Advances in agronomy volume 47

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DVANCES I N igronomy V O L U M E 47 Advisory Board Martin Alexander Eugene J Kamprath Cornell University North Carolina State University Kenneth J Frey Larry P.Wilding Iowa State University Texas A&M University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy Monographs Committee S H Anderson L P Bush R N Carrow M A Tabatabai, Chairman G L Horst R J Lwmoore R H Miller G A Peterson c.w Stuber S R Yates D V A N C E S I N onomy VOLUME 47 Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware ACADEMIC PRESS, INC Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers San Diego New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo Toronto This book is printed on acid-free paper @ Copyright 1992 by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Academic Press, Inc 1250 Sixth Avenue, San Diego, California 92101 United Kingdom Edition published !y Academic Press Limited 24-28 Oval Road, London NWI 7DX Library of Congress Catalog Number: 50-5598 International Standard Book Number: 0-12-000747-9 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 9 9 BC Contents CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE ix xi THE EFFECTS OF ACIDIC DEPOSITION ON FORESTED SOILS Wayne P Robarge and Dale W.Johnson I Introduction I1 Soil Acidification I11 Forest Soils IV Case Studies of Soil Change V FutureResearch VI Conclusions References 42 63 65 66 FINGERPRINTING CROP VARIETIES J S C Smith and S Smith I Introduction I1 Characters Used to Fingerprint Cultivated Varieties I11 Discriminational Ability of Fingerprinting Techniques Iv Usage of Fingerprints V NewTechniques References 85 86 108 119 125 127 TRANSPORT OF CHEMICALS THROUGH SOIL: MECHANISMS MODELS AND FIELD APPLICATIONS William A.Jury and Hannes Fluhler I Introduction I1 Transport and Transformation Processes I11 Analysis of Process Assumptions Iv Field Studies of Solute Transport V Concluding Remarks References V 142 143 169 175 191 195 vi CONTENTS EVOLUTION OF CORN Walton C Galinat I Introduction: Teosinte Is the Wild Corn I1 Transformation by Domestication and Isolation I11 Time Required for Transformation under Domestication IV Multiple Domestications in the Origin of Corn V Interpathway Heterosis VI Husk Enclosure of the Ear VII Current Direction of Corn Evolution and Where It Is Going VIII Summary and Conclusions References 203 205 212 214 221 222 224 227 229 USEOF SURFACE COMPLEXATION MODELS IN SOIL CHEMICAL SYSTEMS Sabine Goldberg I Introduction I1 Description of Models I11 Application of Models to Protonation-Dissociation Reactions on Oxides Clay Minerals and Soils Tv: Application of Models to Metal Ion Adsorption Reactions on Oxides Clay Minerals and Soils V Application of Models to Inorganic Anion Adsorption Reactions on Oxides Clay Minerals and Soils VI Application of Models to Organic Ligand Adsorption Reactions onoxides VII Application of Models to Competitive Adsorption Reactions on Oxides VIII Incorporation of Surface Complexation Models into Computer Codes IX Summary References 234 235 251 274 289 308 312 319 320 32 CONTENTS vii MODELING THE TRANSPORT AND RETENTION OF INORGANICS IN SOILS H M Selim Introduction Transport Equations Equilibrium Retention Models Kinetic Retention Models Multiple-Reaction Models Transport and Ion Exchange Transport in Layered Soil References 331 333 337 342 350 367 377 381 INDEX 385 I I1 I11 N V VI VII This Page Intentionally Left Blank Contributors Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin HANNES FLUHLER (141), Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Switzerland WALTON C GALINAT (203), Eastern Agricultural Center, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Waltham, Massachusetts 02 54 SABINE GOLDBERG (233), USDA-ARS, U.S Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, California 92501 DALE W JOHNSON (l), Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada 89J12 WILLIAM A JURY (141), Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California 92J21 WAYNE P ROBARGE (l), Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University,Raleigh, North Carolina 769s H M SELIM (3 I), Agronomy Department, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 J S C SMITH (85), Plant Breeding Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, Iowa 50131 0.S SMITH (85), Plant Breeding Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, Iowa 50131 ix 390 INDEX Domestication of corn (continued) origin, 214-215 cob morphology, 215-219 plant habit, 219-221 tqansformation,205-2 12 time required, 212-214 Drainage water, acidic deposition on forested soils, 65 chemical factors, 39-40 physical factors, 11-12, 14 Dry deposition, acidic deposition on forested soils, 7, 35,40,48 Dual velocity models, chemical transport through soil, 167 E Effective dispersion coefficient, chemical transport through soil, 155 Electric double-layer theory, surface complexation models, 247 Electrical neutrality, acidic deposition on forested soils, 30 Electrolytes, surface complexation models, 235 description, 235,238,240,242,244 inorganic anion adsorption, 300 metal ion adsorption, 277,286,288 protonation-dissociation reactions, 254-255,267,272-273 triple-layer models, 256-258, 260-261, 263-264,266 Electrophoresis, fingerprintingcrop varieties characters, 89,95-99, 101 discrimination, 110-115 new techniques, 125-126 usage, 119-121,123,125 Electrostatic potential terms, surface complexation models, 236,246,320 Elongation, corn, 221,223,226-227 Endonucleases, restriction, fingerprinting crop varieties, 98, 100-101, 126 Environment, fingerprinting crop varieties, 87-88,95-97,120 Enzymes, see also Restriction enzymes fingerprintingcrop varieties, 89,98, 102, 104,109, 113 Equilibrium acidic deposition on forested soils, 45 inorganics in soils, 333,379 equilibrium retention models, 337-340 ionexchange, 367-369,371,374,376 kinetic retention models, 343,345-346 multiple-reaction models, 350, 352-353,360,363 Equilibrium adsorption, chemical transport through soil, 162, 165,172,174,185, 187 Equilibrium concentrations, chemical transport through soil, 168 Equilibrium constants, surface complexation models, 234-235 competitive adsorption reactions, 316-317 computer codes, 319 description, 236-237,239-240,242-245 248,250 inorganic anion adsorption, 290,297,300, 305,307 metal ion adsorption, 275,277-279,282, 287-288 organic ligand adsorption, 308-309 protonation-dissociation reactions, 25 1, 254-255,257,267,273 Equilibrium partitioning, chemical transport through soil, 171 Equilibrium pressure, chemical transport through soil, 146 Equilibrium sorption, chemical transport through soil, 183 External-internal proton ratio (EIPR), acidic deposition on forested soils, 39-40 F Faraday constant, surface complexation models, 236, 246 FASTCHEM, surface complexation models, 320 Feedback corn, 223,228 surface complexation models, 285 Femaleness, corn, 221-222 Feminization, corn, 222, 225 Ferric oxide, hydrous, surface complexation models, 270-271,286-287.305-307 Fertilizer, inorganics in soils, 332-333 Field regime, chemical transport through soil, 192-195 FIESTA, inorganics in soils, 367-368 Fingerprinting crop varieties, 85-86 characters DNA data, 98-108 391 morphology, 86-88 protein data, 88-98 discrimination, 108-1 18 new techniques, 125-127 usage, 119 genetic diversity, 122-123 genetic purity, 123 germplasm improvement, 123-124 minimum distance, 121-122 misappropriation, 124-125 plant variety protection, 119-121 FITEQL, surface complexation models computer codes, 319 inorganic anion adsorption, 290,297, 305-306 metal ion adsorption, 277,279,286-287 protonation-dissociation reactions, 254-255,265-266,270-271 Fluoride inorganics in soils, 347 surface complexation models, 237,303, 15 Flux concentration, chemical transport through soil, 157, 160-161 Flux of dissolved chemical in soil, 147-151 Forested soils, acidic deposition on, see Acidic deposition on forested soils Freundlich adsorption, chemical transport through soil, 171 Freundlich isotherm models, chemical transport through soil, 162-163, 171-172 Freundlich models, inorganics in soils, 333, 345 equilibrium retention models, 337-340 multiple-reaction models, 350, 352 G Gametophyte genes, corn, 210-211, 227 Gene expression, corn, 227-228 Generalized two-layer model, 234,320 description, 246-248,270-271 inorganic anion adsorption, 305-307 metal ion adsorption, 278, 286-287 Genes, corn, 227-228 husk enclosure of ear, 223-224 multiple domestications, 215,217,219,221 transformation 206-210, 212 Genetic control, fingerprinting crop varieties, 96-97,105 Genetic distance, fingerprinting crop varieties, 87-88,102,104-105, 108 Genetic diversity corn, 207 fingerprinting crop varieties, 86 characters, 87, 96, 100-102 discrimination, 109-110 new techniques, 126-127 usage, 122-123 Genetic markers, fingerprinting crop varieties, 107, 125, 127 Genetic purity, fingerprinting crop varieties, 123 Genomic DNA, fingerprinting crop varieties, 101-102 Genotype, fingerprinting crop varieties characters, 87-88,96,101-102, 104-106, 108 discrimination, 109-1 15 usage, 119,121-124 GEOCHEM model, chemical transport through soil, 168 Geographic diversity, corn, 200,215 Geothite, inorganics in soils, 375 Germplasm corn, 207,211,219,225 fingerprinting crop varieties, 108-109, 123-124,126 Gibbsite acidic deposition on forested soils, 22, 25 surface complexation models, 314-315 Gliadin, fingerprinting crop varieties, 95, 111, 119-120, 124 Glitelins, fingerprinting crop varieties, 95, 111, 114-115 Globulin, fingerprinting crop varieties, 95-97, 114 Glume, corn, 210-212,227 Glutamate, surface complexation models, 308 Goethite, surface complexation models, 237 competitive adsorption reactions, 312, 314-315.318 inorganic anion adsorption, 290,297,300, 302-304,307 metal ion adsorption, 276, 279, 282-283, 285 organic ligand adsorption, 309,312 protonation-dissociation reactions, 251-254,256,258.266-268.274 Groundwater acidic deposition on forested soils, 13, 35 INDEX 392 Groundwater (conrinued) chemical transport through soil, 142, 154, 174, 187, 189 inorganics in soils, 331 H Harvesting acidic deposition on forested soils, 3, 31, 34,63 corn, 209,214 Hematite, surface complexation models, 288 Herbicides, chemical transport through soil, 182-183 Hermaphroditism, corn, 205,223-224 Heterogeneity chemical transport through soil, 143, 189, 191 inorganics in soils, 359,361 surface complexation models, 320 competitive adsorption reactions, 314 inorganic anion adsorption, 291 metal ion adsorption, 277,284,288 protonation-dissociation reactions, 255, 266-267,273-274 Heterosis fingerprinting crop varieties, 105, 122, 124 interpathway, corn, 221-222 High-performance liquid chromatography, reversed-phase, fingerprinting crop varieties, 95-96, 111-115 Hordeins, fingerprinting crop varieties, 113-114 Hormonelike control, corn, 223-224 Hormones, corn, 223,228 Humidity, acidic deposition on forested soils, 2, 16,18,63 Humus, acidic deposition on forested soils, 3, 64 Husk enclosure of corn ear, 222-224 Hybridization corn, 219,221-223.225-226 fingerprinting crop varieties characters, 97.99-101, 104-105 discrimination, 108-109, 113-114 new techniques, 126 usage, 122-124 HYDRAQL, surface complexation models, 297,319 Hydraulic conductivity, chemical transport through soil 146, 154-155,158,191, 194 Hydrodynamic dispersion chemical transport through soil, 149 inorganics in soils, 334-335, 362 Hydrogen acidic deposition on forested soils, 1, , 64-65 budgets, 38-40 chemical factors, 15-19,21-24,30, 33-34 mineral weathering, 36-37 physical factors, 7-9 soil change studies, 44,48,55 soil organisms, 40-42 inorganics in soils, 375 HYDROGEOCHEM, surface complexation models, 320 Hydrology acidic deposition on forested soils, 11-16, 27 chemical transport through soil, 149,191, 194 Hydrolysis acidic deposition on forested soils, 21, 24 chemical transport through soil, 168 inorganics in soils, 375 surface complexation models, 281,288 Hydrophobicity, fingerprinting crop varieties, 98 Hydrous ferric oxide, surface complexation models, 270-271,286-287.305-307 Hydroxyl groups, surface complexation models, 235-237,245,251,254,256 Hydroxyl ions, surface complexation models, 240,245,249,251,256 Hysteresis chemical transport through soil, 164, 172 inorganics in soils, 346-347 I Identical by descent, fingerprinting crop varieties, 105 Identity in state, fingerprinting crop varieties, 105 Illite, surface complexation models, 256, 267 Image analysis, fingerprinting crop varieties, 87-88,103 Immobile regions chemical transport through soil, 166, 173-174 inorganics in soils, 332 layered soil, 370-371, 373-374 INDEX multiple-reaction models, 359, 361-363, 365,367 Immobile water content, chemical transport through soil, 166,171 Immobilization, inorganics in soils, 347, 354 Infinite-time model of solute dispersion, chemical transport through soil, 152 Inflorescence, corn, 205,208,219,223-226 Inhibitors acidic deposition on forested soils, 45, 61 corn, 209-210,223-224 Inner-sphere surface complexes, surface complexation models, 238, 240,243, 245-246 competitive adsorption reactions, 313 inorganic anion adsorption, 300-301 metal ion adsorption, 282 Inorganics in soils, modeling of, 331-333 equilibrium retention models, 337 Freundlich, 337-340 Langmuir, 340 Langmuir two-site, 340-342 ion exchange, 367-368 classical approach, 368-370 mobile-immobile approach, 370-371 specific adsorption, 373-376 variable selectivities, 371-373 kinetic retention models, 342-350 layered soil, 377 constant flux, 377-379 water-unsaturated soils, 379-38 multiple-reaction models, 350-35 multireaction models, 353-358 second-order models, 358-367 two-site models, 351-353 transport equations, 333-336 Intensity acidic deposition on forested soils, 5-6, 44-48,66 Interpathway heterosis, corn, 221-222 Interphase transfer laws, chemical transport through soil, 161-167 Interspace trait, corn, 206-207 Introgression, corn, 210,214 Ion exchange, inorganics in soils, 332-333, 367-370 adsorption, 373-376 kinetic retention models, 349-350 mobile-immobile models, 370-371 multiple-reaction models, 360, 363 selectivities, 371-373 393 Ionic strength inorganics in soils, 360, 371 surface complexation models, 255,257 260,265,270,300 Ions chemical transport through soil, 167, 184 inorganics in soils, 350 surface complexation models, 235, 320 competitive adsorption reactions, 312-313, 318 description, 235, 237-238, 240-242, 245-247 metal ion adsorption, 274-289 protonation-dissociation reactions, 25 1, 254,256,274 Iron acidic deposition on forested soils, 36 surface complexation models, 278, 287, 301-302 Iron oxide acidic deposition on forested soils, 33-34 inorganics in soils, 354 surface complexation models, 243 competitive adsorption reactions, 312-313, 315,317-318 inorganic anion adsorption, 289-291, 296-298,300,303,307 metal ion adsorption, 275-276, 278-279,281-282.287-288 organic ligand adsorption, 308-309 protonation-dissociation reactions, 251-253,267-268,270 triple-layer model, 256, 258-259, 265 Irrigation chemical transport through soil, 176, 178-179, 182-183, 186 corn, 205,207 Isoelectric focusing, fingerprinting crop varieties, 112, 114-115 Isoenzymes, fingerprinting crop varieties, 89-90,96-97 Isolation, corn, 205-207, 211 ISOQUAD, surface complexation models, 319 Isotherms chemical transport through soil, 161-165, 171-172 inorganics in soils equilibrium retention models, 339-341 ion exchange, 369,371-372,374,376 kinetic retention models, 343-345, 357 multiple-reaction models, 361, 363 INDEX 394 Isozymes corn, 215 fingerprinting crop varieties characters, 97-98, 103 discrimination, 109 112-113, 115 usage, 120,122, 124-125 K Kaolinite acidic deposition on forested soils, 36 inorganics in soils, 349, 352 surface complexation models inorganic anion adsorption, 291,297, 301 metal ion adsorption, 275,277 protonation-dissociation reactions, 254-256 Kernels, corn, 207,212,225-227 exposure, 217-219 Key trait genes, corn, 207-211,227-228 Kinetic mass transfer, chemical transport through soil, 165 Kinetics inorganics in soils, 333,337-338,377 ion exchange, 368,373-376 kinetic retention models, 342-350 multiple-reaction models, 351-352, 354-456,358-364 surface complexation models, 266,282, 300-301.320 L Langmuir isotherms, chemical transport through soil, 162, 164 Langmuir models, inorganics in soils, 333, 337,340,350,360-361 Langmuir two-site model, inorganics in soils, 340-342.363 Layered soil, inorganics in soils, 377-381 Leaching acidic deposition on forested soils, 3-5 chemical factors, 18, 30, 32 future research, 64 physical factors, 13 soil change studies, 43,423-57,59, 61-63 chemical transport through soil, 167,176, 178,182-184 inorganics in soils, 331, 354,369 Lead inorganics in soils, 339-340 surface complexation models competitive adsorption reactions, 312-313,318 metal ion adsorption, 278,282-283, 286 Ligands, surface complexation models, 238, 240-241,243,248,320 competitive adsorption reactions, 314-318 inorganic anion adsorption, 291,300 organic ligand adsorption, 308-312 protonation-dissociation reactions, 25 1, 257 Lime, acidic deposition on forested soils, 55 Linear equilibrium adsorption, chemical transport through soil, 187 Linear equilibrium hypothesis, chemical transport through soil, 162 Linear isotherms, chemical transport through soil, 162-163, 172 Linear solute transport models, chemical transport through soil, 162 Linkage corn, 210-211,227 fingerprinting crop varieties, 103 Loam chemical transport through soil, 184, 187-188, 190 inorganics in soils, 371, 376 Loamy sand, chemical transport through soil, 186-188,190 Local dispersion, chemical transport through soil, 191 Lognormal frequency distribution, chemical transport through soil, 159 Longitudinal dispersion coefficient, inorganics in soils, 334-335 Lysimeters, acidic deposition on forested soils, 13 M Macropores, chemical transport through soil, 183, 187 Magnesium acidic deposition on forested soils chemical factors, 20-21, 36-37 physical factors, soil change studies, 45,52,54,57-59, 61-63 395 inorganics in soils, 368-373 surface complexation models, 279,282, 312-313.318 Magnetites, surface complexation models, 256,258,297,300 Maize evolution of, see Corn, evolution of fingerprinting crop varieties, 94-97, 102-103 discrimination, 109- 113 new techniques, 125 usage, 120,122-123.125 Maleness, corn, 221,225-226 Manganese, surface complexation models, 279 Manganese oxide, surface complexation models, 259, 268,297 competitive adsorption reactions, 312-3 13, 315 inorganic anion adsorption, 300,303 metal ion adsorption, 279, 281 Mapping, fingerprinting crop varieties, 103-104, 126 Markers corn, 211 fingerprinting crop varieties, 103,125, 127 Masculinization, corn, 223,225-226 Mass balance chemical transport through soil, 160-161, 166, 181 surface complexation models, 238, 244 Mass balance equations, surface complexation models, 236, 242,250,258,320 Mass conservation law, chemical transport through soil, 144, 147,156 Mass flow, inorganics in soils, 334 Mass transfer chemical transport through soil, 187, 193 processes, 160-167 processes, analysis of, 172-175 inorganics in soils, 350,361-362, 374 Mass velocity, chemical transport through soil, 178 Mean convection rate, chemical transport through soil, 178, 187 Mean solute velocity, chemical transport through soil, 176-179 Mercury, surface complexation models, 286 Metal-ligand interactions, surface complexation models, 316-318 Metal-metal competition, surface complexation models, 312-313 Microbial population density, chemical transport through soil, 168-169 MICROQL, surface complexation models, 290,297, 319 MICTOQL, surface complexation models, 279 Migration, chemical transport through soil, 189, 193 MINEQL, surface complexation models, 279, 297,319 Mineral weathering, acidic deposition on forested soils, 35-40 Mineralization acidic deposition on forested soils, 5, 30-31,41,64 inorganics in soils, 347,354 Minerals clay, see Clay minerals inorganics in soils, 375 surface complexation models, 235,237, 309,316,320 protonation-dissociation reactions, 25 1, 254-256,267,270 MINETEQ, surface complexation models, 319-320 Minimum distance, fingerprinting crop varieties, 121-122, 126-127 Mobile regions chemical transport through soil, 173 inorganics in soils, 332,367,374 Mobile water content, chemical transport through soil, 166-167,174 Mobile-immobile models, inorganics in soils, 332 ion exchange, 370-371 multiple-reaction models, 359, 361-363, 367 Mobile-immobile water model, chemical transport through soil, 166,174 Modeling of inorganics in soils, see Inorganics in soils, modeling of Modified Roger's distance, fingerprinting crop varieties, 105 Molybdate, surface complexation models, 291, 300-301, 303-304, 315-316 Molybdenum, surface complexation models, 291,303 Montmorillonite inorganics in soils, 349 396 INDEX Montmorillonite (continued) surface complexation models, 256,267, 270,29I Morphology corn, 215-219,221,225 fingerprinting crop varieties, 86-88, 108, 119-122 Multiple-reaction models, inorganics in soils, 350-351 multireaction models, 353-358 second order models, 358-367 two-site models, 351-353 Multireaction and transport model (MRTM), inorganics in soils, 355-358 Multireaction model (MRM), inorganics in soils, 355-356, 364 Multivariate analysis, fingerprinting crop varieties, 104-108 MUSIC program, surface complexation models, 274 Mutation corn, 205,213,224 multiple domestications, 215,221 transformation, 206,210 fingerprinting crop varieties, 98 Mycorrhizae, acidic deposition on forested soils, 64-65 N Napropamide, chemical transport through soil, 183,187-188 Neutralization, see also Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) acidic deposition on forested soils, chemical factors, 24, 36, 38,40 future research, 64 physical factors, surface complexation models, 235 Nickel inorganics in soils, 368, 375-376 surface complexation models, 285-286 Nitrates acidic deposition on forested soils, 1-3, 5-6.66 chemical factors, 17, 19,27 physical factors, 7, 14-15 retention, 29-32 soil change studies, 43.45-46,48,56 chemical transport through soil, 142, 167 surface complexation models, 282 Nitrification, acidic deposition on forested soils, 30,32,40,48,64 Nitrogen acidic deposition on forested soils, 65 chemical factors, 26,41 retention, 29-32 soil change studies, 45,48,52,56 fingerprinting crop varieties, 95 Nonaqueous phase liquid (NAF'L), chemical transport through soil, 145-147, 165 Nonlinear adsorption models, chemical transport through soil, 171-172 Novelty, fingerprinting crop varieties, 121 Nucleotides, fingerprinting crop varieties, 98 Nutrient cycling, acidic deposition on forested soils, 10,31-32,34,63 Nutrient uptake, acidic deposition on forested soils, 4,28,43,45,65 One-pKmodel, 234,249-251.307, 320 metal ion adsorption, 287-289 protonation-dissociation reactions, 212-214 Organic acids, acidic deposition on forested soils, 3, 28 Organic carbon, chemical transport through soil, 163, 168 Outer-sphere surface complexes, surface complexation models, 240-243 competitive adsorption reactions, 313 inorganic anion adsorption, 300-301 metal ion adsorption, 282 protonation-dissociation reactions, 255 Oxidation, acidic deposition on forested soils, 1,5, 30 Oxides inorganics in soils, 375 surface complexation models, 235-238, 240,243 competitive adsorption reactions, 312-318 inorganic anion adsorption, 296, 301 metal ion adsorption, 277-278.282, 284 organic ligand adsorption, 308-312 protonation-dissociation reactions, 25 1, 254,256,270 Oxisol, surface complexation models, 266, 282,301 397 Oxygen, surface complexation models, 249-250 Ozone, acidic deposition on forested soils, 41 P Pedigree, fingerprinting crop varieties, 105-106, 111, 122, 124-125 Permeability, chemical transport through soil, 175, 186, 189, 192 Pesticides, chemical transport through soil processes, 163-164, 171-172 solute transport, field studies of, 182-184, 186-187 PH acidic deposition on forested soils, 3-4,6, 65-66 chemical factors, 15-20.23-28.30-31 mineral weathering, 38 soil changes, 45,49.51,56-60.62 sulfate retention, 33-35 chemical transport through soil, 164, 168 fingerprinting crop varieties, 89 inorganics in soils, 332, 352 surface complexation models, 235,308, 313,319 inorganic anion adsorption, 300,303, 305 metal ion adsorption, 274,285-286 protonation-dissociation reactions, 25 1, 261,265 Phase concentration models, chemical transport through soil, 161 Phenotype corn, 215 fingerprinting crop varieties, 88, 105 Phosphate inorganics in soils, 337 surface complexation models competitive adsorption reactions, 314-315.318 inorganic anion adsorption, 290-291, 295-297,300-301.303-305,307 Phosphorus, inorganics in soils, 333, 340, 342,353,356,358 Photodecomposition, chemical transport through soil, 168 Photosynthate partitioning, corn, 225-226 Phylogenetic information, fingerprinting crop varieties, 98, 124 Pinus, acidic deposition on forested soils, 57-58 Piston flow velocity, chemical transport through soil, 176,178-179,184,187 Pith abscission, corn, 209, 211 Plant breeding corn, 203, 213,228 fingerprinting crop varieties, 119, 127 Plant habit, corn, 219-221.223 Plutonium, surface complexation models, 281, 317 Pollen, corn, 221-222,226-228 multiple domestications, 219,221 transformation, 207,212 Polymerase chain reaction, fingerprinting crop varieties, 100, 126 Polymers, acidic deposition on forested soils, 16.23-24 Polymorphism, see also Restriction fragment length polymorphisms fingerprinting crop varieties, 99, 101-102, 104, 110, 126 Pore water velocity, chemical transport through soil, 156 Porosity, chemical transport through soil, 146, 148, 175 Potassium acidic deposition on forested soils chemical factors, 21, 36 physical factors, 7, soil change studies, 57-61 inorganics in soils, 349-350, 353 surface complexation models, 307 Potato chemical transport through soil, 186 fingerprinting crop varieties, 101, 115, 120 Potentiometric titration, surface complexation models, 237,291 metal ion adsorption, 277,288 protonation-dissociation reactions, 254-256,265,267,270-271.273 Precipitation acidic deposition on forested soils 27, 33, 35,37-38,40 chemical transport through soil, 167 inorganics in soils, 332,347,349,354 surface complexation models, 278,287, 296,305, 307,319 Preferential flow of solute, chemical transport through soil field regime, 192-193 INDEX 398 Preferential flow of solute, chemical transport through soil (continued) field studies, 179, 181, 185-188 processes, 152,174-175 Probability density function (pdf), chemical transport through soil, 157-160, 162, 169-170,194 Probes, fingerprinting crop varieties, 100-104 Productivity, corn, 206,208,225-226,228 interpathway heterosis, 221 multiple domestications, 219 Prolamins, fingerprinting crop varieties, 114-115 Protandry, corn, 222-223 Protein, fingerprinting crop varieties, 86, 123-125 characters, 88-98, 104 discrimination, 109-110,112,114-118 Protogyny, corn, 222-223 Proton charge, surface complexation models, 235,238,243 Protonation, surface complexation models, 234,241-242,245,248,320 inorganic anion adsorption, 290, 301-302 protonation-dissociation reactions, 251-274 Protons, surface complexation models, 240, 245,249 Q Quantitative trait loci, fingerprinting crop varieties, 124 Quickflow, acidic deposition on forested soils, 13-15.35 R Rachilla, corn, 210,222 elongation, 212,217,227 multiple domestications, 217-219 Radial diffusion, chemical transport through soil, 166, 173 Radiolabeling, fingerprinting crop varieties, 89, 126 Rainfall acidic deposition on forested soils, 9, 13,27 chemical transport through soil, 167, 176, 181,184,187, 190 Rainwater, acidic deposition on forested soils, 7-9 Random dispersion, chemical transport through soil, 187 Rate coefficients chemical transport through soil, 173-174 inorganics in soils ion exchange, 375 kinetic retention models, 344 multiple-reaction models, 352, 354-357,360,363-365.367 surface complexation models, 284 Rate-limited adsorption, chemical transport through soil, 172-174 Rate-limited mass transfer model, chemical transport through soil, 166 Rate-limited sorption, chemical transport through soil, 164-165 Rate processes, chemical transport through soil, 193 Recombination corn, 227 fingerprinting crop varieties, 121 Reduction, acidic deposition on forested soils, Relative permeability, chemical transport through soil, 146-147 Relative saturation, chemical transport through soil, 146 Resident concentration pulse, chemical transport through soil, 178 Resident concentrations, chemical transport through soil, 160-161 Restriction digests, fingerprinting crop varieties, 101-102 Restriction endonucleases, fingerprinting crop varieties, 98, 100-101, 126 Restriction enzymes, fingerprinting crop varieties, 102, 104, 126 Restriction fragment length polymorphisms ( R E P S ) , fingerprinting crop varieties characters, 98-100,103-108 discrimination, 110, 112-115 new techniques, 125 usage, 120, 122-125 Retardation factor chemical transport through soil processes, 162-164,173 solute transport, field studies of, 183-184, 187-199 inorganics in soils, 352, 365, 369, 378-379 Retention, inorganics in soils, 332-333, 336 computer codes, 368-369,371,373 INDEX equilibrium retention models, 337-342 kinetic retention models, 342-350 layered soil, 377-379 multiple-reaction models, 350-353,355, 357-365 Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, fingerprinting crop varieties, 95-96, 111-115 Reversing Acidification in Norway (RAIN), acidic deposition on forested soils, 27-28.37-38,66 Rhizosphere, acidic deposition on forested soils, 42, 64 Rhodamine, chemical transport through soil, 184,186-188 Rind abscission, corn, 209-210 RNA, fingerprinting crop varieties, 100 Root zone, inorganics in soils, 331 Rooting zones, acidic deposition on forested soils, 8, 10, 64 Roots, acidic deposition on forested soils, 4, 31, 65 Runoff, acidic deposition on forested soils, 27, 35.38 S Saturated hydraulic conductivity, chemical transport through soil, 146,154, 191 Saturation acidic deposition on forested soils, 13, 15, 30-33,35,49 chemical transport through soil, 154, 165, 189 inorganics in soils, 333, 377-379 Seasonal changes, acidic deposition on forested soils, 9, 30-31, 59-61 Second-order mobile-immobile model (SOMIM), inorganics in soils, 361-365, 367 Second-order models, inorganics in soils, 358-367.375 Second-order two-site model (SOTS), inorganics in soils, 359-361,363-365 Secondary sex traits, corn, 205,212, 222-224 Seed corn, 228 fingerprinting crop varieties, , , , 110, 119 Segregation, corn, 208-209, 211,227 399 Selection, corn, 226 Selectivity coefficients, inorganics in soils, 360,363,368,371-372 Selenate, surface complexation models, 300-301,303,305,318 Selenite, surface complexation models competitive adsorption reactions, 314-315, 318 inorganic anion adsorption, 296,300-301, 303-305 Selenium, surface complexation models, 237, 291, 295 Sequences, fingerprinting crop varieties, 98-99, 101, 126 Serology, fingerprinting crop varieties, 89 Shattering cob, corn, 209 Sigmoidicity inorganics in soils, 341-342 Silica, surface complexation models, 274, 278,286 Silicate acidic deposition on forested soils, 16, 36-38,40 surface complexation models, 290,296, 14-3 15 Silicon dioxide, surface complexation models, 308, 316 Silver, surface complexation models, 278-279.317 Sodium acidic deposition on forested soils, 21, 36 inorganics in soils, 367, 370-373 Soil chemical transport through, see Chemical transport through soil fingerprinting crop varieties, 96 forested, acidic deposition on, see Acidic deposition on forested soils inorganics in, see Inorganics in soils, modeling of Soil acidification, see Acidic deposition on forested soils Soil chemical systems, surface complexation models in, see Surface complexation models Soil coring, chemical transport through soil, 178-179,188 Soil horizons, acidic deposition on forested soils cation exchange, 19-20.24 future research, 64 physical factors, , 17, 30-31, 33,40 Soil matrix chemical transport through soil, 148,152, 157,181,184,193 inorganics in soils, 332, 335, 337 ion exchange, 368 multiple-reaction models, 352-353, 358-362 Soil moisture, acidic deposition on forested soils, 13, 16,30 Soil organisms, acidic deposition on forested soils, 40-42 Soil pH, acidic deposition on forested soils, 15-19 Soil solution, acidic deposition on forested soils, 43, 52,54 SOILCHEM, surface complexation models, 319 Solute adsorption, chemical transport through soil, 161-165, 171-175, 182-185 Solute dispersion, chemical transport through soil, 151-153, 179-182,189-191, 194 Solute mass, chemical transport through soil, 187 Solute retention, inorganics in soils, 339, 342, 345,358-360 Solute transport chemical transport through soil, 154, 192-193,194 field studies, 175-191 inorganics in soils, 332-336 ion exchange, 367 layered soil, 377-378,381 multiple-reaction models, 350, 353, 355-356, 359,362 Solute velocity, chemical transport through soil, 176-179,189-191 Sorghum, fingerprinting crop varieties, 101, 115 Sorption chemical transport through soil, 164-165, 174,185 inorganics in soils, 332-333,368-369, 311-372.374-376 equilibrium retention models, 337, 340-341 kinetic retention models, 342-343, 345 multiple-reaction models, 350, 352-354,356,358-359,362-363 surface complexation models computer codes, 319 inorganic anion adsorption, 296,305, 307 metal ion adsorption, 278,285,287 Soybean, fingerprinting crop varieties, 101, 113, 125 Spikelets, corn, 205,207-211.225.227-228 Sprinklers, chemical transport through soil, 183,186-187,190-191 Squash, 223 Stability, fingerprinting crop varieties, 119-120 Stagnant water phase models, chemical transport through soil, 166-167, 173-174 STEADYQL, surface complexation models, 319 Stemflow, acidic deposition on forested soils, 7-10,31 Stem plane, surface complexation models, 249,288 Stem VSC-VSP model, 244-246,319-320 inorganic anion adsorption, 303-305 metal ion adsorption, 282-286 protonation-dissociation reactions, 267-270 Stochastic continuum model, chemical transport through soil, 153-154 Stochastic local solute transport model, chemical transport through soil, 154 Stochastic-convective flux, chemical transport through soil, 156,161, 189,194 Stochastic-convective transfer function, chemical transport through soil, 159 String cob trait, corn, 207,219,228 Sulfates acidic deposition on forested soils, 1-2, 5-6,66 chemical factors, 17, 19, 27 future research, 64 mineral weathering, 37 physical factors, 7-9, 13-15 retention, 29, 32-35 soil change studies, 45-46,52,54-56 surface complexation models, 290,301, 305, 315,318 Sulfur acidic deposition on forested soils, 65 chemical factors, 26, 29, 32-35 physical factors, soil change studies, 52,54-56 INDEX fingerprinting crop varieties, 95,97 surface complexation models, 235 Surface charge, surface complexation models, 247,308,320 Surface charge density, surface complexation models, 246,267,283,300,320,341 Surface complexation models, 234-235, 320 competitive adsorption reactions anion-anion, 314-316 metal-ligand, 316-318 metal-metal, 312-313 computer codes, 319-320 description characteristics, 235-237 constant capacitance model, 238-240 generalized two-layer model, 246-248 one-pK model, 249-25 Stem VSC-VSP model, 244-246 triple-layer model, 240-244 inorganic anion adsorption constant capacitance model, 289-297 generalized two-layer model, 305-307 one-pK model, 307 Stern VSC-VSP model, 303-305 triple-layer model, 297-303 metal ion adsorption constant capacitance model, 274-279 generalized two-layer model, 286-287 one-pK model, 287-289 Stem VSC-VSP model, 282-286 triple-layer model, 279-282 organic ligand adsorption constant capacitance model, 308-310 Stern VSC-VSPmodel, 311-312 triple-layer model, 309, 311 protonation-dissociation reactions constant capacitance model, 251-256 generalized two-layer model, 270-27 one-pK model, 272-274 Stem VSC-VSP model, 267-270 triple-layer model, 256-266 Surface hydroxyl groups, surface complexation models, 235-237, 245, 251,254,256 Surface precipitation model, surface complexation models, 278, 287, 296-297,307, 312 Surface site density, surface complexation models, 237,267,282, 312 40 Surface-solution interface, surface complexation models, 238,240,247, 249 T Tassels, corn, 208,212,219,224-226,228 Taxonomy, fingerprinting crop varieties, 119-120 Tehuacan corn, 206-207,212-213,223 Temperature chemical transport through soil, 165-166, 168 surface complexation models, 236,265, 285,303 Teosinte, see Corn, evolution of Thermodynamics inorganics in soils, 360, 368 surface complexation models, 234,243, 285 Through fall, acidic deposition on forested soils, 7-10, 31 Tight linkage, corn, 210-211,227 Titanium oxide, surface complexation models, 237,308,316 metal ion adsorption, 275, 279 protonation-dissociation reactions, 252-253,256,258-259,265,271 Titration, see also Potentiometric titration acidic deposition on forested soils, 19 surface complexation models, 237,291 metal ion adsorption, 277, 288 protonation-dissociation reactions, 252-256,258,265-267, 270-274 Tortuosity, chemical transport through soil, 146, 148 Tracers, chemical transport through soil, 184, 191 TRANQL inorganics in soils, 367-368 surface complexation models, 319 Transcription, fingerprinting crop varieties, 89 Transfer coefficient models, chemical transport through soil, 165 Transfer coefficients, surface complexation models, 284 Transfer function, chemical transport through soil, 156-160,169,194 402 Transformation chemical transport through soil, 143-145 concentrations, 160- 161 convection-dispersion , 154- 156 interphase mass transfer laws, 161-167 mass flux laws, 145-154 reactions, 167-169 transfer function models, 156-160 corn, 205-214 inorganics in soils, 333,347 Transport equations, inorganics in soils, 333-336 Transport models inorganics in soils, 359,368, 370-372, 376 surface complexation models, 319-320 Transport through soil, chemical, see Chemical transport through soil Transport volume, chemical transport through soil, 158, 160 Travel time, chemical transport through soil processes, 156-157,159-160.162, 169-170 solute transport, field studies of, 190-191 Tricklers, chemical transport through soil, 178,190-191 Triple-layer model, surface complexation models, 234,240-247,320 competitive adsorption reactions, 312-313, 315-318 computer codes, 319 inorganic anion adsorption, 297-303 metal ion adsorption, 279-282 organic ligand adsorption, 309,311 protonation-dissociation reactions, 256-267 lhnicate locus, corn, 212 Two-site models, inorganics in soils, 351-353,361-362 U Uniformity, fingerprintingcrop varieties, 119-120 V Vapor-dissoved phase partitioning, chemical transport through soil, 165-166 Vapor flux, chemical transport through soil, 145-146 Variable charge model, metal ion adsorption, 284 Variable selectivities, inorganics in soils, 371-372 Variable surface charge model, see Stern VSC-VSP model Variable surface potential model, see Stern VSC-VSP model Velocity chemical transport through soil, 193 processes, 149-153, 167, 173,175 solute transport, field studies of, 176-179,181,189-191 inorganics in soils, 334-335, 352 Vermiculite, inorganics in soils, 349-350 Viscosity, chemical transport through soil, 174,192 Volume-averaged local solute transport model, chemical transport through soil, 153 W WATEQ3, surface complexation models, 319 Water flow chemical transport through soil chemical mass flux, 151,153 interphase mass transfer, 161-162, 166-167 processes, 155-156,158, 175 solute transport, field studies of, 183, 185-186 inorganics in soils, 333-335,368,377, 379,381 Water flow velocity, inorganics in soils, 332, 334,365 Water flux chemical transport through soil processes, 147-148.153-154, 156,175 solute transport, field studies of, 176, 179 inorganics in soils, 332, 380 Water-phase division model, chemical transport through soil, 166 Water-unsaturated soils, inorganics in soils, 379-381 Water velocity chemical transport through soil processes, 149,151-152, 156-157, 174 solute transport, field studies of, 176, 179 INDEX inorganics in soils, 335 Watershed, acidic deposition on forested soils chemical factors, 31, 34-35,40 physical factors, 11, 13-14 soil change studies, 54 Weathering, acidic deposition on forested soils, 35-40, 5 , 57 Wheat, fingerprinting crop varieties, 95, 125 discrimination, 110-111 usage, 123-125 Z Zea mays,evolution of, see Corn,evolution of Zeins, fingerprinting crop varieties, 112-113 403 Zero point of charge, surface complexation models, 251,253,257,261,272 Zero surface charge, surface complexation models, 243,256,261 Zero-time dispersion model, chemical transport through soil, 159 Zero-time model of solute dispersion, chemical transport through soil, 151-152 Zinc inorganics in soils, 340,375-376 surface complexation models competitive adsorption reactions, 312-313,318 metal ion adsorption, 279,281-286 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ... discussed include evolution in the scope and technology of fingerprinting, characters used in fingerprinting cultivated varieties, discriminational ability of fingerprinting techniques, use of fingerprints,... Smith I Introduction I1 Characters Used to Fingerprint Cultivated Varieties I11 Discriminational Ability of Fingerprinting Techniques Iv Usage of Fingerprints ... acids by NH3 in the atmosphere results in H + , NH;, NO;, and SO:- being the dominant ions in acidic rainwater and Advances m Apmny, Volunr 47 Copyighr Q 1992 by Academic Press, Inc All rights
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 47 , Advances in agronomy volume 47 , Chapter 1. The Effects of Acidic Deposition on Forested Soils, IV. Case Studies of Soil Change, II. Characters Used to Fingerprint Cultivated Varieties, III. Discriminational Ability of Fingerprinting Techniques, II. Transport and Transformation Processes, III. Analysis of Process Assumptions, IV. Field Studies of Solute Transport, II. Transformation by Domestication and Isolation, IV. Multiple Domestications in the Origin of Corn, VII. Current Direction of Corn Evolution and Where It Is Going, Chapter 5. Use of Surface Complexation Models in Soil Chemical Systems, III. Application of Models to Protonation–Dissociation Reactions on Oxides, Clay Minerals, and Soils, IV. Application of Models to Metal Ion Adsorption Reactions on Oxides, Clay Minerals, and Soils, V. Application of Models to Inorganic Anion Adsorption Reactions on Oxides, Clay Minerals, and Soils, VI. Application of Models to Organic Ligand Adsorption Reactions on oxides, VII. Application of Models to Competitive Adsorption Reactions on Oxides, VIII. Incorporation of Surface Complexation Models into Computer Codes, Chapter 6. Modeling the Transport and Retention of Inorganics in Soils, VI. Transport and Ion Exchange, VII. Transport in Layered Soil

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