Advances in agronomy volume 101

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Advisory Board PAUL M BERTSCH RONALD L PHILLIPS University of Kentucky University of Minnesota KATE M SCOW LARRY P WILDING University of California, Davis Texas A&M University Emeritus Advisory Board Members JOHN S BOYER KENNETH J FREY University of Delaware Iowa State University EUGENE J KAMPRATH MARTIN ALEXANDER North Carolina State University Cornell University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America Book and Multimedia Publishing Committee DAVID D BALTENSPERGER, CHAIR LISA K AL-AMOODI CRAIG A ROBERTS WARREN A DICK MARY C SAVIN HARI B KRISHNAN APRIL L ULERY SALLY D LOGSDON Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA 32 Jamestown Road, London, NW1 7BY, UK Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands First edition 2009 Copyright # 2009 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made ISBN-13: 978-0-12-374817-1 ISSN: 0065-2113 (series) For information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at Printed and bound in USA 09 10 11 12 10 CONTRIBUTORS Numbers in Parenthesis indicates the pages on which authors’ contributors begin Asher Bar-Tal ( 315) Department of Soil Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Institute of Soils, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50250, Israel Shahzad M A Basra ( 351) Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan Kevin Coleman (1) Department of Soil Science, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom Benjamin O Danga ( 315) Department of Soil Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Institute of Soils, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50250, Israel, and Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya M Farooq ( 351) International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Metro Manila, Philippines, and Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan Y J Gao (123) Northwestern Science and Technology University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, P.R China S Heuer (59) International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines G Howell (59) International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines T T Hu (123) Northwestern Science and Technology University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, P.R China A Ismail (59) International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines ix x Contributors O Ito ( 351) Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan S V K Jagadish (59) International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines A Edward Johnston (1) Lawes Trust Senior Fellow, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom N Kobayashi ( 351) International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Metro Manila, Philippines S X Li (123) Northwestern Science and Technology University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, P.R China K P Prabhakaran Nair (183) Distinguished Visiting Scientist, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India Josephine P Ouma ( 315) Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya H Pathak (59) International Rice Research Institute, New Delhi, India Paul R Poulton (1) Department of Soil Science, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom E Redona (59) International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines R Serraj (59) International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines R K Singh (59) International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines B A Stewart (123) Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, TX 79016, USA K Sumfleth (59) International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines A Wahid ( 351) Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan Contributors xi Isaiah I C Wakindiki ( 315) Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya Z H Wang (123) Northwestern Science and Technology University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, P.R China R Wassmann (59) Research Center Karlsruhe (IMK-IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, and International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines PREFACE Volume 101 continues the rich tradition of the previous 100 volumes of Advances in Agronomy, containing six comprehensive and contemporary agronomic reviews Chapter deals with soil organic matter and its significance in sustainable agriculture and carbon dioxide fluxes Chapter discusses impacts of climate change on rice production and the physiological and agronomic basis for adaptation strategies Chapter covers the management of nitrogen in dryland soils of China Chapter provides a thorough review on agronomic and economic aspects of important industrial crops with emphasis on areca, cashew, and coconut Chapter reviews legume– wheat rotation effects on residual soil moisture, nitrogen, and wheat yield in tropical regions Chapter provides strategies for increasing rice production with less water including genetic improvements and different management systems I thank the authors for their excellent contributions DONALD L SPARKS Newark, Delaware, USA xiii C H A P T E R O N E Soil Organic Matter: Its Importance in Sustainable Agriculture and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes A Edward Johnston,* Paul R Poulton,† and Kevin Coleman† Contents Introduction Some Aspects of the Nature and Behavior of Soil Organic Matter 2.1 The nature and determination of soil organic matter 2.2 Relationship between amount and C:N ratio of added plant material and organic matter in soil 2.3 Equilibrium levels of soil organic matter Changes in the Organic Content of Soils and Their Causes 3.1 Effects of fertilizer and manure inputs on soils of different texture where cereals are grown each year 3.2 Effects of short-term leys interspersed with arable crops 3.3 Effect of different types of organic inputs to soils growing arable crops 3.4 Effects of straw incorporation 3.5 Effect of different arable crop rotations on the loss of soil organic matter 3.6 Increases in soil organic matter when soils are sown to permanent grass Soil Organic Matter and Crop Yields 4.1 Arable crops grown continuously and in rotation Explaining the Benefits of Soil Organic Matter 5.1 Organic matter, soil structure, and sandy loam soils 5.2 Separating nitrogen and other possible effects of soil organic matter 5.3 Soil organic matter and soil structure 5.4 Soil organic matter and soil phosphorus and potassium availability 5.5 Soil organic matter and water availability * { 5 11 11 15 22 25 26 27 28 28 37 37 38 40 43 45 Lawes Trust Senior Fellow, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom Department of Soil Science, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom Advances in Agronomy, Volume 101 ISSN 0065-2113, DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2113(08)00801-8 # 2009 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved A Edward Johnston et al Modeling Changes in Soil Organic Matter Disadvantages from Increasing Soil Organic Matter Acknowledgments References 46 52 54 54 Abstract Soil organic matter is important in relation to soil fertility, sustainable agricultural systems, and crop productivity, and there is concern about the level of organic matter in many soils, particularly with respect to global warming Longterm experiments since 1843 at Rothamsted provide the longest data sets on the effect of soil, crop, manuring, and management on changes in soil organic matter under temperate climatic conditions The amount of organic matter in soil depends on the input of organic material, its rate of decomposition, the rate at which existing soil organic matter is mineralized, soil texture, and climate All four factors interact so that the amount of soil organic matter changes, often slowly, toward an equilibrium value specific to the soil type and farming system For any one cropping system, the equilibrium level of soil organic matter in a clay soil will be larger than that in a sandy soil, and for any one soil type the value will be larger with permanent grass than with continuous arable cropping Trends in long-term crop yields show that as yield potential has increased, yields are often larger on soils with more organic matter compared to those on soils with less The effects of nitrogen, improvements in soil phosphorus availability, and other factors are discussed Benefits from building up soil organic matter are bought at a cost with large losses of both carbon and nitrogen from added organic material Models for the buildup and decline of soil organic matter, the source and sink of carbon dioxide in soil, are presented Introduction The following quotation taken from Sanskrit literature was written perhaps 3500 or 4000 years ago and yet it is as relevant today as it was then Besides emphasizing the importance of the soil upon which food is grown, the phrase ‘‘surround us with beauty’’ brings to the fore issues about the environment: Upon this handful of soil our survival depends Husband it and it will grow our food, our fuel and our shelter and surround us with beauty Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die taking man with it The decline and collapse of many ancient civilizations is clear evidence of the truth of these statements In Mesopotamia, the Sumerian society, which started about 3000 BC, became the first literate society in the world, but then gradually perished as its agricultural base declined as the irrigated soils on which its food was produced became so saline that crops could no longer be Soil Organic Matter: Its Importance in Sustainable Agriculture and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes grown In Mesoamerica, the earliest settlements of the Mayan society date from about 2500 BC Intellectually this society was remarkable, particularly in its study of astronomy, yet its decline started once internal and external factors led it to give too little attention to managing its intensive agriculture in terraced fields on the hillsides and raised fields in swampy areas Although soil cultivation and growing crops produce food for people and animals, the appreciation and understanding of the processes involved took many centuries It was in 1840 that Liebig (1840) presented his report entitled ‘‘Organic Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology’’ to the British Association for the Advancement of Science In it he noted that: ‘‘The fertility of every soil is generally supposed by vegetable physiologists to depend on humus This substance (is) believed to be the principle nutriment of plants and to be extracted by them from the soil.’’ The hypothesis was that plant roots have tiny mouths and ingest small fragments of humus directly Liebig demolished this hypothesis and he expressed the view that humus provides a slow and lasting source of carbonic acid This could be absorbed directly by the roots as a nutrient or it could release elements like potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) from soil minerals The importance of soil organic matter (SOM) in soil fertility was questioned by the early results from the field experiments started by Lawes and Gilbert at Rothamsted between 1843 and 1856 The results showed that plant nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and K, when added to soil in fertilizers and organic manures, like farmyard manure (FYM), were taken up by plant roots from the soil As the annual applications of fertilizers and FYM continued, the level of SOM in FYM-treated soils increased relative to that in fertilizer-treated soils, but even into the 1970s, yields of cereals and root crops were very similar on both soils (see later) This gave rise to the belief that, provided plant nutrients were supplied as fertilizers, extra SOM 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pp 10–12 Overseas Development Administration, London, UK Zhang, J., Nguyen, H T., and Blum, A (1999) Genetic analysis of osmotic adjustment in crop plants J Exp Bot 50, 291–302 388 M Farooq et al Zhang, J., Zheng, H G., Aarti, A., Pantuwan, G., Nguyen, T T., Tripathy, J N., Sarial, A K., Robin, S., Babu, R C., Nguyen, B D., Sakarung, S., Blum, A., et al (2001) Locating genomic regions associated with components of drought resistance in rice: Comparative mapping within and across species Theor Appl Genet 103, 19–29 Zheng, H G., Babu, R C., Pathan, M S., Ali, M L., Huang, N., Courtois, B., and Nguyen, H T (2000) Quantitative trait loci for root penetration ability and root thickness in rice: Comparison of genetic backgrounds Genome 43, 53–61 Zhu, J K (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants Annu Rev Plant Biol 53, 247–273 Index A Abiotic stresses, 97, 108 Absisic acid (ABA), 71–72, 98 Acacia mangium, 241 Acid detergent fiber (ADF), 329, 331 Acidification of soil, 128 Acrocercops syngramma, 244 Acrylonitrile, 38 Aerobic dryland soils, 129 Aerobic rice, 87–88 culture, 353–354, 357, 364–366, 373 Agricultural sustainability, importance, 3–4 Agriculture vs aquaculture, 107 Agroecological zone, Aldehyde dehydrogenase, 98 Alfalfa, All India Coordinated Research Project on Cashew (AICRPC), 223 Alternate wetting and drying, 87, 353, 363, 366–368 Ammonium-based N fertilizer, 163 Ammonium bicarbonate, 145 Ammonium fertilizer, 129 Ammonium nutrition, 162–163 Ammonium sulphate fertilizer, 163–164 Ammonium volatilization, 134–136, 145 Anabe disease, 205 Anacardium occidentale, 209–210 area and production of raw nuts, in India, 213 state-wise area and production, 214 country-wise raw nut production, 212 distribution, origin and history of, 217–220 economic botany, 220 cytology, 221 taxonomy, 220–222 end products cashew kernel, 249, 252 cashew kernel peel, 249–250, 252 cashew nut shell liquid, 250, 252 shell cake, 252 value-added products, 253–254 future research, areas for, 256 crop management techniques, 257 crop protection, 257–258 genetic resources, 256 post-harvest technology, 258 technology transfer, 258 varietal improvement, 256 genetic improvement of biotechnology, 230–231 breeding, 224–225 hybridization, 226–230 selection, 225–226 germplasm collections and catalogue, 222–223 global cashew production, 211 global raw nut production, 212 hybrids, released in India, 228–230 and The Nutrient Buffer Power Concept, 238 nutritional content and value, 210–211 orchard, cultivation and management of land selection, guidelines for, 233–234 manuring, 235, 237–238 soil requirement, 231–232 water requirement, 232, 235–236 pests and diseases, controlling of, 243–244 adverse weather conditions, impact of, 248 biological pest control, 246–247 cashew diseases and control, 247–248 foliage and inflorescence pests, control of, 245–246 pest control, 244–245 planting technology, 239–240 cover cropping, 241 high density planting, 240 intercropping, 241–243 research organization, 254–255 softwood grafting, technique of, 238–239 trade in India, 216–217 world trade in, 214–216 Animal manure, 138 Anther characteristics, affecting dehiscence, 71 Anther dehiscence, 70 Anthesis, 66 Aonidiella orientalis, 207 Aquic Paleudalf, Arabidopsis thaliana, 96, 358 Arable crop See also Soil organic matter grown continuously and in rotation experiments after 1970s, 29–32 experiments before 1970s, 28–29 long-term experiments and recent data from, 32–37 on loss of soil organic matter, 26–27 short-term leys, interspersed with, 15–21 Arable rotations, 16, 18, 26 Arachis hypogea, 64 Areca catechu See Arecanut 389 390 Index Areca concinna, 188 Arecanut, 188 botany and taxonomy of, 189, 192–193 country-wise area and production, 190 cytogenetics of, 193–195 future prospects, 208–209 genetic resource program, 195–198 geographical distribution, of Areca species, 192 harvesting and processing of, 207–208 hybridization program, 198 insect pests of, 206–207 intercropping system, 203 banana, 204 black pepper, 204 cocoa, 204 irrigation, 200–202 drip irrigation system, 200–201 modified Penman model, 200 mulching, 201–202 photosynthetic parameters and yield, 201–202 nematology, 207 nutrition, 202 origin and history of, 189 pathology, 204 Anabe disease, 205 bacterial leaf blight, 206 fruit rot, 205 inflorescence dieback, 206 stem bleeding, 206 yellow leaf disease, 205 physiology, 202–203 seeds sowing and seedlings spacing, 199–200 soil and climatic requirement, 198–199 state wise area and production, in India, 191 Ascochyta leaf blight, 339, 342 Astronomy, AtNHX1overexpression, 96 Austronesians, 262 aus variety N22, rice, 72 Available water capacity (AWC), 45 AWD See Alternate wetting and drying Azadirachta indica, 207 B Baby bits, 253 Bacterial leaf blight, 206 Barley See Hordeum vulgare L Basal dehiscence length, 79 Batcombe series soil, Betel nut See Arecanut Biodynamic Cashew, 258–259 Biological materials, as nutrient, 166–167 Biological nitrogen fixation, 316, 334–335 Biological water saving (BWS), 362 Biotic stresses, 62 Birgus latro, 286 Blackgram See Vigna mungo Black pepper See Piper nigrum BNF See Biological nitrogen fixation Brahmaputra, 89 Brassica juncia L., 319 Brassica napus, 10 Breeding populations, 86 British Association for Advancement of Science, Broadbalk winter wheat experiment at Rothamsted, nitrogen applied and mean yield of grain, 39 Bureau for the development of Research on Tropical perennial Oil Crops (BUROTROP), 292 Busseola fusca, 326 C Calapagonium muconoides, 241 Calcium (Ca), 45 Cambric Arenosol, Cancer-causing compounds, 130 Canopy photosynthesis rates, 82–83 Carbon dioxide (CO2), 46, 61, 74, 82–83, 93 Caribbean oil, 253 Carvalhoia arecae, 206 Cashew See Anacardium occidentale Cashew apple, 249–250, 252 Cashew Development Corporation, Kerala, 216 Cashew export development authority (CEDA), 216–217 Cashew Export Promotion Council, 253 Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), 220, 250 Cashew nut shell oil (CSL), 188 Cashew stem and root borer (CSRB), 244 Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), 338 C decay curve, 7–8 Cell death, 98 Cellular ion homeostasis, 107 Cellular membrane thermostability (CMT), 64 Center for Scientific Investigation at Yucatan (CICY), 294 Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, 253 Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI), 195, 292 Centre de cooperation internationale en recherche´ agronomique pour le development (CIRAD), 273, 292–293 Centrosema pubescens, 241, 324 C3 grass, 102 Chali, 207 Chemical fertilizers, in China, 126–127 Chickpea See Cicer arietinum L China’s agriculture, 130 Chlorophyll (Chl), 83 Chromic Luvisol, Cicer arietinum L, 319, 321–325, 327, 335–342 391 Index Climate change effects of, 62 flexibility for adjusting and coping with, 108–109 Climate induced stresses and adaptation mechanisms See also Stress physiology, at ontogenetic stages on rice agronomic approaches, to cope with less water, 86–91 breeding rice for warmer world, 76–80 drought, 80–86 high night temperature, 75 high temperature and humidity, 63 salinity, 93–97 submergence, 97–102 temperature and CO2 interaction, 74–75 Clitoria ternatea L., 338 Clover, C:N ratio, 5, 7–8, 22–23, 132 Coastal rice ecosystems, 96 Cochliobolus sativus, 324 Coconut cadang–cadang viroid (CCCVd), 289 Coconut Genetic Resources Institute (COGENT), 292 Coconut oil, and anti-coconut lobby, 290–291 Coconut palm See Cocos Nucifera L Coconut Research Institute, Sri Lanka, 293 Coconut water, in China, 291 Coconut woodland, 259 Cocos Nucifera L adaptation in, 288–289 agronomy nutrients requirement, 280–281 soil, 278 soil water, 278–280 tissue analysis, 281–282 biotic factors, adaptation to, 286 breeding, constraints in, 274–275 hybrids and future, 276–277 selection and progress, 275–276 cytogenetics of, 271 distribution, on production, 264 early breeding work, 273–274 evolution along drifting coastlines, 259–260 human influence on, 262–264 field management, 285 as food item, 291 fruit component analysis, 272 future prospects, 294–295 genetic improvement genome, characterization of, 272 source of diversity, 271 hybrid seeds, commercial production of, 277 in vitro propagation, 277–278 hybrid vigor in, 274 inflorescence, 269 mixed cropping systems, 282–283 molecular markers, use of, 272–273 morphology, 265 crown, 267–268 frond, 267 fruit, 269–270 root system, 266–267 seed and seedlings, 270–271 trunk, 265–266 national research centers, 292–293 origin, 259 pests, 286–287 disease pathogens, 287–288 insect pests, 287 processing technology, advances in, 296 production base, protection of, 295 production, research and development in, 291–292 quality traits fatty acid mix, 290 research centers and institutes, contact information of, 296–300 research in India and Sri Lanka, 293 seed and seedling management, 283 germination rate, 283–284 polybag seedlings, 284 seedling selection, 284–285 swimming coconut fruit, 261–262 traits of true palm, 262 value-added products from, 285–286 wind resistance, development of, 260–261 yield potential of, 289–290 Cold and hot decomposition spots, 329 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, 206 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), 255 Compartmentation, 95 Compatible solutes, roles of, 106 Corticum salmonicolor, 247–248 Cottenham series (SSEW), soil, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), 253 Cowpea See Vigna unguiculata L C4 photosynthetic pathway, 358, 361 C4 rice plants, 363 Crop growth cycle, of rice, 63–64 Crop health, 167–168 Cropping sequences, effect on percent organic carbon, 17 Crop rotation, 38, 317 with legumes, 165–166 Crop technology, 62 Crown rot See Fusarium graminearum C turnover model, 51 Cultivar NSG19, adaptation to environments, 86 D Dark loessial soil, 134 Decomposable plant material (DPM), 46 392 Index Dehiscence, of anther, 70 Deltas of Mekong, 89 Depth of N dressing and wheat yield, relationship, 144 Deteriorating soils, advantages/disadvantages in, 107–108 Detoxification, 98 Devil’s Nut, 210 DNA-based technologies, 62, 108 Dolichos See Lablab purpureus L Drip irrigation, 200–201 Drought as catastrophic event, 81 and CO2 on crop yield and physiological responses, 82–84 genetic basis of grain formation failure under, 84–85 genetic enhancement, of drought-stress resistance, 85–86 milder chronic, 82 strategy for drought resistance improvement, 92–93 Drought-induced inhibition of panicle exsertion, 84 Drought-prone rainfed areas, 82 Drought resistance improvement, 92–93 Drought resistance index (DRI), 85 Dryland soils contents and distribution of N in, 131–134 N loss and gain, ways for (see Mineral N) strategies for managements of soil N on, 164–168 biological materials, as nutrient, 166–167 crop rotation, with legumes, 165–166 improving crop health, 167–168 N fertilizer, adequate supply of, 165 E Engineering-based cropping system, to improve WUE, 362 Ethanolic fermentation pathway, 98 Ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) genes, 99–100 European Community directive, on quality of water, 130 F Farmyard manure, 3–4, 7, 10, 13–14, 16, 22, 30, 34, 36, 38, 40, 43, 53 Fehe River, 133 Feni, 220, 250 Fertilizer and manure inputs on soils, 11–15 Field beans See Phaseolus vulgaris L.; Vicia faba Floral bud development and heat stress, 104 Food production, Food security, 352 Fruit rot, in arecanut, 205 Fusarium graminearum, 324 FYM See Farmyard manure G Gaeumannomyces graminis, 34 Ganges, 89 Ganoderma lucidum, 205 Garden pea See Pisum sativum L Genetic donors, for heat tolerance and avoidance, 77–78 Genetic improvement, for heat tolerance, 76–77 Genetic load in coconut palm report, 271 Gibberellic acid (GA3), 71–72, 98 Global Cashew Alliance (GCA), 217 Global warming, 102, 106 Gloeosporium mangiferae, 248 Glycine betaine, 72 Glycine max L., 333, 337 Glycolysis, 98 Glyricidia maculata, 202 Grain weight heat susceptibility index, 78 Green fuel, 210, 254 Greenhouse gas methane, 60 Green Revolution, 62, 76 Ground-cover rice production system (GCRPS), 369–370 H Half-life for C and N, 7–8 Halyomorpha marmorea, 206 Heat avoiding genotypes, 68–69 Heat stress during anthesis, 66 on rice crop, 102 (see also Stress physiology) Heat tolerance and avoidance in rice, selection indexes, 78–79 into crop plants, 106 genetics of, 7980 Helicoverpa amigera, 338 High affinity Kỵ transporters (HKT), 94 High night temperature, grain yield, 75 High temperature during grain-filling period, 73 Hordeum vulgare L, 83 Horticultural crops, Humidity, 63 Humified organic matter (HUM), 46 Hydrolysis, 163 Hydro-technological infrastructure, 89 I Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), 195, 222, 254 Indigofera (Indigofera tinctoria L.), 333 Indo-Gangetic plains, wheat production in, 370–371 Indole acetic acid (IAA), 71–72 393 Index Industrial crops, and economy of developing countries, 187 Inflorescence dieback, 205 Inorganic fertilizers, 142 Inorganic N, 52 International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), 223 International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), 62, 75, 86–87, 101, 108, 353–354 Ionic balance, 94 Irrawaddy, 89 IRRI breeding programs, 79 Irrigated and rainfed rice, in East, South and Southeast Asia, 61 Irrigated warping soil, 134 Irrigation schemes, 88 Irrigation systems in deltaic regions, 89 typology and potential role, 90–91 K Kaju Supari, 208 Kalpavriksha, 188, 259 Karimunda, 204 Kỵ/Naỵ ratio, 94 Koleroga (Mahali) See Fruit rot, in arecanut Krilium, 38 L Lablab purpureus L., 337–338 Lamida moncusalis, 244 Leaching, 136–137 Leaf area index (LAI), 203, 355 Lecopholis burmeisteri, 206 Legume–cereal cropping systems, 316–317 See also Legume-wheat rotation, in tropical humid climate residual soil moisture in dry land agriculture, 317–318 humid tropical environment and, 318–319 residue decomposition and N mineralization, factors affecting, 326–334 asymptotic models, for nutrient release from clitoria and dolichos residue, 331–333 decomposition of residues, incorporated into soil, 333–334 N concentration and C:N ratio, 330–331 net mineralization of C and N, 331 N released and crop demand, synchrony between, 326–327 nutrient release patterns, 329 oxygen levels, 328 residue management, 328–329 soil moisture and temperature, 327–328 soil texture, influence of, 328 straw quality index, 329 soil fertility and yields, 320 cereal grain yield response, 323–326 soil N enrichment, 320–323 Legume–wheat rotation, in tropical humid climate, 334–335 soil moisture use effects, 335–337 soil N contribution and yield effects, 337–342 Leguminous green manure (LGM), 138 Leucaena leucocephala, 241 Leucopholis lepidophora, 206 Lignin, 329–331, 333, 337, 340 Lucerne See Alfalfa M Magnesium (Mg), Maize See Zea mays Mandari disease, 293 Mangala, 196–197 Marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB), 100 Marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy, 353, 357 Mayan society, Medicago sativa, 167 Melilotus, 167 Mesopotamia, 2–3 Methemoglobinemia, 129 Microbial biomass (BIO), 46 Mineralization, of organic N, 132 Mineral N gains from wet deposition, 137 loss by denitrification, 136 leaching, 136–137 volatilization, 135–136 Mohitnagar, 196–197 Monsanto Chemicals, 38 Mucuna pruriens, 324, 326, 333 Mulch tillage, on drylands in China, 168 Mungbean See Vigna radiata Mustard See Brassica juncia L N NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), in rice leaves, 362–363 N allocation, at different growth stages on maize yield, 149 National Agricultural Advisory Service, 14 National Cashew Gene Bank (NCGB), 223 National Research Center for Cashew (NRCC), 222, 226, 231, 254 National Research Center (NRC) for DNA fingerprinting (NRCDNAF), 231 National Soil Inventory of England and Wales, 11 N availability index, 158 Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 329, 331 N fertilization, on C sequestration in soil, N fertilizer efficiency (NFE), 144 N fertilizer recovery (NFR), 127, 131 N fertilizers, 52–53, 126, 131 394 Index N fertilizers (cont.) rational application to dryland soils deep application of, 142–146 determination of N rate, 149–158 with OF, application of, 138–139 with P fertilizer, application of, 139–142 suitable form for different crops, 158–164 timing of, 146–149 N2 fixation, by leguminous crops, 316 NH4ỵ in terrestrial ecosystems, 128 NH3 volatilization, 164 Nitrate accumulation, in cereal crops, 160–161 Nitrate concentration cabbage, spinach, and wheat at different growth stages, 161 of different organs at different growth stages, 162 Nitrate concentration limits, for vegetables, 130 Nitrate N in groundwater, areas of China, 129 Nitrate N leaching, 136 Nitrate sparing, concept of, 323 Nitrite (NO2ỵ), 129 Nitrogen contents, in arable lands of China, 133 Nitrogen (N), 3, 127–128 See also Mineral N Broadbalk Winter Wheat experiment and, 39 deficiency, 137 distribution, in different areas, 133 loss by volatilization from, 146 Nitrosamide, 129–130 Nitrosamine, 129–130 Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, 136, 370 Noctuid stemborer See Busseola fusca Non-N effect, 324, 326 NPK fertilizers, 10–11 N rate allocation, at growing-stages on wheat yield, 148 N rate based on soil N-supplying capacity, determination See also N uptake; Soil N-supplying capacity (SNSC) anaerobic incubation, 151 to calculate mineralization potential (N0), 150–151 data from field experiments, 156 to evaluating SNSC and applying N fertilizer, 150 extraction and determination of mineral N, 152 index of N availability of, 157 laboratory methods, 150 results from pot experiment, 154, 156 without leaching and wheat uptake, 156 N-rich crop, N uptake, 153, 156–157, 159–160 N use efficiency (NUE), 131, 168 Nutrient buffer power concept, 209, 238 O OF See Organic fertilizer Oligonychus indicus, 206 OM See Organic matter Organic carbon after 58 years of different cropping sequences, 19 under arable cropping, amount of, 20–21 in sandy loam soil, 6, 18, 23–24 silty clay loam soil, Ley–arable experiment, 20–21 in top 23 cm on Geescroft Wilderness and Highfield Bare Fallow, 49 on Highfield and Fosters Ley–arable, Rothamsted, 50 from three plots growing, 48 Organic compartment (IOM), 46 Organic compatible osmolytes, 95 Organic fertilizer, 133, 138–139, 142, 145 Organic inputs to soils growing arable crops, 22–25 Organic matter, 130–132, 168 Organic matter content, of soils See also Soil organic matter changes and causes for arable crop rotations on loss of, 26–27 effects of fertilizer and manure inputs, 11–15 increases in content and permanent grass, 27–28 organic inputs to soils growing arable crops, 22–25 short-term leys interspersed and arable crop, 15–21 straw incorporation, effect of, 25–26 Organic nitrogen, 27 Organic waste residues, 164, 166–167 Oryctes rhinoceros, 287 Oryza australiensis, 363 Oryza glaberrima, 66, 69, 78, 86 Oryza sativa, 66, 69, 72, 78 Osmoprotectants, use of, 374 Osmotic adjustment (OA), in crop plants, 357 OWRs See Organic waste residues Oxidative stress management, 95 See also Salinity stress, mechanisms of Ozone layer, 130 P Paclobutrazol, 224 Palm oil, 187 Panniyur-1, 204 Peanuts See Arachis hypogea Pellicularia salmonicolor, 248 Penman model, modified, 200 PEP carboxylase, 358 Pestalotia microspora, 248 P fertilizer, 139–142 Phaseolus vulgaris L., 337 Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA), 293 Phomopsis anacardii, 248 Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), 358, 360–361 395 Index Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), 363 Phosphorus (P), Photosynthesis, 61, 74, 83–84, 103 Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), 202 Phytophthora Mardi, 205 Pi dikinase, 361 Pig manure, 138 Pink disease, 247–248 Piper nigrum, 204 Pisum sativum L., 337 Plant architecture, of rice plant, 68 Plantation crops, 187 Plant breeding, 76–77 Plant nutrients, Pneumatophores, 266–267 Pollen shedding, 78 Pollution of groundwater, by nitrate N, 129 Potassium (K), Potatoes, 8, 22 Powdery mildew disease, 248 Precipitation use efficiency (PUE), 138–139 Pressurized irrigation systems, 372 Priming effect, 329 Principal component regression (PCR), 329 Proline, 95 Proutista moesta, 205 Puddling, 366–367 Pueraria javanica, 241 Pueraria phaseoloides, 241, 324 Pyramiding genes/QTLs for salinity tolerance, 96 Q Quantitative electrolyte leakage, 64 Quantitative trait loci (QTL), 77, 79, 92, 96, 99–100, 109 Quartzipsammetric Haplumbrept, R Radopholus similes, 207 Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), 231 Raoiella indica, 206 Rattus exulans, 286 Reactive oxygen species (ROS), 95 Red River, 88 Resistant plant material (RPM), 46 Rhadinaphelencus cocophilus, 286 Rhizobium, 342 Rice blast disease, 354 Rice cultivation in hot/dry regions, 67–68 Rice ecosystems shift, 108 Rice production, and water availability, 352–353 crop management, 364 other management practices, 372–373 physiological implications, 373–374 production systems (see Rice production systems) future research areas, 374 genetic improvement, for water productivity, 353–354 molecular and biotechnological approaches, 358–362 selection and breeding strategies, 354–357 water-use efficiency and transpiration efficiency, 362–363 transgenic rice plants and effects under water-limited conditions, 360 genes and their effect, 361–362 Rice production systems, 62, 364 aerobic rice system, 364–366 AWD irrigation, 366–368 ground-cover rice production system, 369–370 raised beds, 370–372 system of rice intensification (SRI), 368–369 Rice productivity in salt-affected areas, 107 Riverina region, of low humidity, 68 Root rot See Cochliobolus sativus ROTHC-26.3 model, 51 Roth PC-1 model, 51 S Sabita and KDML105, adaptation to environments, 86 Salinity, in coastal areas, 107 Salinity stress, mechanisms compartmentation and organic compatible osmolytes, 95 ionic balance, 94 Salinity tolerance and adaptive mechanisms, 96–97 Salt-affected soils, 107 Salt response signaling, 107 Salt stress, 107 Sandy loam soils, 8, 37–38 Saturated soil culture (SSC), 87 Scapanes australis, 287 Seed priming, 373–374 Silicon (Si) nutrition, 374 Silty clay loam, 21 Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), 99 Si Sa Ket Horticultural Research Center, 243 Sodium transport, 107 Softwood grafting, 228, 238–239 Soil borne pathogen, 34 Soil cultivation—Highfield Bare Fallow, 48 Soil fertility, 3, 164 Soil methane sink, 128 Soil microbial biomass, Soil moisture, 81 Soil N-supplying capacity (SNSC), 149–153, 156 Soil organic carbon, decline in, Soil organic matter, 3–4 amount and C:N ratio, relationship, 6–8 benefits of, 37–46 nitrogen and organic matter effects from, 40 396 Soil organic matter (cont.) nitrogen, crop rotation, and, 38–40 soil phosphorus and potassium availability, 43–45 and soil structure, 37–38, 40–43 and water availability, 45–46 and crop yields, 28–37 disadvantages from increasing, 52–53 equilibrium levels of, 8–11 increases in, 27–28 modeling changes in, 46–51 nature and determination of, Soil phosphorus, availability, 43–45 Soil potassium, availability, 45 Soil sodicity, 93 Soil structure, 37–38 soil organic matter and, 40–43 Soil Survey of England and Wales (SSEW), Soil texture, 9, 21 SOM See Soil organic matter Soybean See Glycine max L Spring barley grain, yields of, 33 Sreemangala, 196–197 Stem bleeding, 206 Straw incorporation, 25–26, 32 Straw mulching, 168 Straw quality index (SQI), 329 Stress physiology, at ontogenetic stages on rice, 63 reproductive phase, 65–73 anther dehiscence and high temperature, 70–72 flowering patterns of, 67 heat avoiding genotypes, 68–69 heat stress during anthesis leads, 66 screening for heat tolerant donors, 72 spikelet fertility, 65 spikelet sterility, 69–70 ripening phase, 73–74 at vegetative phase, 63–64 Stress-sensitive mega varieties, 86 Stress tolerance QTL(s), by marker-assisted backcrossing, 101 Subabul, 237, 241 Sub1A-2 expression, 102 Sub1A gene, 108 Sub1C-1 allele, 99 submergence (Sub1), 97 Submergence tolerance germplasm screening, beyond Sub1, 101–102 molecular breeding, in rice varieties, 100–101 physiology and molecular biology of, 97–100 Sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, 83 Sugar beet, 22 Sumangala, 196–197 Sumerian society, Supari, 188, 208 Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation, 320 Index Syntenic region in Nipponbare, 99 System of rice intensification (SRI), 87, 367–368 T Target population of environments (TPEs), 81–82, 85, 92 Tea mosquito bug, 225, 244–245, 247 Tethys Sea, 260 Thielaviopsis paradoxa, 206 Thyroid gland disease, 129 Tirathaba mundella, 207 TMB See Tea mosquito bug Total soluble protein (TSP), 83 Transpiration, 68 Transpiration efficiency (TE), 362–363 Triacontanol, 326 Tropical soils, characteristics of, 316–317 Turnips See Brassica napus Typhoon, 81 U Urea, 129, 163 Urochloa panicoides, 358 Uromyces caudimaculatus, 286 V Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM), 204 Vicia faba, 22, 47 Vigna mungo, 324 Vigna radiata, 324 Vigna unguiculata L., 64 Vita packing, 216 Volatilization, 135 W Warmer climates advantages/disadvantages, 102–106 accelerated reproductive development under, 105 floral bud development, 104 flower development in cowpea, 104–105 reproductive development of crops, 103 Water saving techniques, 86–87 Water shortages, 106 Water-use efficiency, 83, 93, 138, 354, 357–359, 362–363, 366 Weihe River valley plains, 133 Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 339 Wheat yields and depths for fertilization, relationship, 144 Whether incorporating heat tolerance, 106 Winter wheat, 22–23 grain, with different cultivars, average yields, 35 397 Index Woburn Market Garden experiment, Worsening water stress, 106–107 WUE See Water-use efficiency Y Yellow leaf disease (YLD), 204–205 Yellow River water, 134 X Xangsane, 81 Xanthomonas campestris, 206 Z Zea mays, 326, 338 ... experiments (Glendining and Powlson, 1995) Applying N increases both crop yield and the return of plant residues to the soil and more carbon is retained in the soil The initial decline in soil C in the... Achieving significant increases in the equilibrium level of SOM in most farming systems requires very large inputs of organic matter and these have to be maintained if SOM is not to decline Similarly,... probably because of changes in farming systems Such changes have included the ploughing of grassland and growing arable crops with a decrease in annual C inputs and decline in SOM as it changes toward
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