Biology of marine birds

741 97 0
  • Loading ...
    Loading ...
    Loading ...

Tài liệu hạn chế xem trước, để xem đầy đủ mời bạn chọn Tải xuống

Tài liệu liên quan

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 09/05/2019, 08:11

Biology of Marine Birds 9882_frame_FM Page Tuesday, July 3, 2001 3:48 PM COVER PHOTOGRAPHS Front Cover (clockwise from top right) Red-tailed Tropicbird (R.W Schreiber) Great Frigatebird (R.W Schreiber) Laysan Albatross — Adult protecting young chick (R.W and E.A Schreiber) Back Cover (top to bottom) Shy albatrosses (H Weimerskirch) White tern with fish in its bill (E.A Schreiber) Masked Booby adult with chick (R.W and E.A Schreiber) Jackass Penguin pair with young (R.W and E.A Schreiber) Biology of Marine Birds Edited by E A Schreiber Joanna Burger CRC Marine Biology SERIES Peter L Lutz, Editor CRC PR E S S Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C 9882_frame_FM Page Tuesday, July 3, 2001 9:39 AM Senior Editor: John Sulzycki Project Editor: Naomi Lynch Marketing Manager: Carolyn Spence Cover Designer: Shayna Murry Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Biology of marine birds / edited by Elizabeth A Schreiber and Joanna Burger p cm — (CRC marine biology) Includes bibliographical references (p ) ISBN 0-8493-9882-7 (alk paper) Sea birds I Schreiber, Elizabeth Anne II Burger, Joanna III Series QL673 B53 2001 598.177—dc21 2001025898 CIP This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated A wide variety of references are listed Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher All rights reserved Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the personal or internal use of specific clients, may be granted by CRC Press LLC, provided that $1.50 per page photocopied is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is ISBN 0-8493-9882-7/01/$0.00+$1.50 The fee is subject to change without notice For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431 Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com © 2002 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-9882-7 Library of Congress Card Number 2001025898 Printed in the United States of America Printed on acid-free paper 9882_frame_FM Page Tuesday, July 3, 2001 9:39 AM Dedication for Ralph W Schreiber, Gary A Schenk, and Michael Gochfeld For a lifetime of challenges, collaboration, stimulating discussions, and companionable fieldwork with the seabirds we love 9882_frame_FM Page Tuesday, July 3, 2001 9:39 AM 9882_frame_FM Page Tuesday, July 3, 2001 9:39 AM Preface The field of seabird ornithology has developed dramatically in recent years, partially owing to the application of new technology to this diverse group of birds For instance, the advent of satellite tracking studies has helped us learn about an aspect of seabirds that was unknown previously — their lives at sea Because of this we now have a much better knowledge of the energy budgets of adults and what energetic constraints they experience Another factor that has limited our ability to understand the lives of marine birds is their long life span Without information spanning at least one generation of individuals, there are many facets of the life history of seabirds that are difficult to impossible to interpret But, for seabirds, a generation can be 20 to 30 years, longer than most ornithological studies on any species Over the past 20 to 30 years, however, some excellent longterm studies have been carried out Our aim with the present work is to provide an examination and summary of the research on seabirds, and also to provide a guide to the relevant literature for those desiring further information This book discusses and summarizes our current knowledge of the biology of marine birds today It provides information on the biology, ecology, physiology, evolution, behavior, environmental threats, and conservation of marine birds It also provides information on key questions for researchers to address, and for public policy makers involved in management of coastal lands and marine reserves We felt that marine birds needed to be examined from a wider perspective: not only that of the biologist, but also that of those who are concerned about conservation, management, and public policy We provide the basis for understanding the biology of marine birds, as well as their role in and relationship to coastal and oceanic ecosystems We explore all facets of the lives of the four main orders of seabirds, examining their fossil history, taxonomy, distribution, life histories, population dynamics, foraging behavior, nesting ecology, physiology, energetics, the effects of pollution and other human activities on the birds, and needs for conservation Each chapter presents the basics of our current knowledge about that topic and many chapters also include a guide to yet unanswered questions and suggestions of potential research paths Once into the project we realized that an entire book could be written about each topic we had selected as a chapter However, we were required to limit the length of each chapter, and to include only the most important information and examples The literature section for each chapter is extensive and provides an overview of the subject for researchers, conservationists, managers, and policy-makers We also faced the difficulty of defining marine birds (or seabirds; see Chapter 1) While some orders contain birds that almost entirely live in coastal and marine environments, others not Moreover, some birds not usually considered “marine” spend a great deal of their time in coastal environments (herons, egrets, some shorebirds), and we have included separate chapters on these groups, highlighting their marine lives We have included three chapters on conservation issues: Chapter 15 (Effects of Chemicals and Pollution on Seabirds), Chapter 16 (Interactions between Fisheries and Seabirds), and Chapter 17 (Seabird Conservation) As man’s influence reaches the most remote parts of the world, our effect on seabirds’ lives is increasing Every aspect of seabird biology and ecology is affected Many seabird colonies have been extirpated already and others are disappearing as human development and disturbance expand Researchers have estimated that seabird populations today are 10% or less of what they were a thousand years ago before humans reached many islands (Steadman et al 1984, Pregill et al 1994) As the human population expands, invading seabird nesting habitats, we 9882_frame_FM Page Tuesday, July 3, 2001 9:39 AM are going to see the extinction of many species unless we can learn to value this resource, learn to coexist, and have the science to effect conservation measures While the fossil origins of marine birds are not certain, we know that they enjoy a worldwide distribution today, from the poles to the tropics, and from urban coasts to remote oceanic islands And there are ornithologists studying them in all these habitats: some of us wear multiple layers and try to take measurements with heavy gloves on while conducting Arctic field work, and others wear shorts while enjoying the tropics Our field studies often take us away from home for extended periods and we continually try to outthink birds as we devise new ways to accomplish our research goals We frequently have to invent our own equipment — from capturing devices, to weighing scales, to temperature probes, or to adapting new cutting edge technologies to fit our needs Studying seabirds can be a daily excursion or a seasonal expedition, and can involve hours driven by car or days flown by air All the authors of these chapters are active field researchers working on seabirds As you read you can try to imagine the thousands, or perhaps millions, of hours of field work the knowledge in this book represents, and, for most seabird species, we have only begun The field is open, with many, many possibilities for new studies As soon as we think we have found the answer to a question, some bird does it differently, so we are forced to use words like most, sometimes, maybe, often, generally — words you will see used often in this text But that’s part of what keeps the discovering fascinating In reviewing the chapters, we find that there is important research that needs to be conducted on nearly every group of seabirds, in all aspects from basic breeding biology and communication to contaminants Effects of long-term phenomena such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation events and global warming on seabird biology and their evolution are difficult to study, making our task that much more challenging The task for managers and policy-makers will be to translate the biology detailed in this book into action to enhance breeding populations, protect nesting and foraging seabirds, reduce adverse interactions between human activities and seabirds, and enhance the opportunities for people to study and watch seabirds, thereby ensuring their continued survival We feel particularly privileged to have worked with such a superb group of our colleagues in creating this book They were all dedicated, responsive, a pleasure to work with, and, we believe, have created an exceptional volume We know that the quality of our work herein was significantly increased by the dedicated reviewers, who, in spite of their busy schedules, took time to provide thoughtful insight and feedback: Keith Bildstein, Claus Bech, Glen Fox, Mike Gochfeld, David Goldstein, William Montevecchi, David Nettleship, Storrs Olson, Robert Ricklefs, Peter Stettenheim, Causey Whittow, and all those who must remain anonymous E.A Schreiber Joanna Burger Chapter opening drawings by John P Busby 9882_frame_FM Page Tuesday, July 3, 2001 9:39 AM Acknowledgments Between us, we have conducted over 60 years of research on marine birds During this time, we have had fruitful discussions with many people too numerous to acknowledge However, several people have profoundly influenced our thinking and our research, including C Beer, J Coulson, J Diamond, M Erwin, G Fox, R W Furness, J Hickey, G L Hunt, J Jehl, J Kushlan, J Mills, B Nelson, D Nettleship, I C T Nisbet, R E Ricklefs, J Rodgers, C Safina, J Saliva, S Senner, J Spendelow, N Tinbergen, H B Tordoff, D Warner, and G E Woolfenden There are no words to adequately thank the three people who have influenced our thinking, challenged our ideas, and conducted field work with us on a variety of seabirds throughout our careers: Michael Gochfeld, Gary Schenk, and Ralph Schreiber They will continue to mold our thinking for years to come Gary Schenk and Michael Gochfeld spent long hours in fruitful discussions about seabirds, organization of this book, assisting in preparation of Appendix 2, and many other preparation details They were drafted in a hundred ways, and this volume is a tribute to their knowledge and love of seabirds, not to mention us We thank our editor, John Sulzycki, at CRC Press for shepherding the manuscript through the process, and for understanding that deadlines are meant to encourage progress We also thank the editor of the series, Peter Lutz, for seeing the importance of highlighting marine birds in this marine series Over the years, we have received support from a number of organizations, and we thank them EAS thanks the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation, Defense Nuclear Agency, Giles W and Elise G Mead Foundation, National Science Foundation (OCE8308756, OCE-8404152), the National Geographic Society, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution JB thanks the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (ESO 5022, 5955), National Science Foundation, U.S Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Adminstration, U.S Fish & Wildlife Service, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) through the Department of Energy (AI #DE-FC01-95EW55084, DEFG 26-00NT 40938), the Endangered and Nongame Species Program of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Institute for Coastal and Marine Sciences and the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute of Rutgers University 9882_frame_INDEX Page 708 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM 708 Little Tern, Sterna albifrons, 104 Long-billed Curlew, Numenius americanus, 582 Long-billed Murrelet, Brachyramphus perdix, 75 Long-lines, fishing gear entrapment, 531-534 Long-tailed Jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus, 72, 73 Loop of Henle, 473 Lugensa brevirostris, Kerguelen Petrel, 65 Luteinizing hormone (LH) copulation period, 410 incubation period, 413 M Macaroni Penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus colony size, 314 egg laying, 235 fasting energetics, 413 foraging, 153 foraging technique, 79 metabolic rate study, 370 molting cost, 379, 384 Mackerel, Scomber scombrus distribution change, 192 fisheries effects, 537, 540 Macoma (bivalve), 593 Macrobrachium intermedium, Shrimps, 634 Macronectes giganteus, see Southern Giant Petrel Madeiran Storm-petrel, Oceanodroma castro egg viability, 236 spread of laying, 108 Magellanic Oystercatcher, Haematopus leucopodus, 601 Magellanic Penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus chick growth, 443 nest site, 231 photo, 9, 187 walking cost, 383 Magellanic Plover, Pluvianellus socialis, 589 Magnificent Frigatebird, Fregata magnificens abandoning breeding cycle, 290, 332 biparental care, 277 distribution, 68 drawing, 178 hurricanes, 205 kleptoparasitism, 161 photo, 69 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (1976), 568 Malaysian Plover, Charadrius peronii, 591 Mallard, Anas platyrhnchos lead toxicity studies, 496 salt gland “model,” 476, 479 swimming efficiency, 382 Mallotus villosus, see Capelin Management conservation, 572-573 fisheries, 545-547 tourism, 564 Mancalla, fossil record, 22, 27 Mancallids, fossil record, 22 Manganese Biology of Marine Birds age-related vulnerabilities, 489-490 effects, 497 Mangrove habitat decline, 604, 642 modification, 561 use by shorebirds, 590 use by wading birds, 636 Manx Shearwater, Puffinus puffinus breeding age, 220 communication, 323 foraging, 189 migration, 250, 329 Marabou Stork, Leptopilos crumeniferus description, 618 feeding from human sources, 628 Marbled Murrelet, Brachyramphus marmoratus activity cycle, 341 effects on fisheries, 542 entrapment in fishing nets, 530 nest, 347 protection of nesting habitat, 568 taxonomy, 75 vocalization, 343 Marine protected areas, 546-547 Marsh Sandpiper, Tringa stagnatilis, 600 Masked Booby, Sula dactylatra brood size reduction, 338 display, 334, 335, 337 egg shell thinning, 417 ENSO, 182, 198 killing by, 339 mortality rate, 340 nesting habitat, 224 nest site, 279 philopatry, 231 photo, 181, 206, 416, 472 solitary pair breeding, 102 timing of breeding, 221 Mass specific energy density, 448-449 Mate choice, 232-233, 279, 281-285, 287, 317-318, 324-327, 332-334, 344-345 Mate fidelity, 233-234, 265-269 benefits, 264, 285-287, 291 changing mates, 288, 289-290 costs, 286, 287-288 divorce costs/benefits, 288 “group adherence,” 289, 293 life expectancy and, 291-293, 294 nest fidelity and, 293-294, 317 part-time pair bonds, 287, 293 species list, 265-268 Mate relationships copulation communication/display, 320, 327, 335, 337, 346-347 hormonal changes, 410 Laysan Albatross photo of, 411 female-female pairings and DDT, 503 nest/nest building, 320, 327, 337, 347 pair formation, 317-318, 324-327, 332-334, 344-345, 620 pair maintenance, 318-320, 327, 334-335, 345 9882_frame_INDEX Page 709 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM Index Mayr, E., 77 MBTA (Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 1917), 568, 569 Meadow Pipit, Anthus pratensis, 108 Measuring energy budgets doubly labeled water method, 385-393, 450-452 periodic weighing, 446-447 “time energy budget,” 447-449 Mercury age-related vulnerabilities, 489-490 effects, 498-499, 506 in feathers, 488 levels, 494, 499, 501, 511 sources, 498 toxicodynamic studies, 489 Metabolic rate hypothesis, 373 Metabolizable energy intake (MEI), 446, 447 Metabolizable energy (ME) coefficients, 385, 444, 445, 446 Methoxychlor, 503 Methylmercury, see Mercury Microparra capensis, Lesser Jacana, 588 Midway Island breeding bird numbers, lead exposure, 494-495 Migration behavior, 600-601 overview, 204 postbreeding, 107, 250-251, 322, 329 shorebirds, 583-587, 594-595, 596-601 Migratory Bird Act (1913), 567-568 Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA, 1917), 568, 569 Milvago chimachima, Yellow-headed Caracaras, 628 Miocepphus, fossil record, 27, 28 Mirex, 503 Mollymawk Albatross, Thalassarche spp., 532 “Mollymawks” copulation, 327 display, 324, 325 distribution, 80 taxonomy, 63 Molting cost of, 373, 379-380, 384 efficiency of, 372 feathers as bioindicator, 488-489 regulation of urinary protein and water, 475 shorebirds, 595 timing, 250, 276, 290 Monogamy advantages, 105 as predominant mating system, 232, 263 serial monogamy, 317, 344 shorebirds, 588 social monogamy, 232, 263, 264, 269 wading birds, 620 Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus, 281 Morphology, wing adaptations, 140 Morus bassanus, see Northern Gannet Morus capensis, see Cape Gannet Morus serrator, Australian Gannet, 88 Morus spp., taxonomy debate, 70 Mottled Petrel, Pterodroma inexpectata, 329 MtDNA (mitochondrial) data 709 Alcidae taxonomy, 75 Stercorariidae taxonomy, 72, 73 Multiclutch behavior, shorebirds, 588 Multiparous species see Clutch size Murphy, R C breeding period studies, 223 ENSO events, 199, 202 mortalities/failed breeding seasons, 191 Murrelets oil spill effects, 509 precocial chicks, 238, 240 Murres nest site, 279 “Musical chairs” hypothesis, 290 Mustela vision, American Mink, 104 Mycteria americana, see Wood Stork N Nannopterum harrisi, see Flightless Cormorant National Audubon Society, 573 National Research Council (NRC), 487 Nearshore foragers see Offshore foragers Nephron function, 472-473 Nereis worms, 593 Nesofregatta fuliginosa, see White-throated Storm-petrel Nest carbon dioxide/oxygen levels, 416-417 nest building, 320, 327, 337, 347 variety in, 416-417, 588-589, 621 Nest site fidelity, 264-269, 327 benefits of, 285-287, 288, 291 costs of, 286, 287-288 life expectancy and, 291-293 mate fidelity and, 293-294, 317 site change benefits/costs, 288-289 species list, 265-268 wading birds, 629, 632 Nest site selection, 228-229, 278-279, 314, 323, 330, 340-341 Nestling obesity, 239-240 Nestling period, 272, 276, see also fledging period, Appendix Nitrogenous wastes, 475 Nocturnal foraging, 103, 152, 153 Nomadism, 340, 349 Nonpoint-source pollution description, 486 organochlorine compounds, 500 Northern Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis body mass changes, 239, 240 breeding age, 220 delayed fertilization, 410 dispersal rate, 232 distribution, 64 early breeding, 287 entrapment in fishing lines, 531-532 FMR studies, 392 foraging technique, 79, 80 nest site, 105, 299, 324 9882_frame_INDEX Page 710 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM 710 Biology of Marine Birds nocturnal foraging, 153 recruitment, 104, 106 seasonal dietary shifts, 168 “subcolony,” 90 survival, 245 taxonomy, 78 total body water, 477 weather effects, 142, 182, 187, 381, 392 Northern Gannet, Morus bassanus breeding age, 220 colony size and feeding range, 101 communication, 310, 311, 331, 334, 339 copulation, 337 DDT effects, 502 display, 310, 339 drawing, 306 effects on fisheries, 542 eggshell thinning, 513 egg yolk, 421 entrapment in fishing nets, 530 feeding young, 339 FMR studies, 386, 392 foraging, 150 metabolic rate study, 362 migration, 251 mortality rate, 340 nest, 224, 231, 330 threshold number, 104 weather effects, 192, 201 Northern Lapwing, Vanellus vanellus energy measurements, 452 habitat, 592 Northern Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome moseleyi, 290 Northern Royal Albatross, Diomedea sanfordi, 272, see also Royal Albatross Nostrils Pelecaniformes, 66 Pelecanoididae, 65-66 penguins, 61 Procellariiformes, 62 Notocarbo atriceps, see Imperial Shag Notocarbo georgianus, see South Georgia Shag Notocarbo verrucosus, see Kerguelan Cormorant Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew, 582 Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew, 602 Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew, 597, 601 Numenius phaeopus, see Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus phaeopus, Eurasian Whimbrel, 593594 Numenius phaeopus variegatus, see Eurasian Whimbrel Numenius tahitiensis, see Bristle-thighed Curlew Nycticorax violacea, see Yellow-crowned Night Heron diversity, fluctuations and fisheries effects, 537, 544 foraging, 147-151 seasonal fluctuations, 203-204 shorebirds, 593-594 Oceanites, fossil record, 23 Oceanites oceanus, see Wilson’s Storm-petrel Oceanitidae fossil record, 48-49 olfaction, 156 Oceanitinae, taxonomy, 66 Oceanodroma, taxonomy, 66 Oceanodroma castro, see Madeiran Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma furcata, see Fork-tailed Storm-petrel Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-petrel, 250 Oceanodroma hornbyi, Hornby’s Storm-petrel, 80 Oceanodroma leucorhoa, see Leach’s Storm-petrel Oceanodroma tethys, see Wedge-rumped Storm-petrel Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram’s Storm-petrel, 250 Odessa Protocol on International Cooperation on Migratory Flyway Research and Conservation, 605 Offshore foragers, see also Appendix chick development/growth, 238, 240, 441 clutch size, 5, 234 description, 139, 224 egg neglect, 422 embryonic development, 421, 425-426 ENSO events, 200 incubation shifts, 413 and population size, 80 survival, 245 Oil harvesting birds for, 563 in marine waters, 507-508 Oil spills/oiling assessing effects, 491, 509, 544 effects, 507-509, 567 increase, 513, 544 water/salt balance, 480 Olfaction, 156 Open-circuit respirometry, 361-363 “Optimal age of the mate” hypothesis, 283 Organochlorine compounds, 489, 500, 502-507, 513 Osmoregulation, see Water/salt balance Over-fishing humans, 5, 10, 394, 534, 536-538 seabirds, 4, Ovulation, 411-412 Oxygen effects on foraging, 624 embryonic consumption, 425-426 nest levels, 416-417 transport to egg, 417 O P Observer programs, for fisheries, 546 Occam’s Razor, 96 Ocean environment circulation patterns and foraging, 143-147 Pachyptila fossil record, 23 taxonomy, 64 Pachyptila belcheri, Thin-billed Prion, 283 9882_frame_INDEX Page 711 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM Index Pachyptila desolata, see Antarctic Prion Pachyptila salvini, Salvin’s Prion, 79, 80 Pachyptila turtur, Fairy Prion, 469 Pacific Golden Plover, Pluvialis fulva, 594, 595, 597, 598, 600 Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Project, 204 Pacific Ocean migration, 598-599 Pack ice, and foraging, 150 Pagodroma nivea, see Snow Petrel Pagophila eburnea, see Ivory Gull Pair-bond duration, 233-234, see also mate fidelity Paleontology, 21, see also Fossil record “Panic flights,” 89, 90 Papasula abbotti, see Abbott’s Booby Parakeet Auklet, Cyclorrhyncus psittacula foraging partitioning, 149 oil spill effects, 509 photo, Parasites in colonial birds, 99 intrasexual competition and, 284 and weakened birds, 193 Parasitic Jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus mate choice, 283 taxonomy, 72, 73 Parus major, Great Tit, 94 Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius, 567 Passerine/Seabird, life history comparison, PCB declines, 513 effects of, 503-505, 643, 645 Great Lakes, 496 Pelagic Cormorant, Stictocarbo pelagicus ENSO events, 199 laying/food supplies, 412 trophic relationship, 167 Pelagic foragers, see also offshore foragers cadmium levels, 493-494 clutch size, 234 demographics, 124 description, 138, 139, 224 environmental variability, 130 feeding young, 441 growth rate, 238, 240, 443 mercury, 498 survival, 245 wing morphology, 140 Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-petrel, 250 Pelagornithidae, fossils, 18, 20, 40-41 Pelecanidae fossil record, 40 systematics/distribution, 68 Pelecaniformes altricial chicks, 8, 238 breeding age, 246, 247 characteristics, 66 chick-rearing periods, 240, 241 clutch size, 338 communication, 310, 329-340 incubation/care of young, 337-340 nonbreeding behavior, 340 711 pair relationships, 332-337 territorial behavior, 330-332 demographic comparison of orders, 120-125 demographic strategies, 128 display, 310 egg energy costs, 412 egg size, 417 FMR/BMR ratios, 388 fossil record, 18, 39-45 hurricane season, 205 incubation shifts, 413 metabolic rate, 361, 370, 371 migration, 250 nocturnal foraging, 152 obtaining a mate, 232 postfledging care, 244, 245 speciation, 594 systematics/distribution, 66-71 Pelecanoides, fossil record, 23 Pelecanoides urinatrix, see Common Diving-petrel Pelecanoididae characteristics, 65-66 convergence with auks, 66 fossil record, 48 systematics/distribution, 65-66 Pelecanus conspicillatus, Australian Pelican, 332 Pelecanus crispus, Dalmatian Pelican, 332 Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, see American White Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis, see Brown Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus, see Great White Pelican Pelecanus philippensis, see Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus rufescens, see Pink-backed Pelican Pelicans, see also common names greeting ceremony, 334 Humboldt current, 131 use of thermals, 189 Peltohyas australis, Inland Dotterel, 589 Penguins, see also common names characteristics/adaptations, 10, 61-62, 204 demographic tactics, 128 display, 310 diving, 140, 141 early breeding, 287 embryonic growth, 425 fisheries effects, 537, 540 foraging, 80, 137 incubation, 414 mating, 232, 284 molting costs, 384 nest site, 279 philopatry, 314 postfledging care, 244 survival, 245 systematics/distribution, 58, 61-62 Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus, 591 Peruvian Booby, Sula variegata competition, 229, 314 ENSO events, 130, 199 kleptoparasitism, 160-161 Peruvian Brown Pelican, see Brown Pelican Pesticides, thinning of egg shells, 417 9882_frame_INDEX Page 712 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM 712 Petralca austriaca, fossil record, 26, 27 Petrels, see also common names adaptations, 10 biennial breeding, 220 characteristics, 10, 62 clutch size, 234 display, 314, 324, 326 entrapment in fishing lines, 531 fat levels, 140 flooding nests, 186 foraging, 137, 139, 243 habitat/nest site, 279, 287, 323 mating, 232-233 molting costs, 384 nocturnal activity, 285 Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird, 67-68, 80 Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird, 67-68 Phaethon rubricauda, see Red-tailed Tropicbird Phaethontes, fossil record, 39 Phaethontidae demographic comparison, 124 fecundity, 118 growth rate, 443 systematics/distribution, 67-68 Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern, 74 Phalacrocoracidae demographic comparison, 124 fossil record, 43-44 Phalacrocoracinae, systematics/distribution, 71 Phalacrocorax atriceps, Blue-eyed Shag, 283 Phalacrocorax bougainvilla, see Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, see Great Cormorant Phalaropes adaptations, 595 decline, 604-605 distribution, 596 foraging, 595-596 Phalaropus fulicaria, see Red Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus, see Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor, see Wilson’s Phalarope Phenology, breeding biology, 218, 220-223 Philomachus pugnax, see Ruff Philopatry, 228-229 in breeding area decision, 94, 103-104, 106-107, 323 Charadriiformes, 341 extent of, 106, 231 hurricanes and, 186 penguins, 314 pollution studies and, 487 variability in, 131-132 wading birds, 629, 632 Phoebastria, taxonomy, 63 Phoebastria albatrus, see Short-tailed Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis, see Laysan Albatross Phoebastria irrorata, see Waved Albatross Phoebastria nigripes, see Black-footed Albatross Phoebetria colonial/solitary nesters, 323 display, 326 taxonomy, 63 Phoebetria fusca, see Sooty Albatross Biology of Marine Birds Phoebetria palpebrata, see Light-mantled Sooty Albatross Phoenicopteridae, 618 Phoenicopterus ruber, see Greater Flamingo Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler, 283 Physiology, 359, 409, 439, see also Reproductive physiology chick, 439 non-reproductive, 359 reproductive, 409 Pied Cormorant, Hypoleucos varius, 336, 337 Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca mate choice, 283 spread of laying, 108 Pigeon Guillemot, Cepphus columba competition, 230 display, 345 ENSO events, 199 Nests/selection of sites, 231, 347 oil spill, 509 trophic relationship, 167 Pilchard, Sardinops ocellata, 537 Pinguinus, fossil record, 27 Pinguinus impennis, see Great Auk Pink-backed Pelican, Pelecanus rufescens display, 332, 333 extra-pair copulations, 337 Piping Plover, Charadrius melodus breeding habitat, 591 conservation, 601 Plastics, 489, 509-511, 512 Platalea regia, Royal Spoonbill, 633-634 Plegadis falcinella, see Glossy Ibis Plotopteridae, fossil record, 20, 44-45 Plunge diving, 153 Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden Plover, 594, 595, 597, 598, 600 Pluvialis squatarola, see Black-bellied Plover Pluvianellus socialis, Magellanic Plover, 589 Podiceps nigricollis, see Eared Grebe Point-source pollution organochlorine compounds, 500 sources, 486 Polar Front Zone, 193 Pollution, 485-525 birds as bioindicators, 487-489, 544, 645 chemicals, 492 exposure assessment/pathways, 486-487 fisheries effects and, 544 investigating contaminant effects, 487, 511, 513 list of pollutants of concern, 493 metals, 480, 492-500, 643 organochlorine compounds, 500, 502-507 overview, 486-487 petroleum products, 507-509 research needs, 513 shorebirds, 602, 604 sublethal effects, 490-492 lead, 494, 496 syndromes, 506 temporal trends, 513 vulnerability and susceptibility, 486, 489-492 wading birds, 643, 645 9882_frame_INDEX Page 713 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM Index Polyandry, shorebirds, 588 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), 507 Polygamy, shorebirds, 588 Polygyny, shorebirds, 588 Pomarine Jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus Nest site change, 289 pair bonding, 233 taxonomy, 72, 73 Population dynamics, 10 Population regulation, 129-131 Population size, measure of fitness, 182 Postbreeding migration, 107, 250-251, 322, 329 nomadism, 340, 349 shorebirds, 583-587, 594-595, 596-601 Postfledging care, 243-245, 272, 339-440, see also Appendix Praemancalla, fossil record, 22, 27 Precocial chicks, 238, 240 energy investment in egg, 421, 426 examples, 439-440 shorebirds, 589 Predation avian predators, 591 cause of extinction, 25 on colonial birds, 100, 104-105, 314 coloniality defense, 92-93, 94 comparison with land birds, habitat selection and, 230, 278, 279, 289, 634 hatching success and, 424 increase from human disturbances, 564 incubation period, 236-238 survival and, 120 “swamping” predators, 322, 345, 591 unattended chicks, 242, 456 wading birds, 621-622, 632, 638-639 Predator seabirds, fisheries effects, 538 “Pre-laying exodus,” 410 Premature feather loss, 506 Prey availability and ENSO, 195 fisheries removal of competitors, 540 and foraging schedule, 151-153 reproductive success, 222, 622-623 and weather, 189, 190-191 Procellaria fossil record, 23 taxonomy, 64, 65 Procellaria aequinoctialis, see White-chinned Petrel Procellaria conspicillata, Spectacled Petrel, 532 Procellariidae demographic comparison, 124 demographic turnover, 124 fossil record, 18, 25, 46-48 growth rate, 443 habitat, 323 sister taxa with Pelecanoididae, 66 survival/life expectancy, 118 systematics/distribution, 64-65 Procellariiformes basal metabolic rate, 361, 370 713 body temperature, 378 breeding age, 246, 247 brood enlargement studies, characteristics, 62 chick homeothermy, 458 chick rearing period, 240, 241 clutch size, 116, 234, 272, 410 communication, 322-329 incubation/care of young, 327-329 nonbreeding behavior, 329 pair relations, 324-327 territorial behavior, 323-324 DEE, 384 demographic comparison of orders, 120-125 demographic tactics, 128 diet, 445, 447 divorce, 290 egg laying period, 412 egg size, 417, 426 embryonic growth, 410-411, 424-425, 426 fecundity, 118 fossil record, 23, 45-49 incubation patch, 412 incubation period, 237 incubation shifts, 413 mate fidelity and life expectancy, 292 nestling obesity, 239 and nest loss, 186 nocturnal foraging, 152 olfaction in foraging, 156 philopatry, 131 plastics ingestion, 510-511 postfledging care, 244, 245 “pre-laying exodus,” 410 salt gland secretions, 477 shared ancestry with penguins, 61-62 speciation, 594 survival, 245 systematics/distribution, 62-66 weather effects, 221 Procelsterna, taxonomy, 74 Procelsterna cerulea, Blue Noddy, Procyon lotor, Raccoon, 104, 561 Progesterone incubation period, 413 nonbreeding season, 410 Prolactin levels, incubation period, 413 Prosobonia cancellata, Tuamotu Sandpiper, 594 Prosobonia ellisi, Ellis’s Sandpiper, 594 Prosobonia leucoptera, White-winged Sandpiper, 594 Protein polymorphism, Alcidae taxonomy, 75 Proventriculus and kleptoparasitism, 160 in petrels, 62 “Prudent parents,” clutch size, 118 Prunella modularis, Dunnock, 283 Pseuodobulweria, taxonomy, 65 Ptarmigans, Lagopus spp., 377 Pterodoma lessonii, see White-headed Petrel Pterodroma taxonomy, 65 9882_frame_INDEX Page 714 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM 714 unattended young, 328 Pterodroma cahow, Cahow Petrel, 572 Pterodroma conspicillata, see Spectacled Petrel Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel, 149 Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel, 149 Pterodroma hypoleuca, see Bonin Petrel Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel, 329 Pterodroma jugabilis, fossil record, 25 Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould’s Petrel, 149 Pterodroma macroptera, see Great-winged Petrel Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel, 149 Pterodroma phaeopygia, Galapagos Petrel, 329 Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel, 422 Ptychoramphus, fossil record, 27 Ptychoramphus aleuticus, see Cassin’s Auklet Puffins, 10, 11, see also common names Puffinus fossil record, 23 taxonomy, 65 Puffinus assimilis, see Little Shearwater Puffinus bulleri, Buller’s Shearwater, 411 Puffinus gravis, Greater Shearwater, 250 Puffinus griseus, see Sooty Shearwater Puffinus huttoni, Hutton’s Shearwater, 158 Puffinus lherminieri, see Audubon’s Shearwater Puffinus nativiatus, see Christmas Shearwater Puffinus pacificus, see Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus puffinus, see Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus complex, distribution, 80 Puffinus raemdonckii, fossil record, 18 Puffinus tenuirostris, see Short-tailed Shearwater Purple Sandpiper, Calidris maritima habitat, 592 migration, 599 Pycnocline, 143, 144, 147 Pygoscelis adeliae, see Adelie Penguin Pygoscelis antarctica, see Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis papua, see Gentoo Penguin Q Quality segregation, 106 R Raccoons, Procyon lotor, 104, 561 Radionuclides, 492, 544 Raptors, contaminants, 500, 502 Rats, 104, 230, 561, 563 Ravens, Corvus corvus as predator, 104 thermal conductance, 377 Razor-billed Auk, Alca torda biparental care, 277 development, 240, 347, 440 entrapment in fishing nets, 531 fossil record, 28 mate choice, 283 Biology of Marine Birds nest site, 229, 231, 341 taxonomy, 75 Recreational activity effects, 566, 640 Recruitment, and coloniality, 103 Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet, 469 Recurvirostridae, coloniality, 588 Red-billed Gull, Larus scopulinus adult quality, 250 pair bonding, 233, 234 Red-billed Tropicbird, Phaethon aethereus, 67-68, 80 Red-breasted Plover, Charadrius obscurus, 601 Reddish Egret, Egretta rufescens, 625 Red-footed Booby, Sula sula body temperature, 378 brooding chicks, 456 coloration in immature birds, 11 display, 339 drawing, 160 ENSO, 198 FMR studies, 392 life history characteristics, migration, 251 nesting habitat, 224, 279, 289 nest site selection, 228, 230, 289 philopatry, 228-229 photo, 244 postfledging care, 244 research effects, 565 squid, 153 timing of breeding, 186, 221 unattended chicks, 242 wind effects, 189, 381 Red Fox, Vulpes fulva, 104 Red Knot, Calidris canutus foraging, 603 human competition, 602 migration, 597, 598, 599, 600 Red-legged Cormorant, Stictocarbo gaimardi, 332 Red-legged Kittiwake, Rissa brevirostris entrapment in fishing nets, 530 foraging, 153 taxonomy, 73 Red-necked Phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus adaptation, 595 decline, 604-605 distribution, 596 ENSO, 593 foraging, 595-596 migration, 598-600 use of marine habitat, 582, 595-596 Red-necked Stint, Calidris ruficollis, 597 Red Phalarope, Phalaropus fulicaria adaptations, 595 commensal foraging associations, 159 decline, 604-605 distribution, 596 foraging, 595-596 migration, 598, 599 use of marine habitat, 582, 595-596 Red-tailed Tropicbird, Phaethon rubricauda brooding chicks, 456, 457 9882_frame_INDEX Page 715 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM Index chick development, 441 communication, 310-311 distribution, 67-68, 80 on Easter Island, 25 ENSO, 182, 198, 199, 272 feeding of young, 338, 339 flexible time budget, 139, 190 incubation shifts, 387 learning foraging skills, 161 mortality rate, 340 nest site selection, 230 osmoregulation, 479 philopatry, 103, 228-229 photo, 68, 243, 387, 457 research effects, 565 squid, 153 survival, 245 synchronization between mates, 269 timing of breeding, 221 unattended chicks, 241, 242 weather effects, 182, 187, 188, 198, 199, 272 Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, 283 Reef Heron, Ardea gularis, 624, 626 Reproductive physiology, 409-437 breeding age, 415 copulation, 410, 411 egg formation, 410-412 eggs, 417-424 embryo, 424-427 fertilization, 410 hatchling, 427-430 heat stress, 415-416 incubation, 412-415 nests, 416-417 Research conservation, 572 documenting contaminant effects, 511-512 effects on seabirds, 565-566 effects on wading birds, 639-640 technological advances, 140 Research needs, 11-12 chick thermoregulation, 458 colonial breeding, 109 conservation, 572 demography, 131-132 energetics, 373, 394-395 foraging, 169-170, 461 life history, 252 long-term studies, 131-132, 205-206, 349 osmoregulatory physiology, 480 pollution, 513 wading birds, 645 weather effects, 205-206 Respiratory evaporative water loss, 471-472 Respiratory quotient (RQ), 362 Rhea, Rhea americana, walking costs, 383 Rhinoceros Auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata competition, 230 nest site selection, 341 taxonomy, 75 trophic relationship, 167 715 Rhodostethia rosea, Ross’s Gull, 73, 78 Rhynchopidae characteristics, 74 systematics/distribution, 74-75 Right Whale, Eubalaena glacialis, 159 Ring-billed Gull, Larus delawarensis diet study, 166 embryonic temperature regulation, 426 habitat, 224 nest, 347 quality segregation, 106 Rissa brevirostris, see Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, see Black-legged Kittiwake Robin, Turdus migratorius, Rock Cormorants, Stictocarbo magellanicus, 201 Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome ENSO events, 200 metabolic rate study, 370 molting cost, 379, 384 Rock Sandpiper, Calidris ptilocnemis, 592 Rocky shores, shorebirds, 592 Roseate Spoonbill, Ajaia ajaja, 618 Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii diet, 166 ENSO events, 201 foraging, 158, 159-160 niche separation, survival, 245 three-bird nests, 344 Ross’s Gull, Rhodostethia rosea, 73, 78 Royal Albatross breeding age, 415 mate/site fidelity, 293 photo, 233 yolk formation/laying, 411-412 Royal Penguin, Eudyptes schlegeli mate choice, 282 pores in shell, 421 Royal Spoonbill, Platalea regia, 633-634 Royal Tern, Sterna maxima colony site, 341 defense of eggs, 93 pores in shell, 421 threshold number, 104 Ruddy Turnstones, Arenaria interpres egg stealing, 93, 591 foraging, 594 habitat, 592 human competition, 602 migration, 594, 597, 599, 600 Ruff, Philomachus pugnax breeding system, 588 migration, 600 Rynchops niger, see Black Skimmer S “Sabbatical” years, 290 Sabine’s Gull, Xema sabini display, 342 9882_frame_INDEX Page 716 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM 716 lack of alarm call, 343 taxonomy, 73, 74, 78 St Helena Plover, Charadrius sanctaehelanae, 594 Salmon, 542, 545 Salt glands arsenic concentrations, 490 in wading birds, 633, 635 water/salt balance, 472, 476-477 Salt reabsorption, 475-476 Salt/water balance, see Water/salt balance Salvin’s Prion, Pachyptila salvini, 79, 80 Sandeels, Ammodytes marinus fisheries effects, 537 as prey, 205 Sanderling, Calidris alba drawing, 580 migration, 599 nonbreeding habitat, 591-592, 593 oil effects, 509 Sandlace, Ammodytes sp in diet, 168 fisheries effects, 534, 540 Sandwich Tern, Sterna sandvicensis assimilation coefficient, 445 colony site, 341 display, 345 oil effects, 509 recruitment, 104 threshold number, 104 Sardinops ocellata, Pilchard, 537 Sargassum mats, 149, 596 Satellite technology, 3, 11, 149 Scarlet Ibis, Eudocimus ruber description, 618 freshwater needs, 636 kleptoparasitism, 628 mercury in feces, 634 Scavenging, 153, 538 Scolopacidae feeding chicks, 589 shorebird taxonomy, 582 Scomber scombrus, see Mackerel Seabird/Passerine, life history comparison, Seabirds adaptations and lifestyles, 10-11 comparison with other birds, 4-9, 117, 364, 369-370, 373 chick growth energy costs, 454, 459-461 embryonic development energy costs, 426 as fishing device, 543 human use of, 3, 543-544 introduction, 1-4 research needs, 11-12 taxa included, 1-2, 18, 58-61, 218 Seabird wrecks, and ENSO, 193 Sea level rises, 642-643 species composition, 21, 23 Selenium age-related vulnerabilities, 489-490 effect on mercury toxicosis, 499, 500 Biology of Marine Birds effects, 499-500 inland nesters, 492 toxic levels, 494 Semialtricial chicks, 238 examples, 440 wading birds, 621 Semipalmated Plover, Charadrius semipalmatus breeding habitat, 591 drawing, 558 migration, 599 Semipalmated Sandpiper, Calidris pusilla breeding system, 588 human competition, 602 migration, 597, 599 Semiprecocial chicks, 238, 421 Charadriiformes, embryonic oxygen consumption, 425 examples, 439-440 fledging strategy, 240 Sexual differences segregation of foraging zones, 182 vulnerabilities to pollution, 490 Sexual dimorphism, lack of, 105, 490 Seychelles, 562 Shading of eggs/young, 185, 187, 416 nest site selection, 186 Shags, see also common names demographic tactics, 128 nest site defense, 105 shooting, 534 species boundaries, 71, 77 Shearwaters, see also common names cadmium levels, 493 colony size and feeding range, 101 copulation, 327 display, 327 distribution, 79 entrapment in fishing nets, 529 flooding nests, 186 foraging, 137, 139 fostering, 329 habitat, 323 nest site prospecting, 323 nocturnal activity, 103 obtaining a mate, 232-233 Sheathbills chicks, 589 coloniality, 588 diet, 582 kleptoparasitism, 160 Sheep grazing effects, 562 Ship-based censuses, 149 Shoebill, Balaeniceps rex, diet, 629 Shorebirds, 581-615 breeding, 588 conservation, 601-602, 604-606 endemism, 594 foraging, 582, 588 habitats, 590-596 longevity, 590 9882_frame_INDEX Page 717 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM Index migration, 583-587, 594-595, 596-601 migration routes map, 597 nests, eggs, young, 588-589 as solitary nesters, 101 survival, 590 taxonomy, 582-587 use of marine habitat, 582-587, 590-601 Shore Plover, Charadrius novaeseelandiae habitat, 592, 594 Short-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus, 599 Short-finned Squid, Illex illecebrosus, 537 Short-tailed Albatross, Phoebastria albatrus entrapment in fishing lines, 532 photo, 264 recovery, 572 Short-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus tenuirostris adult quality, 250 breeding frequency, 249 displacement of, 314 distribution, 65, 80 ENSO events, 199 entrapment in fishing nets, 530 foraging, 79, 243 mate choice, 233, 282 migration, 79, 250, 329 survival, 249 Shoulder lock, albatrosses, 63 Shrimps, Macrobrachium intermedium, 634 Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta drawing, 358 fisheries effects, 540 migration, 329 Siblicide, 338, 629 Silent Spring (Carson), 500 Silver Gull, Larus novaehollandiae, 342 Size, see Body mass Skimmers, see also common names adaptations, 11 courtship-feeding, 281 egg laying, 235 nesting site/selection, 228, 279 postfledging care, 244 predation on, 104 Skuas, see also common names adaptations, 10 courtship-feeding, 281 fisheries effects, 538, 539 kleptoparasitism, 160 nest defense, 284 nest site/habitat, 224, 287 postfledging care, 272 three-bird nests, 344 Slaty-backed Gull, Larus schistisagus, 77 Slender-billed Gull, Larus genei, 158 Snares Penguin, Eudyptes robustus, 314 Snow Petrel, Pagodroma nivea display, 326, 327 in ENSO, 183 life expectancy, 272 mate choice, 283, 294 nest defense, 323 717 nest site and mate quality, 269 philopatry, 132 Snowy Egret, Egretta thula effects on prey, 634 foraging, 624 Snowy Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus breeding habitat, 591 conservation, 601 nest destruction, 593 Social monogamy, see Monogamy Solenopsis invictis, Fire Ant, 503 Solitary Sandpiper, Tringa solitaria, 588 Somateria mollissima, see Common Eider Sooty Albatross, Phoebetria fusca display, 325 mate/site fidelity, 293 spread of laying, 108 Sooty Shearwater, Puffinus griseus distribution, 65, 79 diving depth, 64-65 entrapment in fishing nets, 530 foraging competition, 158 habitat, 323 migration, 250 Sooty Tern, Sterna fuscata chick development, 441 chicks as prey, 162 colony size and feeding range, 101 drawing, 466 embryonic organ growth, 425 embryonic temperature regulation, 426 energy measurements, 454 ENSO, 198 foraging, 79, 80, 149, 155, 158 hatchling thermoregulation, 429 introduced species effects, 562 metabolic rate, 362, 414 migration, 251 nesting, 186, 224 nest/colony site selection, 228, 230 photo, 201, 285, 449 subannual breeding, 223 wind effects, 381 Southern Giant Petrel, Macronectes giganteus display, 324 metabolic rate study, 362 Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), 195 Southern Royal Albatross, Diomedea epomophora, see also Royal Albatross display, 324 yolk formation, 411 South Georgia Shag, Notocarbo georgianus body temperature, 378 heart rate/DEE, 385 South Polar Skuas, Catharacta maccormicki, 250 Spartina anglica, 604 Species boundaries, 77-78 Specific dynamic action (SDA), 379 Spectacled Petrel, Procellaria conspicillata, 532 Sperm-storage glands, 410 Spheniscidae 9882_frame_INDEX Page 718 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM 718 chick homeothermy, 458 fecundity, 118 fossil record, 49-50 growth rate, 443 shared ancestry with Procellariiformes, 61, 62 systematics/distribution, 61, 62 Sphenisciformes body temperature, 378 chick-rearing period, 240, 241 communication, 314-322 evolution, 321-322 incubation/care of young, 320-321 nonbreeding behavior, 322 pair relationships, 317-320 territorial behavior, 314-317 demographic comparison of orders, 120-125 fossil record, 49-50 metabolic rate, 370 postfledging care, 245 systematics/distribution, 61-62 Spheniscus, fossil record, 23 Spheniscus demersus, see Jackass Penguin Spheniscus humboldti, see Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus, see Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus, Galapagos Penguins, 56 Spot-billed Pelican, Pelecanus philippensis display, 332 extra-pair copulation, 337 Squacco Heron, Ardeola ralloides, 628 Stable isotope analysis (SIA) as diet study method, 167-168 as trophic relationship study method, 140, 167-168 Stachytarpheta jamaicensis, Epi bleu, 562 “Star fracture,” 424 Stercorariidae fossil record, 36 systematics/distribution, 72-73 Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger, 72, 73 Stercorarius parasiticus, see Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus, see Pomarine Jaeger Sterna, taxonomy, 74 Sterna albifrons, Little Tern, 104 Sterna aleutica, Aleutian Tern, 349 Sterna anaethetus, Bridled Tern, 149 Sterna antillarum, see Least Tern Sterna bengalensis, Lesser Crested Tern, Sterna bergii, Crested Tern, 341 Sterna caspia, see Caspian Tern Sterna dougallii, see Roseate Tern Sterna elegans, see Elegant Tern Sterna forsterii, see Forster’s Tern Sterna fuscata, see Sooty Tern Sterna hirundo, see Common Tern Sterna lunata, see Gray-backed Tern Sterna maxima, see Royal Tern Sterna paradisaea, see Arctic Tern Sterna sandvicensis, see Sandwich Tern Sterna striata, White-fronted Tern, 158 Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern, 244 Sterna vittata, see Antarctic Tern Sternidae, 118 Biology of Marine Birds Sterninae characteristics, 74 systematics/distribution, 74 Stictocarbo aristotelis, see European Shag Stictocarbo gaimardi, Red-legged Cormorant, 332 Stictocarbo magellanicus, Rock Cormorants, 201 Stictocarbo pelagicus, see Pelagic Cormorant “Stirring up” prey, 596 Stomach oil, 241, 242, 441-442, 445 importance, 447 Storks, thermoregulation, 184, 618 Storm-petrels, see also common names foraging, 137 nest site, 324 nocturnal activity, 103 olfaction in foraging, 156 wind, 143 Streaked Shearwater, Calonectris leucomelas, 79 Sturnus vulgaris, see European Starling Subannual breeding, 186, 223 “Subcolony,” 89, 90 Sula, fossil record, 23 Sula dactylatra, see Masked Booby Sula leucogaster, see Brown Booby Sula nebouxii, see Blue-footed Booby Sula spp., taxonomy debate, 70 Sula sula, see Red-footed Booby Sula variegata, see Peruvian Booby Sulidae characteristics, 68, 70 clutch size, 234 demographic comparison, 124 distribution, 70-71 fecundity, 118 fossil record, 42-43 speciation events in, 70 systematics/distribution, 68, 70-71 Sulids, see also common names clutch size, 272 copulation, 335 display, 332 distribution, 79 fossil record, 22 greeting ceremony, 334 postfledging care, 272 Surfbird, Aphriza virgata, 592 Survival annual adult survival, 245, 246 difficulties in studying, 118 environmental interactions, 248-249 measure of fitness, 182 order comparison, 120-124 population size, 115 shorebirds, 590 survival/life expectancy study, 117 to breeding age, 245 wading birds, 632 Swallow-tailed Gull, Creagrus furcatus communication, 342, 347 display, 342 ENSO events, 199 9882_frame_INDEX Page 719 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM Index foraging, 153 nocturnal activity, 103 postbreeding location, 251 subannual breeding, 186, 223 taxonomy, 73 Synchrony of breeding, predator defense, 93 Synthliboramphus development, 238, 347 fossil record, 27 Synthliboramphus antiquum, see Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus sp feeding of young at sea, 105, 440 nestling period, 272 Systematics/distribution, 57-85 classification, 58-61 family level patterns, 78-79 foraging technique, 79-80, 81 North Pacific vs North Atlantic patterns, 79 orders of seabirds, 61-76 patterns of, 78-81 spatial distribution in colony, 87-88 species boundaries, 77-78 species level patterns, 80-81 Sythliboramphus antiquus, Japanese Murrelet, 530 T Tectonic activities, 22, 23 Telodrin, 503 Temminck’s Stint, Calidris temminckii, 588 Teratogenicity, 490 Terns, see also common names adaptations, 10 breeding age, 246 clutch size, 234, 272 courtship-feeding, 281 display, 281, 310 effects from predators, 104 eggs, 235, 417 flooding of nests, 204 fostering, 232 kleptoparasitism, 160 nest site/habitat, 224, 228 nest site defense, 105 obtaining a mate, 232, 281 postfledging care, 244, 272 Testosterone levels breeding season, 410 copulation period, 410 incubation period, 413 Thalassarche, taxonomy, 63 Thalassarche cauta, see Shy Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross, 239 Thalassarche chrysostoma, see Gray-headed Albatross Thalassarche melanophrys, see Black-browed Albatross Thalasseus, taxonomy, 74 Thalasseus sandvicensis, see Sandwich Tern Thalassoica antarctica, see Antarctic Petrel Thaumatibis gigantea, Giant Ibis, 618 Thayer’s Gull, Larus [glaucoides] thayeri, 77 Thermal neutral zone (TNZ) 719 definition/description, 360, 364, 414 locomotion costs and, 383 thermal conductance, 373 Thermals, 189 Thermogenic heat production (PMR), 456, 459 Thermohaline circulation, 144 Thermoregulation, see Energetics, thermoregulation Thick-billed Murre, Uria lomvia commensal foraging associations, 159 communication in colonies, 89 development, 240, 347, 440 distribution, 81 entrapment in fishing nets, 530 foraging, 79, 153 fostering, 232 isotope signatures, 168 metabolic rate, 361, 379 swimming costs, 381 weather effects, 221 Thin-billed Prion, Pachyptila belcheri, 283 “Threshold-based” hypothesis, 284 Threshold numbers, for new colony, 104 Threskiornithidae, 618, 619 Tides shorebirds, 592-593 wading birds, 634, 636-637 Tin, 496 Tinbergen, N communication, 310, 342, 343, 348 courtship feeding, 346 food begging, 348 nest building, 347 relationships in gulls, 73 Tourism effects, 564, 640 Toxaphene, 503 Toxic equivalency factors (TEF), 506-507 Toxicity, 491-492 Toxicodynamics, description, 489 Trade winds, 193 Tricolored Heron, Egretta tricolor diet, 629 foraging, 624 Tringa glareola, see Wood Sandpiper Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs, 591 Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper, 588 Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper, 600 Tringa totanus, see Common Redshank Tristram’s Storm-petrel, Oceanodroma tristrami, 250 Tropicbirds, see also common names adaptations, 10, 11 breeding age, 246 clutch size, 234, 272 copulation, 335 display, 232, 233, 310, 311, 334 egg size, 417 feeding chicks, 338 incubation shift, 335 nest site selection, 300, 332 nest defense, 284, 331 nestling obesity, 239 obtaining a mate, 232, 233 9882_frame_INDEX Page 720 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM 720 Sargassum association, 149 Tryngites subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper, 588 Tuamotu Sandpiper, Prosobonia cancellata, 594 Tube-noses, 140, 141 Tubinares, see also Procellariiformes characteristics, 62 Tufted Duck, Aythya fuligula, 361 Tufted Puffin, Fratercula cirrhata Communication/display, 345, 347 fossil record, 27 nest, 347 oil spill effects, 509 semiprecocial development, 240 yolk formation, 411 Turdus migratorius, Robin, Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura, 638 Turnover rate, 123-125 Tursiops truncatus, Bottlenose Dolphin, 158 Tytthostonyx glauconiticus, fossil record, 18 U UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), 570 Upwellings, see also upwelling names areas of, 144, 146, 193, 195 and seabird fauna, 5, 21-22 shorebirds, 593, 596 timing of breeding, 203 Uria biparental care, 277 fossil record, 26, 27, 28, 29 taxonomy, 75 Uria aalge, see Common Murre Uria affinis, fossil record, 28 Uria lomvia, see Thick-billed Murre Uria paleohesperis, fossil record, 28 Uric acid, 475 Urine composition, 473-475 V Vanellus vanellus, see Northern Lapwing Vertical mixing, and productivity, 143-144, 146 Vocalization, 285, 315, 323, 325, 326, 327, 343 Volcanic action source of cadmium, 493 source of lead, 494 Vulpes fulva, Red Fox, 104 W Wading birds, 616-655 coastal habitat dependence, 634-635 conservation, 642-645 description, 618, 620 diet, 629 effects on estuarine ecosystems, 633-634, 636-37 foraging, 622-629 life history, 629-633 Biology of Marine Birds longevity, 629, 631 management, 638-642 marine species, 635 monitoring populations, 641-642 overview, 618 population regulation, 632-633 reproduction, 618, 620-623 research needs, 645 salt balance, 633, 635-636 survival, 632 taxonomy, 618, 619 weather effects, 633, 637-638 Wandering Albatross, Diomedea exulans breeding age, 220 demographic traits, 125-126, 129, 218 entrapment in fishing lines, 532 extra-pair copulation, 327 fledging, 222 FMR studies, 392 foraging, 149, 153, 155-156 hatchling size, 427 incubation period hormonal changes, 413 incubations costs, 384, 415 mate choice, 282, 283 mercury, 498 migration, 329 nest site selection, 323 photo, 126, 278 sexual differences, 182 total body water, 477 wind effects, 140, 182, 381 Wandering Tattler, Heteroscelus incanus habitat, 592 migration, 594 photo, 598 Water clarity, see also foraging effects on foraging, 188 foraging adaptations, 143 Water depth, wading bird foraging, 629 Water/salt balance, 467-483 exchangeable sodium pool size, 478 inputs, 468-471 drink, 469-471 food, 469 metabolism, 471 integration, 477-480 measuring seawater drinking, 469 osmoregulatory values, 468 outputs, 471-477 evaporation, 471-472 excretion, 472 intestines, 475-476 kidney, 472-475 salt glands, 472, 476-477 overview, 467-468 sodium flux, 478-479 total body water (TBW), 477 wading birds, 635-636 water turnover rate, 477-478 Waved Albatross, Phoebastria irrorata chick behavior, 329 9882_frame_INDEX Page 721 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM Index display, 310, 311, 325, 326, 327 distribution, 63 ENSO events, 199 migration, 250 nest site selection, 323 spread of laying, 108 Weather effects, 179-215 at nest, 185-188 behavior, 183-185 breeding timing, 185-186, 220-221 eggs and young, 187-188 ENSO, 97, 130, 149, 180-182, 186, 192-203, 221 on fitness, 182-183 food availability/capture/transport, 189-190, 622 foraging, 188-191 global warming, 192, 605 long-term events, 191-192 nest sites, 186-187, 230 one-three year events, 192-203 overview, 179-182 prey distribution, 190-191 seasonal, 203-205 shorebirds, 593-594 species composition, 22-23 types of weather events, 182, 191-205 wading birds, 633, 637-638 water clarity, 143, 188 winter 204 Weathers’ Equation, 448 Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma tethys foraging, 149 nest site prospecting, 323, 327 nocturnal foraging, 153 Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus pacificus chick growth, 443 egg, 420 embryonic growth, 425 embryonic temperature regulation, 426 foraging, 149 hatchling thermoregulation, 429 nesting habitat, 224, 230 oil effects, 509 photo, 2, 65 timing of nesting, 185, 221 Weight-of-evidence approach, pollution, 487 Western Gull, Larus occidentalis diet, 162, 166 early breeding, 287 ENSO events, 199 photo, 154, 200 trophic relationship, 167 Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri habitat, 592 migration, 590, 600-601 Western Shorebird Reserve Network, 605 Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus diet, 582 habitat, 592 Whiskered Auklet, Aethia pygmaea, 341 White-capped Noddy, Anous tenuirostris tenuirostris, 74, see also Black Noddy, Anous minutus 721 White-chinned Petrel, Procellaria aequinoctialis assimilation efficiency, 446 conservation, 294 drawing, 358 embryonic energy consumption, 425 entrapment in fishing lines, 532 fisheries effects, 545 nest defense, 284 nest site change, 289 plastics ingestion, 511 White-faced Storm-petrel, Pelagodroma marina, 250 White-flippered Penguin, Eudyptula minor albosignata, 383, see also Blue Penguin White-fronted Plover, Charadrius marginatus breeding habitat, 591 nest, 589 White-fronted Tern, Sterna striata, 158 White-headed Petrel, Pterodoma lessonii biennial breeding, 222, 223 fecundity, 118 nest site fidelity, 286 photo, 120 White Ibis, Eudocimus albus foraging, 624 foraging distances, 623 habitat, 634-635 prey availability, 622 salt balance, 635-636, 645 storm effects, 637 White-rumped Sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis, 599 White-tailed Tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus, 67-68 White Tern, Gygis alba display, 342, 344 double-brooding, 223 embryonic oxygen consumption, 425 feeding young, 441 foraging, 153 nesting habitat, 224, 279, 347, 416 nest photo, 416 photo, 74 timing of breeding, 186, 221, 223 White-throated Storm-petrel, Nesofregatta fuliginosa fossil record, 25 nesting habitat, 224 White-winged Sandpiper, Prosobonia leucoptera, 594 Willet, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, 590 Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus, 283 Wilson’s Phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor filtering water, 469 life history, 595 migration, 598 Wilson’s Plover, Charadrius wilsonia, 591 Wilson’s Storm-petrel, Oceanites oceanus drawing, 136 energetics, 454, 456 incubation metabolic rate, 414 incubation period, 105 migration, 250 oil in diet, 447 specific energy density, 448 total body water, 477 9882_frame_INDEX Page 722 Tuesday, July 3, 2001 11:50 AM 722 Wind care of eggs/young, 187, 188 effects on flight, 140, 142, 143, 381, 392 effects on foraging, 188, 189, 190 effects on thermal conductance, 374 migration, 597, 600 period of fledging, 188 Wind-driven circulation, 144 Wood Sandpiper, Tringa glareola migration, 600 nest, 588 Wood Stork, Mycteria americana breeding timing/prey availability, 622 description, 618 foraging, 622-633, 624 human disturbance effects, 640 photo, 639 World Health Organization, 506 World Trade Organization (WTO), 571 X Xantu’s Murrelets, Endomychura hypoleuca chick homeothermy, 458 egg neglect, 422 Biology of Marine Birds hatchling thermoregulation, 429 Xema sabini, see Sabine’s Gull Xenobiotics, sequestering of, 489 Y Yellow-crowned Night Heron, Nycticorax violacea diet, 629 salt balance, 635 Yellow-eyed Penguin, Megadyptes antipodes decline in population, 566 as non-colonial species, 314 synchronous chick hatching, 322 Yellow-footed Gull, Larus livens, 199 Yellow-headed Caracaras, Milvago chimachima, 628 Yellow-legged Gull, Larus cachinnans fisheries effects, 538 species boundaries, 77 Yellow-nosed Albatross, Thalassarche chlororhynchos, 239 Yolk energy costs, 412 energy provided, 421 formation, 410-411 and hatchling maturity, 421 Yolk reserves, hatchling, 430 ... 3:50 PM Biology of Marine Birds TABLE 1.1 Marine Birds Include Birds in the Following Orders Order Sphenisciformes Procellariiformes Ciconiiformes Pelecaniformes Charadriiformes Types of Birds. .. Tuesday, July 3, 2001 8:49 AM Biology of Marine Birds TABLE 1.2 Comparison of Characteristics of Seabirds and Passerines Life History Characteristic Seabirds Passerines Age of first breeding Clutch... understanding the biology of marine birds, as well as their role in and relationship to coastal and oceanic ecosystems We explore all facets of the lives of the four main orders of seabirds, examining
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Biology of marine birds , Biology of marine birds , Seabird Systematics and Distribution: A Review of Current Knowledge, Breeding Biology, Life Histories, and Life History–Environment Interactions in Seabirds