 131, 133 Stenotritus (Ctenocolletes), 130 Stenotritus elegans, 131 Stenotritus nicholsoni, 130, 130f Stenotritus pubescens, 129f Stenoxylocopa, 73t, 598, 600k, 608-609 Stictonomia, 341 Stictonomia punctata, 341 Stilbeucera, 724-725 Stilbochlora, 70t, 408, 409, 409k Stilbomalopsis, 73t, 683k, 684 Stilpnosoma, 227 Stilpnosoma clypeata, 230 Stilpnosoma laevigatum, 227 Stilpnosoma semisericea, 232 stingless bees, 43 See also meliponine bees (Meliponini) Strandiella, 171 Strandiella longula, 171 Suandrena, 69t, 252k, 255k, 266 Subterraneibombus, 801 Subterraneobombus, 75t, 793k, 794, 796, 796k-797k, 801-802 Succinapis, fossil, 99t, 670-671, Plate 19 Succinapis goeleti, fossil, Plate 19 Succinapis proboscidia, fossil, 99t Sudila, 70t, 371t, 373, 374k, 378, 381f, 382 Sudila bidentata, 382 Sulcobombus, 798 Sundatrigona, 826 Svastra, 652, 709, 713, 714k, 716, 716k, 719, 719k, 727-730, 734-735, 734k Svastra (Anthedonia), 20, 74t, 718k, 720k, 734-735, 734k Svastra (Brachymelissodes), 74t, 734k, 735 Svastra (Epimelissodes), 74t, 715f, 734k, 735 Svastra (Idiomelissodes), 74t, 715f, 718f, 734k, 735 Svastra (Svastra s str.), 74t, 734, 734k, 735 Svastra bombilans, 735 Svastra duplocincta, 715f, 718f, 735 Svastra fulgurans, 728 Svastra obliqua, 19f, 37f, 41f, 709f, 715f Svastra s str., 74t, 734, 734k, 735 Svastra sapucacensis, 728 Svastra subapicalis, 735 Svastrides, 74t, 648, 714k, 716k, 727, 734, 735, 895 Svastrina, 74t, 111, 709, 713k, 716, 722, 733, 735-736 Svastrina anaroliata, 735 950 Svastrina subapicalis, 736 Svastropsis, 74t, 714k, 729k, 730 sweat bees, 12, 21, 319 See also Halictidae (Family); Halictinae Symmorpha, 774 Symphata, 101 Synalonia, 725 Synapis, 831 fossil, 99t Synepeolus, 651 Synhalonia, 74t, 120, 652, 708-710, 711f, 713f, 715f, 718k, 720k, 723-724, 724k, 725-726, 736-737, 739, 770 Synhalonia albicans, 682 Synocoelioxys, 72t, 546k, 550 Syntrichalonia, 74t, 718k, 720k, 736 Syntrichalonia exquisita, 715f Systropha, 20, 43, 69t, 77, 78t-81t, 92, 322, 324, 325k, 327, 330-331, 335, 656-657 Systropha (Systrophidia), 330 Systropha curvicornis, 125f, 319f, 322f Systropha ogilviei, 330 Systropha planidens, 322 Systrophidia, 330 Tachymelissodes, 74t, 730k731k, 732 Tachysphex (wasps), 165 Tachytes (wasps), 63f Taeniandrena, 69t, 247k, 250k, 253k-254k, 257k-258k, 266 Tanguticobombus, 799 Tapinorhina, 690 Tapinorrhina, 690 Tapinotapis, 692 Tapinotaspadini (Tribe), 671 Tapinotaspidini, 33t Tapinotaspidini (Tribe), 18, 35, 73t-74t, 104, 589k, 591k, 667, 668f, 674-675, 680, 687-693, 687f-688f, 688k-689k, 689f, 691f, 693f, 700 biogeography of, 108t Tapinotaspis, 74t, 81t, 687, 688k, 690, 692 Tapinotaspis (Tapinorhina), 690 Tapinotaspis chacabucensis, 692 Tapinotaspoides, 74t, 687-688, 689k, 690, 692-693 Tapinotaspoides tucumana, 674, 693f Tarsalia, 73t, 84, 685, 685k, 686 Tarsalia ancyliformis mediterranea, 685f Tarsalia hirtipes, 686 Tarsandrena, 69t, 253k, 255k256k, 266 Teleutemnesta, 705 Teleutemnesta fructifera, 705 Temnosoma, 32t, 70t, 79t-80t, 116, 348, 352, 394, 394k, 399k, 411, 411f Temnosoma (Temnosomula), 411 Temnosoma metallicum, 411 Temnosoma platensis, 411 Temnosoma smaragdinum, 349f, 395f-396f, 404f Index of Taxa Temnosoma sphaerocephala, 411 Temnosomula, 411 Teratognatha, 73t, 668f, 680, 681k, 682, 684 Teratognatha modesta, 682f, 684 Teratognathina (Subtribe), 681 Teratognathini (Tribe), 680 Tergosmia, 71t, 475-476, 477k, 478, 478k, 484-485, 486 Terrestribombus, 797 Tetrachlora, 404 Tetraglossula, 67t, 147t, 148k, 153-154, 158, 158f, 160, 163 Tetraglossula deltivaga, 160 Tetragona, 75t, 808, 812, 820f, 824-826, 825k, 827, 827-828 Tetragonilla, 826 Tetragonisca, 75t, 807-808, 825, 825k, 826-827, 828, 829 Tetragonula, 803, 805, 824, 826 Tetralonia, 34, 165, 680, 708, 720k, 721, 723, 725-726, 736, 736-737, 736k Tetralonia (Eucara), 74t, 736, 736f, 736k, 737, 737 Tetralonia (Tetralonia s str.), 74t, 736k, 737, 737 Tetralonia (Thygatina), 74t, 106, 736-737, 736k, 737 Tetralonia bipunctata, 730 Tetralonia decorata, 729 Tetralonia duckei, 733 Tetralonia fervens, 733 Tetralonia gayi, 721 Tetralonia gilva, 721 Tetralonia hoozana, 775 Tetralonia leucocephala, 733 Tetralonia macrognatha, 736f Tetralonia malvae, 20, 736-737 Tetralonia melanura, 735 Tetralonia melectoides, 726 Tetralonia melonis, 733 Tetralonia mimetica, 728 Tetralonia mirabilis, 740 Tetralonia nigriceps, 738 Tetralonia niveata, 682 Tetralonia s str., 74t, 736k, 737, 737 Tetralonia spiniventris, 728 Tetralonia tarsata, 750-751 Tetralonia terminata, 739 Tetraloniella, 20, 120, 545, 573, 652, 662, 708, 710, 719k720k, 723-724, 726, 735736, 737-739, 738k Tetraloniella (Glazunovia), 74t, 738, 738k Tetraloniella (Loxoptilus), 74t, 711f, 718k, 720k, 737, 738, 738k Tetraloniella (Pectinapis), 74t, 711f, 718f, 718k, 720k, 737, 738, 738k Tetraloniella (Tetraloniella s str.), 74t, 711f, 717f, 736f, 737, 738-739, 738k Tetraloniella albata, 711f, 716f717f Tetraloniella auricauda, 738 Tetraloniella dentata, 739 Tetraloniella fasciata, 738 Tetraloniella graja, 737 Tetraloniella intermedia, 737 Tetraloniella junodi, 736f Tetraloniella longifellator, 711f Tetraloniella mastrucata, 737 Tetraloniella nigriceps, 738 Tetraloniella ruficornis, 723 Tetraloniella s str., 74t, 711f, 717f, 736f, 737, 738-739, 738k Tetralonioidella, 75t, 589, 770, 771k, 774, 775, 776 Tetranthidium, 506-507 Tetrapaedia, 695 Tetrapedia, 33t, 74t, 80t-81t, 116, 589, 691, 694, 694f, 694k, 695-696 Tetrapedia clypeata, 694f, 696 Tetrapedia diversipes, 695, 695f Tetrapedia globulosa, 692 Tetrapedia goeldiana, 690 Tetrapedia haeckeli, 692 Tetrapedia iheringii, 692 Tetrapedia muelleri, 690 Tetrapedia ornata, 696 Tetrapedia peckoltii, 694f Tetrapedia pygmaea, 692 Tetrapedia serraticornis, 692 Tetrapediini (Tribe), 18, 33t, 74t, 81, 104, 127, 589k, 667, 668f, 671, 694-696, 694f, 694k, 695f biogeography of, 108t Tetrapedium, 695 Tetraperdita, 303 Tetrigona, 826 Thalestria, 73t, 646-647, 647k, 648, 651, 651 Thalestria smaragdina, 651 Thalestria spinosa, 651 Thalestriina (Subtribe), 647 Thaumastombus, fossil, 99t, 670-671 Thaumastombus andreniformis, fossil, 99t Thaumatosoma, 72t, 552, 554f, 555, 557t, 565k-566k, 583-584 Thaumatosoma burmanicum, 488 Thaumatosoma duboulaii, 583 Thaumatosoma moniliferum, 487 Thectochlora, 70t, 396k, 399k, 411 Thectochlora alaris, 411 Thladiantha, 18 Thoracobombus, 30, 31t, 75t, 789, 793, 793k, 796k, 799, 802, 802 Thrausmus, 388-389 Thrausmus grandidieri, 388 Thrinchostoma, 43, 106, 348, 354, 356, 361k, 383, 385f, 390-392, 390k Thrinchostoma (Diagonozus), 70t, 390-391, 390f, 390k Thrinchostoma (Eothrincostoma), 70t, 383, 385f, 390k, 391 Thrinchostoma (Thrinchostoma s str.), 70t, 385f, 390, 390k, 391-392 Thrinchostoma afasciatum, 385f Thrinchostoma lettowvorbecki, 390f Thrinchostoma productum, 385f, 391 Thrinchostoma renitantely, 391 Thrinchostoma s str., 70t, 385f, 390, 390k, 391-392 Thrincohalictus, 70t, 354, 361k, 389-390 Thrincohalictus prognathus, 390 Thrincostoma, 391 Thrincostoma serricorne, 391 Thrincostomina (Subtribe), 354, 390 Thygater, 44, 708-710, 711f, 711k, 715k, 717k, 719k, 721, 729, 739-740, 739k, 740 Thygater (Nectarodiaeta), 74t, 710, 739, 739k, 740 Thygater (Thygater s str.), 74t, 739-740, 739k Thygater analis, 709f-711f, 715 Thygater s str., 74t, 739-740, 739k Thygatina, 74t, 106, 736-737, 736k, 737, 737 Thygatina fumida, 737 Thynnus abdominalis, 516 Thyreomelecta, 75t, 772k, 775 Thyreomelecta kirghisia, 775 Thyreothremma, 732 Thyreothremma paraguayensis, 732 Thyreothremma rhopalocera, 732 Thyreotremata, 732 Thyreus, 75t, 340, 770-771, 771k, 775, 775-776, Plate 12 Thyreus histrionicus, Plate 12 Thyreus ramosus, 765f Thysandrena, 69t, 247k, 251k, 253k, 255k, 266 Tiphia brevicornis, 656 Titusella, 454 Titusella pronitens, 454 Tmetocoelia, 408 Torocolletes, 67t, 147k, 156, 160 Toromelissa, 74t, 701k, 704, 706 Toromelissa nemaglossa, 706 Torridapis, 72t, 543, 546f, 547k, 549, 550 Townsendiella, 73t, 659 Townsendiella (Eremopasites), 659 Townsendiella (Xeropasites), 659 Townsendiella californica, 634f, 658f, 659, 659f Townsendiella pulchra, 636f, 659 Townsendiella rufiventris, 659 Townsendiellini (Tribe), 73t, 590k, 656, 659, 660 biogeography of, 108t Toxeriades, 71t, 459k, 461 Trachandrena, 69t, 244k, 250k, 252k, 254k, 256k, 258k, 259, 266, 266 Trachina, 74t, 753-755, 755k, 758, 759f, 778f, 781 Trachusa, 20, 79t, 111, 491, 491t, 494k-495k, 497k, 507, 509-510, 515, 530532, 533-537, 533k534k, 537, 573 Trachusa (Archianthidium), 72t, 533, 533k, 534-535, 538 Trachusa (Congotrachusa), 72t, 533, 534k, 535 Trachusa (Heteranthidium), 72t, 509, 531, 533, 534f, 534k, 535, 536-537, Plate Index of Taxa Trachusa (Legnanthidium), 72t, 534, 534k, 535, 537-538 Trachusa (Massanthidium), 72t, 533, 534k, 535 Trachusa (Metatrachusa), 72t, 533, 534k, 535-536, 536 Trachusa (Orientotrachusa), 527 Trachusa (Orthanthidium), 72t, 533, 534k, 536, 536 Trachusa (Paraanthidium), 72t, 510, 524, 534k, 535, 536 Trachusa (Trachusa s str.), 72t, 533, 533k, 536, 545, 578 Trachusa (Trachusomimus), 72t, 495f, 531, 533, 534k, 536-537 Trachusa (Ulanthidium), 72t, 492f, 534k, 535, 537, 749 Trachusa aquifilum, 536 Trachusa bequaerti, 534 Trachusa byssina, 536 Trachusa catinula, 531 Trachusa cincta, 540 Trachusa cordaticeps, Plate Trachusa formosana, 536 Trachusa gummifera, 495f Trachusa interdisciplinaris, 537 Trachusa interrupta, 536 Trachusa larreae, 509 Trachusa longicornis, 536 Trachusa occidentalis, 535 Trachusa orientalis, 535 Trachusa ovata, 536 Trachusa pendleburyi, 535 Trachusa perdita, 536 Trachusa pueblana, 492f Trachusa ridingsii, 535 Trachusa s str., 72t, 533, 533k, 536, 545, 578 Trachusa schoutedeni, 535 Trachusa serratulae, 536 Trachusinae (Subfamily), 79t Trachusoides, 72t, 442t, 443, 491t, 494k, 509, 537 Trachusoides simplex, 537 Trachusomimus, 72t, 495f, 531, 533, 534k, 536-537 Trachyrhiza, 68t, 216k, 218 Trianthidiellum, 512 Trianthidium, 528 Trichanthidiodes, 72t, 523k, 524 Trichanthidium, 72t, 523, 523k, 524, 527 Trichchostoma, 391 Trichinosmia, 71t, 479k, 483, 486 Trichocentris, 757 Trichocerapis, 711k, 715k, 727, 729, 740, 740k Trichocerapis (Dithygater), 74t, 740, 740k Trichocerapis (Trichocerapis s str.), 74t, 712f, 740, 740k Trichocerapis mirabilis, 712f Trichocerapis s str., 74t, 712f, 740, 740k Trichocerapis seabrai, 740 Trichocolletes, 139k, 144-145, 161, 164-165, 165-166, 166k Trichocolletes (Callocolletes), 67t, 166, 166k Trichocolletes (Trichocolletes s str.), 67t, 166, 166k Trichocolletes hackeri, 166 Trichocolletes pulcherrimus, 166 Trichocolletes s str., 67t, 166, 166k Trichocolletes venustus, 147f, 162f Tricholiphanthus, 69t, 276f, 277-278, 277k Trichonomada, 73t, 112, 639, 639k, 640, 641 Trichonomada roigella, 635f, 641 Trichopasites, 655 Trichorhopalomelissa, 337 Trichostoma, 391 Trichota, 208 Trichothurgus, 71t, 444-445, 445k, 446, 447 Trichothurgus dubius, 444f Trichothurgus wagenknechti, 444f Trichotosmia, 490 Trichotrigona, 75t, 112, 805, 812, 813k, 823-824, 824 Trichotrigona extranea, 823-824 Trichurochile, 72t, 555, 557, 557t, 559k-560k, 584 Tricornibombus, 75t, 793k, 796k, 802 Tridentosmia, 467, 472 Triepeolus, 35, 42, 73t, 639f, 646, 646f, 647, 647f, 648, 648k, 651-652, 653 Triepeolus (Synepeolus), 651 Triepeolus concavus, 37f, 39f, 41f, 647f Triepeolus epeolurus, 652 Triepeolus grandis, 636f Triepeolus insolitus, 651 Triepeolus minimus, 649 Triepeolus roni, 647 Triepeolus texanus, 647f Triepeolus tristris, 652 Triepeolus ventralis, 652 Triepeolus verbesinae, 646f Triepicharis, 74t, 754, 760k, 761 Trigona, 3, 12, 21-22, 28-29, 42, 60, 103, 109, 503504, 587, 671, 687, 691, 695, 803, 807-812, 813k, Trigona (cont’d.) 815, 815k, 816-817, 820, 824, 824-829, 906 fossil, 809 Indo-Australian, 825k neotropical, 825k Trigona (Cephalotrigona), 815 Trigona (Duckeola), 75t, 820f, 824, 825, 825k, 826-827 Trigona (Frieseomelitta), 75t, 804, 807, 820f, 823-825, 825-826, 825k, 826-828 Trigona (Geotrigona), 75t, 812, 821, 825k, 826, 826, 829 Trigona (Heterotrigona), 75t, 804-806, 807f, 824-825, 825k, 826, 826-829 Trigona (Homotrigona), 75t, 825k, 826, 826-827, 827 Trigona (Hypotrigona), 816 Trigona (Lepidotrigona), 75t, 812, 822, 824, 825k, 827, 827 Trigona (Lestrimelitta), 816 Trigona (Lophotrigona), 826 Trigona (Meliponula), 819 Trigona (Odontotrigona), 826 Trigona (Oxytrigona), 820 Trigona (Papuatrigona), 75t, 812, 822, 824, 825k, 827 Trigona (Parapartamona), 821 Trigona (Paratrigona), 820 Trigona (Partamona), 821 Trigona (Patera), 821 Trigona (Platytrigona), 826 Trigona (Plebeia), 822 Trigona (Proplebeia), fossil, 99t, 812 Trigona (Ptilotrigona), 827 Trigona (Scaptotrigona), 823 Trigona (Scaura), 822 Trigona (Schwarziana), 823 Trigona (Sundatrigona), 826 Trigona (Tetragona), 75t, 820f, 824-826, 825k, 827, 827-828 Trigona (Tetragonisca), 75t, 807, 825, 825k, 826-827, 828, 829 Trigona (Tetragonula), 824, 826 Trigona (Trigona s str.), 75t, 787f, 810-811, 813f, 820821, 825k, 826, 828, 828829, Plate Trigona amalthea, 813f Trigona angustula, 828 Trigona apicalis, 826 Trigona atripes, 826 Trigona beccarii, 818 Trigona bottegoi, 817 Trigona butteli, 819 Trigona canifrons, 804, 824-826 Trigona capitata, 815 Trigona carbonaria, 100, 807f, 824 Trigona cassiae, 815 Trigona cilipes, 787f, 828-829 Trigona clavipes, 820f Trigona corvina, 828 Trigona dominicana, fossil, 99t Trigona duckei, 829 Trigona elongata, 827 Trigona eocenica, fossil, 99t Trigona ferricauda, Plate Trigona fimbriata, 826-827 Trigona flaveola mediorufa, 820 Trigona flaviventris, 824 Trigona fulviventris, 828 Trigona fuscobalteata, 806 Trigona genalis, 827 Trigona ghilianii, 820f, 825 Trigona gribodoi, 816 Trigona haematoptera, 826 Trigona heideri, 827 Trigona hockingsi, 824-825 Trigona huberi, 825 Trigona hypogea, 828-829 Trigona iridipennis, 824, 826 Trigona itama, 826-827 Trigona jaty, 828 Trigona keyensis, 824 Trigona latitarsis, 822 Trigona lendliana, 818 Trigona limao, 816 Trigona longicornis, 829 Trigona longitarsis, 829 Trigona lurida, 824, 827 Trigona madecassa, 817 Trigona mombuca, 826 Trigona moorei, 826 Trigona mosquito, 822 Trigona muelleri, 829 Trigona nebulata, 818 951 Trigona necrophaga, 828 Trigona nitidiventris, 827 Trigona paranigra, 824 Trigona pendleburyi, 821 Trigona planifrons, 824, 826 Trigona postica, 823 Trigona prisca, fossil, 98t, 100t Trigona s str., 75t, 787f, 810811, 813f, 820-821, 825k, 826, 828, 828829, Plate Trigona savannensis, 820f Trigona silvestrii, 825 Trigona staudingeri, 816 Trigona terminata, 824 Trigona thoracica, 826 Trigona timida, 822 Trigona trochanterica, 827 Trigona varia, 807 Trigona williana, Plate Trigona zonata, 821 Trigonella, 826 Trigonisca, 75t, 805, 807-810, 812, 813k, 817, 821, 825, 829 Trigonisca buyssoni, 804f, 810f Trigonisca longicornis, 809f Trigonisca longitarsis, 813f, 829 Trigonisca muelleri, 829 Trigonopedia, 74t, 687, 688f, 689k, 693 Trigonopedia oligotricha, 13f, 693, 693f Trilia, 326-328 Trinchostoma, 391 Trinomia, 69t, 335, 336k, 338, 338 Triopasites, 73t, 639, 639k, 641-642 Triopasites penniger, 642f Triopasites timberlakei, 641 Troandrena, 69t, 253k-254k, 266 Tropandrena, 262 Trophocleptria, 647, 647f, 648650, 650k, 653 Trophocleptria variolosa, 649, 653 Tropidopedia, 74t, 691k, 692 Tropirhopalomelissa, 337 Truncandrena, 265 Trypetes, 460 Trypetes productus, 460 Trypetini (Tribe), 79t, 448 Trypetoidea, 79t Trypoxylon (wasp), 193, 207 Trypoxylonini (Tribe) (wasps), 63 Tuberanthidium, 72t, 492f, 526, 526k, 527, 528 Tumidihesma, 68t, 222-224, 224k, 226-227, 232-233 Tumidihesma tridentata, 232 Turkanthidium, 71t, 506k, 507, 508 Turnerella, 228f, 229 Turnerella gilberti, 229 Tylandrena, 69t, 244k, 249k, 266 Tylanthidium, 72t, 521, 521k Tylanthidium tuberigaster, 521 Tylomegachile, 72t, 551, 555, 557, 557t, 559k-560k, 584 Tytthalictus, 70t, 367k, 369 Tyttheriades, 71t, 459k, 461 Ulandrena, 69t, 252k, 255k, 266 952 Ulanthidium, 72t, 492f, 534k, 535, 537, 749 Ulanthidium (Olmecanthidium), 537 Ulanthidium interdisciplinaris, 537 Ulanthidium mitchelli, 537 Ulugombakia, 74t, 720, 740 Ulugombakia platytarsus, 740 Uncobombus, 801 Urocolletes, 67t, 111, 144, 145f, 147t, 149k, 160-161 Urohalictus, 70t, 320-321, 348, 354, 361, 362k, 392 Urohalictus lieftincki, 390f391f, 392 Uromonia, 427k, 428, 428k Uromonia (Nesomonia), 70t, 427, 428, 428k Uromonia (Uromonia s str.), 43, 70t, 428, 428k Uromonia flaviventris, 428 Uromonia s str., 43, 70t, 428, 428k Uromonia stagei, 427f, 428 Uruguay, fossil, 100t, 101 Vachalius, 400 Varroa (mites), Verbena, 20 Verbenapis, 20, 69t, 308f, 309, 309k-310k, 313-314 Vespa concinna, 214 Vespa pratensis, 212 Vestitohalictus, 70t, 366, 367k, 369, 369-370, 372 Viereckella, 675 Viereckella obscura, 675 Viridosmia, 485 Volucellobombus, 801 Wagenknechtia, 74t, 754, 755k756k, 757, 758 Wainia, 449k, 449t, 451k, 487, 489-490, 490k Wainia (Caposmia), 71t, 489, 490, 490k Wainia (Trichotosmia), 490 Wainia (Wainia s str.), 71t, 490, 490k Wainia (Wainiella), 71t, 451k, 489, 490, 490k Wainia albobarbata, 490 Wainia algoensis, 451, 489-490 Wainia braunsi, 490 Wainia consimilis, 490 Wainia elizabethae, 451, 490 Wainia eremoplana, 490 Wainia lonavlae, 490 Wainia s str., 71t, 490, 490k Wainia sakaniensis, 490 Wainiella, 71t, 451k, 489, 490, 490k Warnckeia, 501 Willinkapis, 67t, 174, 174k, 175 Willinkella, 578 Xanthandrena, 261 Xanthemisia, 74t, 753-755, 755k-756k, 757, 758 Xanthepicharis, 761 Xanthesma, 133, 220-221, 221f, 222, 224k, 226, 230, 233-234, 233k Xanthesma (Argohesma), 68t, 233, 233k Index of Taxa Xanthesma (Chaetohesma), 68t, 233, 233k Xanthesma (Xanthesma s str.), 68t, 233, 233k, 234 Xanthesma (Xenohesma), 68t, 114, 233, 233k, 234 Xanthesma baringa, 233 Xanthesma foveolata, 233 Xanthesma furcifera, 221f, 223f, 233 Xanthesma infuscata, 233 Xanthesma isae, 233 Xanthesma levis, 233 Xanthesma s str., 68t, 233, 233k, 234 Xanthesma striolata, 233 Xanthidium, 644 Xanthoceratina, 73t, 613k, 618 Xanthocotelles, 67t, 169, 169k, 170 Xanthocotelles adesmiae, 170 Xanthopedia, 74t, 687, 691k, 692 Xanthosarus, 72t, 551f, 555, 555f, 557t, 559, 559k, 561k-562k, 580, 584585, 585f Xanthosarus s str., 585 Xanthosmia, 482 Xenanthidium, 71t, 499k, 501-502 Xenanthidium biserratum, 501 Xenochalicodoma, 569-570 Xenochilicola, 67t, 181, 181k, 185, 185 Xenochilicola mamigna, 185 Xenochlora, 70t, 395k, 398, 408, 410, 412 Xenochlora ianthina, 412 Xenochlora ochrosterna, 412 Xenoglossa, 114, 652, 708-709, 717k, 719k, 722, 733, 736, 740-741, 741k Xenoglossa (Eoxenoglossa), 74t, 722, 741, 741k Xenoglossa (Xenoglossa s str.), 74t, 741, 741k Xenoglossa angustior, Plate 11 Xenoglossa fulva, 741 Xenoglossa ipomoeae, 722 Xenoglossa kansensis, 713f Xenoglossa s str., 74t, 741, 741k Xenoglossa strenua, 717f Xenoglossa utahensis, 733 Xenoglossodes, 708, 737-739 Xenohesma, 68t, 114, 221, 233, 233k, 234 Xenohylaeus, 68t, 195k, 197f, 198t, 213-214, 214 Xenoliphanthus, 69t, 276f, 276k-277k, 278 Xenomegachile, 581 Xenopanurgus, 279-280 Xenopanurgus readioi, 280 Xenopeponapis, 733 Xenorhiza, 68t, 189k-190k, 215, 219 Xenorhiza (Papuanorhiza), 219 Xenorhiza krombeini, 21 Xenostelis, 33t, 72t, 491t, 495k, 537 Xenostelis polychroma, 537 Xenoxylocopa, 73t, 603k-604k, 604, 604k, 609 Xeralictoides, 70t, 419, 419k, 421 Xeralictus, 69t, 322-324, 324k, 328, 331, 348, 421 Xeralictus timberlakei, 330f, 331 Xerammobates, 73t, 662-663, 662k, 663 Xerocentris, 74t, 753-754, 755k-756k, 756-757, 758-759 Xerocoelioxys, 72t, 545f, 546k, 550-551 Xeroheriades, 71t, 448-449, 449t, 452k, 490 Xeroheriades micheneri, 490 Xeromacrotera, 69t, 300, 301k, 305 Xeromegachile, 578, 585 Xeromelecta, 8, 771k, 776, 776k Xeromelecta (Melectomorpha), 75t, 765f, 770, 770f-771f, 772, 775f, 776, 776, 776k Xeromelecta (Nesomelecta), 75t, 770f, 776, 776, 776k Xeromelecta (Xeromelecta s str.), 75t, 776, 776, 776k Xeromelecta alayoi, 770f Xeromelecta californica, 116f, 589f, 765f, 770f-771f, 775f Xeromelecta larreae, 776 Xeromelecta pantalon, 776 Xeromelecta s str., 75t, 776, 776, 776k Xeromelecta tibialis, 776 Xeromelissa, 67t, 80t, 110, 181, 181k, 185, 186, 905 Xeromelissa wilmattae, 110, 185f, 186 Xeromelissinae (Subfamily), 67t, 85, 92, 101, 116, 118, 127k, 133-134, 135k, 159, 171, 180-186, 180k-181k, 220, 895, 905 Xeromelissini (Tribe), 110, 180, 185f biogeography of, 107t Xeropasites, 659 Xeropeponapis, 733 Xerophasma, 69t, 299, 300k, 305, 305f Xerophasma bequaerti, 305 Xerosmia, 473-474 Xilocopa, 609 Xiphandrena, 69t, 245k, 249k, 266-267 Xyelidae, 101 Xylocopa, 6, 16, 49, 52, 77, 77t-80t, 81, 81t, 97, 106, 112, 114, 545, 552-553, 569, 592, 595-597, 597f, 598-610, 598f of Eastern Hemisphere, 601k-604k of Western Hemisphere, 599k-601k Xylocopa (Acroxylocopa), 610 Xylocopa (Afroxylocopa), 606 Xylocopa (Alloxylocopa), 73t, 601, 602k-603k, 604, 604k Xylocopa (Apoxylocopa), 610 Xylocopa (Audinetia), 606 Xylocopa (Biluna), 73t, 598, 602k-603k, 604-605, 608 Xylocopa (Bomboixylocopa), 73t, 601k-602k, 604k, 605 Xylocopa (Calloxylocopa), 609 Xylocopa (Cirroxylocopa), 73t, 599k, 601k, 605 Xylocopa (Copoxyla), 73t, 598, 602k, 604k, 605 Xylocopa (Ctenopoda), 605 Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa), 73t, 601k, 603k, 605, 609 Xylocopa (Cyphoxylocopa), 606 Xylocopa (Dasyxylocopa), 73t, 600k-601k, 605, 609 Xylocopa (Diaxylocopa), 73t, 599k, 601k, 605, 607 Xylocopa (Dinoxylocopa), 610 Xylocopa (Eoxylocopa), 606 Xylocopa (Epixylocopa), 609 Xylocopa (Euxylocopa), 610 Xylocopa (Gnathoxylocopa), 73t, 602k-603k, 605-606 Xylocopa (Hoplitocopa), 597f, 606 Xylocopa (Hoploxylocopa), 606 Xylocopa (Ioxylocopa), 608 Xylocopa (Koptortosoma), 73t, 597-598, 598f, 602k-604k, 606, 608609, Plate 10 Xylocopa (Lestis), 73t, 598f, 601k, 604k, 606 Xylocopa (Lieftinckella), 606 Xylocopa (Maaiana), 73t, 602k-603k, 606, 607 Xylocopa (Maiella), 606 Xylocopa (Megaxylocopa), 607 Xylocopa (Mesotrichia), 73t, 597f, 598, 602k-604k, 606-607, 608-609 Xylocopa (Mimoxylocopa), 605 Xylocopa (Monoxylocopa), 73t, 599k, 601k, 605, 607 Xylocopa (Nanoxylocopa), 73t, 598, 599k, 601k, 607, 609 Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa), 73t, 598, 598f, 600k, 601, 605, 607, 609 Xylocopa (Nodula), 73t, 596, 602k, 603, 603k, 605606, 607, 608, 610 Xylocopa (Notoxylocopa), 73t, 596f-597f, 600k, 607, 607f Xylocopa (Nyctomelitta), 73t, 601k, 603k, 607 Xylocopa (Orbitella), 606 Xylocopa (Oxyxylocopa), 606 Xylocopa (Perixylocopa), 610 Xylocopa (Platynopoda), 606-607 Xylocopa (Prosopoxylocopa), 73t, 601k, 604k, 608, 610 Xylocopa (Proxylocopa), 73t, 592, 597, 597f, 598, 601k, 604k, 608 Xylocopa (Rhysoxylocopa), 73t, 602k-603k, 605, 607, 608, 610 Xylocopa (Schoenherria), 608 Xylocopa (Schonnherria), 73t, 598, 598f, 599k-601k, 605-607 Xylocopa (Schönherria), 608 Xylocopa (Schonnherria), 608, 609 Xylocopa (Stenoxylocopa), 73t, 598, 600k, 608-609 Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa), 73t, 603k-604k, 604, 604k, 609 Xylocopa (Xylocopa s str.), 73t, 602k, 604k, 609 Index of Taxa Xylocopa (Xylocopina), 608-609 Xylocopa (Xylocopoda), 73t, 599k, 601k, 609 Xylocopa (Xylocopoides), 73t, 592, 597f, 600k, 609 Xylocopa (Xylocopsis), 73t, 600k, 607, 609 Xylocopa (Xylocospila), 608 Xylocopa (Xylomelissa), 73t, 602k-604k, 604-605, 607-608, 609-610 Xylocopa (Zonohirsuta), 73t, 602k, 604k, 610 Xylocopa abbreviata, 607 Xylocopa absurdipes, 610 Xylocopa acutipennis, 606-607 Xylocopa amethystina, 596 Xylocopa appendiculata, 604 Xylocopa artifex, 608 Xylocopa assimilis, 597f, 606607 Xylocopa augusti, 593f Xylocopa bambusae, 598, 608 Xylocopa bentoni, 606 Xylocopa bimaculata, 605 Xylocopa bomboides, 605 Xylocopa bombylans, 598f Xylocopa brasilianorum, 607 Xylocopa caffra, 598f, Plate 10 Xylocopa californica, 10, 597f Xylocopa cantabrita, 608 Xylocopa capitata, 610 Xylocopa carinata, 609 Xylocopa chrysopoda, 608 Xylocopa ciliata, 598, 607 Xylocopa collaris, 610 Xylocopa confusa, 606 Xylocopa cyanescens, 598, 605 Xylocopa darwini, 105 Xylocopa dejeanii, 610 Xylocopa elegans, 609 Xylocopa erythrina, 610 Xylocopa flavorufa, 597f Xylocopa fraudulenta, 610 Xylocopa funesta, 609 Xylocopa hottentotta, 609 Xylocopa io, 610 Xylocopa iris, 598 Xylocopa lugubris, 610 Xylocopa micans, 598f, 608 Xylocopa mirabilis, 608 Xylocopa muraria, 570, 578 Xylocopa nasalis, 604 Xylocopa nigrita, 598f Xylocopa nitidiventris, 597f, 608 Xylocopa ocularis, 606 Xylocopa olivieri, 608 Xylocopa orpifex, 53f, 115f Xylocopa pubescens, 598 Xylocopa ruficollis, 608-609 Xylocopa rufipes, 605 Xylocopa rufitarsis, 609 Xylocopa s str., 73t, 602k, 604k, 609 Xylocopa sicheli, 605-606 Xylocopa smithii, 606 Xylocopa tabaniformis, 596f-597f, 607, 607f Xylocopa tabaniformis orpifex, 96f, 597f, 599f Xylocopa tenuata, 609 Xylocopa truxali, 605 Xylocopa varipes, 606 Xylocopa varipuncta, 9, 598f Xylocopa vestita, 605 Xylocopa virginica, 10-11, 599f Xylocopa watmoughi, 598f Xylocopidae (Family), 78, 78t79t, 81, 97 Xylocopidae (Subfamily), 78t Xylocopina, 600k, 608-609 Xylocopinae (Subfamily), 8, 12-13, 15, 24, 31t, 44, 72t-73t, 80t, 81, 90, 97, 110, 127, 434, 587-588, 588k, 592-594, 592k594k, 593f, 595-596, 667, 668f, 671, Plate biogeography of, 107t Xylocopini (Tribe), 6, 28, 34, 61, 72t-73t, 80t, 81, 101, 104, 111, 587, 588k, 592, 592k, 596-610, 611, 620, 623, Plate 10 biogeography of, 107t Xylocopites (Tribe), 78t Xylocopoda, 73t, 599k, 601k, 609 Xylocopoides, 73t, 592, 597f, 600k, 609 Xylocopsis, 73t, 600k, 607, 609 Xylocospila, 608 Xylomelissa, 73t, 602k-604k, 604-605, 607-608, 609610 Zacesta, 70t, 419k-420k, 421, 659 953 Zacesta rufipes, 421 Zacosmia, 75t, 111, 770, 771k, 773, 777 Zacosmia maculata, 771f Zadontomerus, 73t, 603f, 611f, 613, 613f, 614k, 616, 618, 618 Zalygus, 228 Zalygus cornutus, 228 Zaodontomerus, 618 Zaperdita, 303 Zarhiopalea, 68t, 216k, 218 Zebramegilla, 743 Zikanapis, 67t, 106, 174, 174k, 175 Zikanapis (Crawfordapis), 175 Zikanapis (Foersterapis), 175 Zikanapis foersteri, 175 Zikaniella, 70t, 365k, 366 Zikaniella crassiceps, 366 Zizopanurgus, 294 Zonalictus, 70t, 361-362, 383384, 384k, 385f, 386 Zonalonia, 728 Zonamegilla, 743, Plate 13 Zonandrena, 69t, 253k, 255k, 267 Zonohalonia, 728 Zonohirsuta, 73t, 602k, 604k, 610 Zonolonia, 728 Zonomegachile, 72t, 557t, 558, 560k, 585-586 Zosteranthidium, 71t, 492, 498k, 499, 502 ... to the First Edition In some ways this may seem the wrong time to write on the systematics of the bees of the world, the core topic of this book Morphological information on adults and larvae of. .. bees other than Apis and concerned about the negative and awkward expression “non-Apis bees would well to call themselves melittologists and their field of study melittology THE BEES OF THE WORLD. .. on the face of the male, but not on that of the female In mating attempts males usually approach females from above or behind, so that neither sex has good views of the face of the other Therefore
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