Advances in agronomy volume 45

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 45 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepured in Cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 45 Edited by Nyle C Brady Uniied Nutions Development Programme Wushington, D C ADVISORY BOARD G E HAM R J KOHEL G H HEICHEL S MICKELSON H G HODGES R H MILLER G L HORST K H QUESENBERRY D E KISSEL C W STUBER E L KLEPPER N L TAYLOR ACADEMIC PRESS, INC Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers San Diego New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo Toronto This book is printed on acid-free paper @ COPYRIGHT 1991 BY ACADEMIC PRESS, INC All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher ACADEMIC PRESS, INC San Diego, California 92101 United Kingdom Edition pubfished by ACADEMIC PRESS LIMITED 24-28 Oval Road London NWI 7DX LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: ISBN 0-12-000745-2 (alk paper) PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 91 92 93 94 50-5598 CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS .I PREFACE I , ix xi NITROGEN DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT IN RICE-LEGUME CROPPING SYSTEMS R J Buresh and S K De Datta 11 111 IV V VI VII VIII IX Rice Soils Legumes in Rice-Based Cropping Systems Effect of Legumes on Soil Nitrogen Accumulation of Legume Nitrogen Contribution of Legume Nitrogen to Rice Effective Management of Legume Nitrogen Conclusions and Research Needs 13 16 27 42 44 50 52 PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES: SOME NEW DIRECTIONS J T Williams I 11 111 IV V VI ies Areas of Research Which Impact Plant Genetic Resources Work Sustainability Current New Directions in Germplasm Management Concluding Remarks References 61 62 66 81 86 88 89 LONG-TERM IMPACTS OF TILLAGE, FERTILIZER, AND CROP RESIDUE ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN TEMPERATE SEMIARID REGIONS Paul E Rasmussen and Harold P Collins 11 Introduction ., , , , Tillage Effects on Soil Organic Matter V 94 99 vi CONTENTS 111 IV V VI VII VIII IX X Fertilizer Effects on Soil Organic Matter Organic Residue Effects on Soil Organic Matter Organic Matter and Microbial Biomass Management Effects on Physical Properties Cultivation and Future Change in Soil Organic Matter Impact of Soil Erosion Predicting Soil Organic Matter Turnover Summary References 102 105 114 119 120 121 123 129 131 EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF LEGUMINOUS GREEN MANURES IN WETLAND RICE Yadvinder Singh C S Khind and Bijay Singh I I1 111 IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XI1 Introduction Green Manure Crops for Wetland Rice Biomass and Nitrogen Accumulation in G nures Time and Depth of Incorporation of Green Manures Yield Responses of Wetland Rice to Green Manuring Nitrogen from Green Manure Crops Transformations of Green Manure Nitrogen in Wetland Rice Soils Effect of Green Manuring on Availability of Plant Nutrients Other Than Nitrogen Effect of Green Manuring on Soil ies Green Manuring and Reclamation of Saline Alkali Soils Residual Effects of Green Manures Applied to Wetland Rice Conc1us ions References 136 137 143 149 151 158 162 166 170 175 177 179 182 ADVANCES IN DISEASE-RESISTANCE BREEDING IN CHICKPEA K B Singh and M V Reddy I I1 111 IV V VI VII VIII Introduction Sources of Genetic Variability Breeding Techniques Disease Resistance Breeding for Multiple Disease Resistance Annual Wild Cicer Species as a Potential Source of Genes for Resistance Resistant Cultivars in Disease Management Conclusions and Future Needs References 191 192 193 193 215 216 217 218 219 CONTENTS vii GENETICS OF RESISTANCE TO INSECTS IN CROP PLANTS Gurdev S Khush and D S Brar I I1 Introduction 111 Sorghum Barley Cotton Fruits IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XI1 XI11 Vegetables Forages and Legumes Tagging Insect Tolerance Genes with Molecular Markers Genetic Engineering and Insect Tolerance Conclusions References 224 226 231 239 243 246 248 252 256 259 262 263 263 265 AGROFORESTRY IN ACID SOILS OF THE HUMID TROPICS L T Szott C A Palm and P A Sanchez 11 I11 IV V v1 Introduction Alley Cropping Managed Fallows Fruit Crop Food Production Systems Research Needs Summary References 275 279 289 294 297 299 300 ASSESSMENT OF AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM FLOODED SOIL SYSTEMS Gamani R Jayaweera and Duane S Mikkelsen Introduction Theoretical Aspects Theory of Ammonia Volatilization Factors Affecting Ammonia Volatilization Methods of Measuring Ammonia Volatilization Models for Predicting Ammonia Volatilization Epilogue References 303 305 308 310 331 332 353 354 INDEX 357 I I1 I11 IV V VI VII This Page Intentionally Left Blank CONTRIBUTORS Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin D S BRAR (223), International Rice Research Institute, 1099 Manila, Philippines R J BURESH ( I ) , Agro-Economic Division, International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35662 HAROLD P COLLINS (93), U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Columbia Plateau Conservation Research Center, Pendleton, Oregon 97801 S K DE DATTA ( I ) , Agronomy-Physiology-AgroecologyDivision, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines GAMANI R JAYAWEERA (303), Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, California 95616 C S KHIND (135), Department of Soils, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, India GURDEV S KHUSH (223), International Rice Research Institute, 1099 Manila, Philippines DUANE S MIKKELSEN (303), Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 C A PALM (275), Tropical Soils Research Program, Departments of Forestry and Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 PAUL E RASMUSSEN (93), U.S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Columbia Plateau Conservation Research Center, Pendleton, Oregon 97801 M V REDDY (191), lnternational Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT),Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh 502 324, India P A SANCHEZ (273, Tropical Soils Research Program, Departments of Forestry and Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 BIJAY SINGH ( , Department of Soils, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, India K B SINGH (191), International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA),Aleppo, Syria YADVINDER SINGH (135), Department of Soils, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004,India ix 364 INDEX management of nitrogen, 44-45,47-50 rice soils, 4, use efficiency, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 102-105, 125, 129, 130 microbial biomass, 116-117, 119 Fetch, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 334-335 Fick’s law, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 340-341 Film model, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 332-333 Fitness, genetic resources and, 85 Flamingo,green manure in wetland rice and, 142 Flooded soils, ammonia volatilization from, see Ammonia volatilization from flooded soils Flooding, green manure in wetland rice and, 142, 149-151, 157, 164, 171 nutrient availability, 167-169 Flowering, genetic resources and, 83 Fodder, genetic resources and, 77,79 Food and Agricultural Research Centers (FAO), genetic resources and, 63-65, 75, 79,86 Food legumes, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 8-9, 12,22-24,27 Foot rot, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 201,203 Forage agroforestry in acid soils and, 294 genetic resources and, 61,64,73,79 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 97 Forage legumes, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 22-24 Fruit agroforestry in acid soils and, 278, 294-297,299 genetics of resistance to insects and, 252-256 Fulvic acid, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 108 Fungal diseases, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 193 foliar, 194,203-212 soil-borne, 194-203 Fungicide, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192,218 Fusarium wilt, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192, 216-218 fungal diseases, 194-200, 203 nematode diseases, 15 G Gall midge, genetics of resistance to, 230-23 Gas exchange, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 308,318,335, 340-341 Gas-liquid interface, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 332-333 Gene banks, 64,156, 72,75,79,87 Gene pools, I , 88 development of global activities, 63, 66 research, 67-69,71-72,75 Gene transfer, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 214,217, 219 General combining ability, resistance to insects and, 241-243 Genetic diversity, 69, 72,75, 79,88 Genetic engineering, insect tolerance and, 263 Genetic resources, 61-62, 88 development of global activities, 62-64 availability of material, 64 framework, 64-65 gene pools, 66 security of material, 65-66 germplasrn, 86 applied research, 87-88 cooperative networking, 86 management of collections, 86-87 safety of collections, 87 research agroforestry, 75-81 increasing production, 66-68 stabilizing production, 74-75 wild species, 68-74 sustainability, 81-85 Genetic variability, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192-193 Genetics disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 216-219 fungal diseases, 196-198.206-210 nematode diseases, 214 INDEX of resistance to insects, 224-225, 263-265 barley, 246-248 cotton, 248-252 forages and legumes, 259-262 fruits, 252-256 maize, 239-243 molecular markers, 262 rice, 226-231 sorghum, 243-246 tolerance, 263 vegetables, 256-259 wheat, 231-238 Genomes, genetic resources and, 70.88 Genotype disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 196-197, 199,207,212,217 genetic resources and, 67,75,77-79, 82.85 green manure in wetland rice and, 146 resistance to insects and, 262 cotton, 248-250 maize, 240 sorghum, 246 vegetables, 256 wheat, 231-232 Germplasm agroforestry in acid soils and, 279-281, 295, 298-299 disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192, 216, 218 fungal diseases, 198-199, 201, 206 viral diseases, 212 genetic resources and, 62, 83 development of global activities, 63-66 research, 66-67, 69,72-76,78-81 genetics of resistance to insects and, 224-225,255-256,259,261 cotton, 249-25 maize, 240,242 sorghum, 246 wheat, 234-235.237-238 Gliricidia agroforestry in acid soils and, 279-281, 299 green manure in wetland rice and, 142, 155, 158, 164, 169 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, I I 50 Gossypium, see Cotton 365 Gradient diffusion, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304, 331 Grasslands, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 95 cultivation, 97-98, 120 fertilizer, 102-104 management, 119 microbial biomass, 115 turnover, 124, 126 Grazing agroforestry in acid soils and, 294 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 127 Green leaf manure nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 11, 37.50 in wetland rice, 137, 142, 154-155, 174, 179 Green leafhopper, genetics of resistance to, 229-230 Green manure agroforestry in acid soils and, 282 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 103-104, 114, 130 Green manure in wetland rice, 136-137, 179- 181 green leaf manure, 142 incorporation, 149-151 nitrogen fertilizer equivalence, 158-160 integrated use, 160-162 transfer, 160- 161 nitrogen accumulation, 143- 146 fertilizer application, 146-148 inoculation, 148-149 irrigation, 149 nutrient availability, 166-170 residual effects, 177-179 root-nodulating crops, 138-141 saline alkali soils, 175-177 soil properties biological, 174- I75 chemical, 170-172 physical, 172- 174 stem-nodulating crops, 141-142 transformations, 162 N IOSS, 165-166 N mineralization, 162- 165 yield responses, 151-156 application rate 157-158 INDEX 366 dual-purpose manures, 156-157 Green manure legumes, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 2-3.8, 10-12,50 management of nitrogen, 42.44-48,50 nitrogen accumulation, 17-22,24-25 nitrogen contribution, 27-29,31-37, 39-42 soil nitrogen, 13-14, 16 Greenbug, genetics of resistance to, 235-237,243-244,247 Groundnut genetic resources and, 68,71 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 8, 13,23, 34 Guanyl urea sulfate, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 322,325 Guava, genetic resources and, 78 Gypsum, green manure in wetland rice and, 175-177 H Habitat, genetic resources and, 62 Harvest agroforestry in acid soils and, 278 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 25 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 100 Harvest index, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 120 Hedgegrow intercropping, agroforestry in acid soils and, 279-281, 285,288, 298-299 Hemicellulose green manure in wetland rice and, 165 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 106 Henry’s law, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 307-309,336, 341-343 Heritability, resistance to insects and, 242, 256-257,261 Hessian fly, genetics of resistance to, 225, 231-235,246 Heterodera ciceri, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 214 Heterogeneity, genetic resources and, 74-75 Heterosis, genetic resources and, 68 Heterotrophy, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 41 Heterozygosity genetic resources and, 70 genetics of resistance to insects and, 252-253 Hirschmanniella, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 42 Homozygosity disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 197 genetics of resistance to insects and, 226,255 Hordeum, genetic resources and, 71 Hormones, green manure in wetland rice and, 172 Host-plant resistance in chickpea, 192, 194 Humid tropics, agroforestry in, see Agroforestry in acid soils of humid tropics H u midity ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 330 disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 203-204,207,210,212 green manure in wetland rice and, 138, 178 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 36 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 97, 102, 110, 112-113 Humification, green manure in wetland rice and, 177-178 Humus, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 105, 108 Hybridization disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 193, 198-100,208,215, 219 genetic resources and, 67-68,70, 85 resistance to insects and, 243, 246,251 Hydraulic conductivity, green manure in wetland rice and, 173-174 Hydrodynamic models, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 332-333 Hydrogen, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 309,328,334-338 I IARCs (international agricultural research centers), genetic resources and, 63-64, 71,73 367 INDEX IBPGR (International Board for Plant Genetic Resources), genetic resources and, 64-65, 86 research, 68-69,72,74,78,80 ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas) disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192-194,215-216 fungal diseases, 206,208,210 viral diseases, 214 genetic resources and, 64, 71 ICRAF (International Council for Research in Agroforestry), genetic resources and, 76, 78 ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-And Tropics) disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192-194.215-216 fungal diseases, 197, 199, 208, 21 viral diseases, 213 genetics of resistance to insects and, 245 Inbreeding depression, genetic resources and, 85 Indigo, green manure in wetland rice and, 138, 155 Indigofera green manure in wetland rice and, 141-142 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 1 , 16 Znga, agroforestry in acid soils and, 289, 299 alley cropping, 279, 281, 284-288 Inhibition ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 325-327 disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 196 genetics of resistance to insects and, 226, 237,248,260 green manure in wetland rice and, 141, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 13, 22,24-25,41 Insects, genetics of resistance to, see Genetics of resistance to insects Intercropping, genetic resources and, 77-78 International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) genetic resources and, 64,69,71,83 green manure in wetland rice and, 136, 157, 181 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 2-3,6, 14-15, 22 Iron green manure in wetland rice and, 167-171, 181 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 42 toxicity, 156 IRRI, see International Rice Research Institute Irrigation ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 321,328 disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 206,211 genetic resources and, 74 green manure in wetland rice and, 142, 149 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 2, 4-5,9, 1 legume nitrogen, 23, 32,35,39,41 management of nitrogen, 42,44 Isotopes green manure in wetland rice and, 145 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 98, 103, 130 Isozymes genetic resources and, 70 genetics of resistance to insects and, 262 IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature), genetic resources and, 72,84 160 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 120 Inoculation disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 218-219 foliar fungal diseases, 205-206, 21 soil-borne fungal diseases, 196, 202 green manure in wetland rice and, 146, 148-149 J Jassids, genetics of resistance to, 250-251 K Ketones, green manure in wetland rice and, 172 368 INDEX Kinetics ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304,314.321 models, 338 349 theory, 305,308 green manure in wetland rice and, 163-164, 168 L Labeled tracer techniques, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 331 Labor, agroforestry in acid soils and, 277-278, 294 Land races, genetic resources and, 63-64, 67-68,75,83 Lateritic soils, green manure in wetland rice and, 168, 170-171 Leaching agroforestry in acid soils and, 293-294 ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 331 green manure in wetland rice and, 137, 150, 176 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 4-5.36 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 103 Legumes agroforestry in acid soils and, 278,296, 298-299 alley cropping, 279-281 283 managed fallows, 289,291-292.294 disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192, 194,219 green manure in wetland rice and, see Green manure in wetland rice nitrogen dynamics in rice-legume cropping, see Nitrogen dynamics in rice-legume cropping soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 103-104, 114 Lettuce leaf aphid, genetics of resistance to, 258 Lettuce root aphid, genetics of resistance to, 258 Leucaena agroforestry in acid soils and, 279-280, 282 genetic resources and, 77 green manure in wetland rice and, 142, 144, 155 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 1 Lignin agroforestry in acid soils and, 299 green manure in wetland rice and, 164, 177 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 33-34 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 105-106, 108, 114, 126, 130 Lime agroforestry in acid soils and, 279, 285, 296 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 104 Linkage genetic resources and, 67 resistance to insects and, 226, 232, 234-235,250,257 Lipid, green manure in wetland rice and, 164 Liquid-gas interface, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 305 Lodging genetics of resistance to insects and, 259 green manure in wetland rice and, 157 Lupin, green manure in wetland rice and, 145 M Magnesium agroforestry in acid soils and, 296, 298-299 alley cropping, 281-284 managed fallows, 293-294 green manure in wetland rice and, 168, 170, 176 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 104 Maize agroforestry in acid soils and, 282 ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 319 genetic resources and, 69 genetics of resistance to insects and, 239-243 green manure in wetland rice and, 159 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 36-37 369 INDEX Manganese green manure in wetland rice and, 168-171, 181 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 42 toxicity, 156 Manure, see also Animal manure; Green manure soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 108, I 1 Mapping of races, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and 210 Maps, genetics of resistance to insects and, 226,232, 235,255 Mass balance, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304, 309, 331 Mass transfer, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304,316 measurement, 332-334 models, 340, 342 theory, 305-307 Meloidogyne, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 213 Melon aphid, genetics of resistance to, 256 Methane, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 35.51 Mexican bean beetle, genetics of resistance to, 259-260 Microbial activity ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 322 green manure in wetland rice and, 174 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 41 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 103, 108, 112, 116, 120, 127 Microbial biomass agroforestry in acid soils and, 292 green manure in wetland rice and, 174 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 98, 107, 114-119, 130 turnover, 125-126 Micrometeorological techniques, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 33 Milk vetch green manure in wetland rice and, 136, 138, 172, 178-179 incorporation, 150-15 nitrogen, 143-144, 146, 148, 158 transformations, 164-165 yield responses, 152, 157 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 10, 25, 39.44 Millet, genetic resources and 68-69 Mineralization agroforestry in acid soils and, 279, 282-283,292 ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and 322,338 green manure in wetland rice and, 160, 178, 181 nutrient availability, 166-167 transformations, 162- 164 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 4, , 15 51 legume nitrogen contribution, 32-37, 39 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 103-104, 117-118, 122, 128 Moisture disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 206 green manure in wetland rice and, 136 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 105 117, 126-327 Moisture stress disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 201 Molecular markers, genetics of resistance to insects and, 262 Mucuna, agroforestry in acid soils and, 296 Mulch agroforestry in acid soils and, 284-286 genetic resources and, 77 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 110, 130 Mung bean green manure in wetland rice and, 138, 156-157, 169, 180 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, , 8-9, 12-16 nitrogen contribution, 27, 36-37 Musa genetic resources and 70 Mutation disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192-193, 210, 215 resistance to insects and, 248, 251 Mycorrhizal infection, agroforestry in acid soils and, 297 N Narrow-sense heritability, resistance to insects and, 251 Natural selection, genetic resources and, 85 370 INDEX Ndfa, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 23-24 Nematodes disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192-193, 199,213-217,219 green manure in wetland rice and, 175 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 42 Neptunia, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 24 Nitrate nitrogen in rice-legume systems and legume nitrogen, 23, 33, 35-36 management of nitrogen, 42,44,47 rice soils, 4-7 soil nitrogen, 13-16 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 103 Nitrification ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 318,331-332 green manure in wetland rice and, 150-151 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 51 Nitrogen agroforestry in acid soils and, 277,299 alley cropping, 281-284, 286 fruit crop food production, 296-297 managed fallows, 292 ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 303-305 effect, 310,318,320,322, 324-328 green manure in wetland rice and, 136, 144, 177-181 accumulation, 139-141, 143-149, 180 fertilizer equivalence, 158-160 incorporation, 149-150 integrated use, 160-162 IOSS, 163-164 mineralization, 162- 165 transfer, 160-161 yield responses, 151-152, 154-157 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 130 cultivation, 121 erosion, 122 fertilizer, 104- 105 management, 119 microbial biomass, 115, 117-1 19 organic residue, 105-1 I I , 113-1 14 tillage, 100-102 turnover, 127-129 Nitrogen dynamics in rice-legume cropping, 2-3, 50-52 legume nitrogen accumulation, 16-22 N removal, 25-27 symbiotic fixation, 22-25 legume nitrogen contribution, 27-32 belowground legume N, 36-39 losses of legume N, 39-40 mineralization, 32-36 residual N effects, 40-41 rice yield, 41-42 legume nitrogen management, 42-44 loss of fertilizer N, 44-47 use of fertilizer N, 47-50 legumes in rice cropping, dual-purpose legumes, 11-12 food legumes, 8-9 green manure legumes, 10-1 I soil nitrogen, 13-16 rice soils, 3-8 Nitrogen fertilizer source, 50 timing, 48-50 Nitrogen fertilizer equivalence, green manure in wetland rice and, 158-160 Nitrogen fixation genetic resources and, 78-79 green manure in wetland rice and, 136, 141, 174, 180-181 biomass, 144-146, 148 rice-legume systems and, 41, legume nitrogen accumulation, 22-26 legumes, 9-10, 13-14 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 114 Nitrogen harvest index, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 25,27 Nitrogen use efficiency, green manure in wetland rice and, 180-181 Nodulation green manure in wetland rice and, 138-142, 146, 154, 175 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 24, 37, 44 Oats genetic resources and, 68 genetics of resistance to insects and, 235 Oryza saliva L., see Rice INDEX Oxidation green manure in wetland rice and, 151 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 33,35 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 96, 99-100, 120, 124 Oxygen, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and P Palm agroforestry in acid soils and, 283, 295-298 genetic resources and, 77, 84 Pathogeneity, green manure in wetland rice and, 172, 175 Pea disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 214 green manure in wetland rice and, 138, 145 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 108, 118 Pea aphid of alfalfa, genetics of resistance to, 261-262 Peach palm agroforestry in acid soils and, 295-296, 298 genetic resources and, 80, 84 Peanut, genetic resources and, 69 Pedigree disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 193 resistance to insects and, 242 Penetration theory, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 333-334 Percolation, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, , , 48 Pesticides genetic resources and, 62 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 94, 130 PH agroforestry in acid soils and, 277, 285 ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304,353 effects, 310-315,318-320,326-329 models, 334-335, 337, 339, 342, 348-35 I 37 theory, 305,308-310 green manure in wetland rice and, 146, 170, 176, 180 nutrient availability, 167-168, 170 transformations, 165-166 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 105 pH constant model, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 335,337 pH gradient model, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 335,337 Phaseolus, green manure in wetland rice and, 142, 146 Phenolic acids, green manure in wetland rice and, 172 Phenolics, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 108 Phenyl phosphodiamide, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 325-326 Phosphate ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 328 green manure in wetland rice and, 166-167, 174 Phosphate rock-coated urea, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 322 Phosphorus agroforestry in acid soils and, 296, 298-299 alley cropping, 280, 282-283 managed fallows, 292 ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 329 deficiency, 104 green manure in wetland rice and, 172, 177, 180-181 nitrogen accumulation, 146- 147 nutrient availability, 166-167 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, I I , 22.51 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 104, 110, 128-129 Photosynthesis ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 322, 326-327.329.331 green manure in wetland rice and, 171 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and 45 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 124 372 INDEX Phytophthora root rot, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 201,215 Pigeonpea green manure in wetland rice and, 138 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 16, 23,34 Pink bollworm, genetics of resistance to, 251-252 Plant genetic resources, see Genetic resources Ploidy, genetic resources and, 70 Plowing, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 99-100, 117, 130 Pollen storage, genetic resources and, 85 Pollution, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 103 Polycross, genetics of resistance to insects and, 261 Polygenic control, resistance to insects and, 231,244-245 Polygenic resistance, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 210 Polyphenols, agroforestry in acid soils and, 283,299 Polysaccharides, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 106-107, 119 Population, genetic resources and, 84-85 Population pressure genetic resources and, 76 genetics of resistance to insects and, 248 Potassium agroforestry in acid soils and, 281-284, 292-294,2%-297 green manure in wetland rice and, 146, 168, 171-172, 177, 181 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 42 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 104 Potato, genetic resources and, 68-71 Precipitation agroforestry in acid soils and, 277 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 97, 1 1-1 12, 116, 127 Protein disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 105 Protein C, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 107 Proton extrusion, agroforestry in acid soils and, 293 Protoplasts, genetic resources and, 70 Provenance, agroforestry in acid soils and, 28 Pruning, agroforestry in acid soils and, 279,28 1-285,288,298 Pubescence, genetics of resistance to insects and, 237-238,248-250 Puddling, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 4, 34,40, 50 Pueraria, agroforestry in acid soils and, 289-291 Pumpkin fruitfly, genetics of resistance to, 257-258 Purple vetch, green manure in wetland rice and, 179 Pyramiding multiple gene resistance, chickpea and, 209 Pythium root rot, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 201-202 Q Quantitative resistance, insects and, 242, 244,256-257,259 Quantitative trait loci, resistance to insects and, 262 R Radiocarbon, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 107-108 Rainfall agroforestry in acid soils and, 277, 294 ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 330 disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 203,210 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 32.36 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 95,97,99-100, 103, 108 Reciprocal cross, resistance to insects and, 24 Reclamation of soil, green manure in wetland rice and, 176-177 Recombination genetic resources and, 70 resistance to insects and, 227, 234-235 373 INDEX Recurrent selection, resistance to insects and, 261 Recycling, agroforestry in acid soils and, 288, 294 Red pumpkin beetle, genetics of resistance to, 256 Red scale pest of citrus, genetics of resistance to, 256 Redox status, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304,310 Release of cultivars, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 210 Residue agroforestry in acid soils and, 285, 288 green manure in wetland rice and, 156-157 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 12, 27, 32, 35-36,48 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 98-100, 129 cultivation, 120-121 effects, 105-1 14 Resistance, disease, see Disease resistance Resistance to insects, genetics of, see Genetics of resistance to insects Respiration, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 321, 326,328 Restriction fragment length polymorphism, genetics of resistance to insects and, 262 Rhizobium green manure in wetland rice and, 146 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 24 Rhizosphere green manure in wetland rice and, 174 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and 41 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 120 Rice agroforestry in acid soils and, 277, 285-288,296,299 ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 353 factors, 310, 320-322, 325, 328, 330-331 genetic resources and, 67-69,71,73,83 genetics of resistance to insects and, 226-23 1, 263-265 wetland, green manure in, see Green manure in wetland rice Rice-legume cropping, nitrogen dynamics in, see Nitrogen dynamics in rice-legume cropping Root-knot nematodes, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 213,215,219 Root-lesion nematodes, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 214 Root-nodulating crops, green manure in wetland rice and, 138-141 Root rot, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 194, 196,201-203 Rosy apple aphid, genetics of resistance to, 253 Rosy leaf curling aphid of apple, genetics of resistance to, 252 Rotation agroforestry in acid soils and, 296, 299 green manure in wetland rice and, 157 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 8, 10-11, 13, 36,40 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 96, 98, 121, 129 fertilizer, 103 microbial biomass, 115-1 16, I18 organic residue, 11 tillage, 99-100 Rubber, genetic resources and, 85 Rubus aphid, genetics of resistance to, 253-255 Rust disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 203, 212, 215 resistance to insects and, 242 Rye genetic resources and, 73 genetics of resistance to insects and, 235-236 Ryegrass, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 106 S Saline soil, green manure in wetland rice and, 141, 175-177, 179, 181 Salt tolerance, green manure in wetland rice and, 175 Samuneu, agroforestry in acid soils and, 279 Saponins, genetics of resistance to insects and, 261 374 INDEX Sediment enrichment factor, semiarid regions and, 122-123 Seed moisture, genetic resources and, 87 Seed rot, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 201-202 Seed storage, genetic resources and, 86-87 Segregation, resistance to insects and, 235, 244,247, 253, 257 Selection, resistance to insects and, 243, 257,262 Selection from introductions, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 193 Semiarid regions genetic resources and, 77,83 green manure in wetland rice and, 142 soil organic matter in, see Soil organic matter in semiarid regions Sequential cropping system acid soils and, 278 Sesbania genetic resources and, 77 green manure in wetland rice and, 138, 141- 142, 179-1 80 incorporation, 150-151 nitrogen, 159, 162 nitrogen accumulation, 143- 146, 148-149 nutrient availability, 167, 169 residual effects, 178-179 saline alkali soils, 175-177 soil properties, 170, 173-174 transformations, 164- 166 yield responses, 151-152, 155-157 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and legume nitrogen accumulation, 18- 19, 22,24-25 legume nitrogen contribution, 33-42 legumes, 10-14, 16 management of nitrogen, 42-43, 45-46,48 Sesbania rostrara, green manure in wetland rice and, 141-142, 180 Shade, agroforestry in acid soils and, 289 Shade tolerance genetic resources and, 76-77 green manure in wetland rice and, 138 Shoot fly, genetics of resistance to, 244-245 Short-wave radiation, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 330 Sodic soils, green manure in wetland rice and, 167-168, 170, 175-177, 181 Sodium green manure in wetland rice and, 171, 175-176 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 43 Soil agroforestry in, see Agroforestry in acid soils of humid tropics flooded, ammonia volatilization from, see Ammonia volatilization from flooded soils green manure in wetland rice and, 170- 175, 180- 18 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 3-8, 13-16 Soil moisture disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 201-203 green manure in wetland rice and, 149-150, 180 Soil organic matter in semiarid regions, 94-97 changes in content, 98-99 cultivation, 97-98, 120-121 erosion, 121-123 fertilizer, 104-105 nitrogen, 102- I04 future needs, 130 management, 119 manure, 113-114 microbial biomass, 114-1 19 progress, 129-130 residue, 113-114 burning, 112 rate of addition, 108-1 12 removal, 112-113 types, 105-108 tillage conservation, 100-102 frequency of fallow, 99 intensity, 99-100 turnover carbon cycle, 123-124 models, 125-129 Solar radiation, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 310,330 Sole-crop systems, agroforestry in acid soils and, 284-285 Somatic hybridization, genetic resources and, 70 INDEX Sorghum genetic resources and, 68-69 genetics of resistance to insects and, 235,242-246 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 36 Sorghum midge, genetics of resistance to, 245-246 Soybean disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 219 genetics of resistance to insects and, 259-260 green manure in wetland rice and, 148 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 8-9, 13-15,51 nitrogen accumulation, 22-26 nitrogen contribution, 27, 34, 36-37 Specific combining ability, resistance to insects and, 241-242, 251 Spotted alfalfa aphid, genetics of resistance to, 261-262 Squash bug, genetics of resistance to, 257 Stagnant-film model, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 335,337 Stem-nodulating crops green manure in wetland rice and, 137, 141-142, 148, 169 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 11 Stem rot, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 194, 196, 199,201-202 Stem solidness, genetics of resistance to insects and, 238 Stemphylium blight, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 203, 212, 219 Sterility, genetics of resistance to insects and, 247, 253 Stoloniferous fallows, agroforestry in acid soils and, 289, 291 Straw nitrogen in rice-legume systems and 16 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 119-121, 129 residue, 105-108, 110, 112, 114 Stress disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 192,201, 215,217 genetic resources and, 75, 81 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 115 Striped cucumber beetle, genetics of resistance to, 256-257 375 Striped stem borer, genetics of resistance to, 231 Stunt virus, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 215, 219 Stylosanfhes, agroforestry in acid soils and, 289,291 Subtropics genetic resources and, 73.80 genetics of resistance to insects and, 225, 242-243 green manure in wetland rice and, 178- I80 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 23,27 Sugar cane genetic resources and, 68, 73 genetics of resistance to insects and, 243 Sulfur deficiency, 105 green manure in wetland rice and, 168, 176-177 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 104-105, 128-129 Sulfur-coated urea, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 322,325 Sulfur dioxide, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 308 Sunflower, genetic resources and, 69 Sunn hemp, green manure in wetland rice and, 138, 166, 175 nitrogen, 159, 161 nitrogen accumulation, 143-144, 146, 148 yield responses, 151-152 Surface renewal model, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 333-334 Susceptibility disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 201,208,218-219 genetics of resistance to insects and, 259-260,262,265 barley, 247 cotton, 249,251 fruits 253 maize, 239-240,242-243 rice, 226-227 sorghum, 243-244,246 vegetables, 257-258 wheat, 231,234,237 Sustainability genetic resources and, 77,81-85 green manure in wetland rice and, 136 376 INDEX Sweet clover aphid, genetics of resistance to, 262 Sweet potato, genetic resources and, 68-69 Symbiosis, genetic resources and, 76 Symbiotic nitrogen fixation, rice-legume systems and, 22-25 T Tanungya system, genetic resources and, 76 Tarnished plant bug, genetics of resistance to, 251 Temperate regions genetics of resistance to insects and, 243 green manure in wetland rice and, 172, 179 soil organic matter in, see Soil organic matter in semiarid regions Temperature ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304,353 effects, 310-316, 318,320, 326, 329-330 models, 335-336,339, 342-343,345, 348-351 theory, 307-310 disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 217 fungal diseases, 194, 201-202, 204, 206-207 nematode diseases, 205-206 genetic resources and, 66 genetics of resistance to insects and, 232,234,246 green manure in wetland rice and, 136, 138, 141 165, 172, 180 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 3, 8, 10, 33 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 95, 100, 105, 126-127 Tephrosia, green manure in wetland rice and, 138, 142, 144, 154 Terbutryne, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 327 Thrips, genetics of resistance to, 249 Tillage agroforestry in acid soils and, 288 conservation, 100-102 delayed, 100 green manure in wetland rice and, 154, 157 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 15, 23.35 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 96,98-102, 129-130 management, I19 microbial biomass, 116-1 18 Tirhonia diuersifolia, green manure in wetland rice and, 155 Tobacco genetic resources and, 68,73 genetics of resistance to insects and, 263 Tobacco budworm, genetics of resistance to, 249-250 Tomato genetic resources and, 73 genetics of resistance to insects and, 263 Toxicity, green manure in wetland rice and, 156, 172 Translocation, genetics of resistance to insects and, 235-236,239, 247 Transplantation ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 323-324, 328-329 green manure in wetland rice and, 142, 180 incorporation, 149-151 nitrogen, 144, 146, 161-162 transformations, 164, 166 yield responses, 156 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 4, 1 legume nitrogen contribution, 31, 33-34,39 management of nitrogen, 42-43, 46-48,50 2-Tridecanone, genetics of resistance to insects and, 259, 262 Tririceae, genetic resources and, 69, 73 Triticum, genetics of resistance to insects and, 232,236-238 Tropical Tree Crop Program, genetic resources and, 80 Tropics agroforestry in acid soils of, see Agroforestry in acid soils of humid tropics genetic resources and, 73,77, 80, 83, 85 genetics of resistance to insects and, 225,242 377 INDEX green manure in wetland rice and, 178-180 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 23 Trypsin inhibitors, resistance to insects and, 260, 263 Turbulence, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304, 310, 330 models, 332-333, 341 theory, 306-307 Turnover green manure in wetland rice and, 162 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 103-104, 107, 114 carbon cycle, 123-124 models, 125-129 Two-film model, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 308, 340-341 Two-spotted cucumber spider mite, genetics of resistance to, 257 U Urea ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and 320,323-326,328-329 hydrolysis, 321 green manure in wetland rice and, 156 174, 179 nitrogen, I61 - 162 transformations, 165- 166 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and legume nitrogen contribution, 39-42 management of nitrogen 43-50 Urea calcium nitrate, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 322 Urea phosphate, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 322, 329 Urea supergranules ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 322-323, 325 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and 50 Urease, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and 320, 325-326 V Vanilla, genetic resources and, 77 Vegetables, genetics of resistance to insects and, 256-259 Vegetation, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 95, 97, 114 121 fertilizer, 102, 104-105 Verticillium wilt, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 200,203 Vetch, see also Milk vetch green manure in wetland rice and, 138, 145, 154, 179 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 25, 44-45 Viability agroforestry in acid soils and, 288 genetic resources and, 87 Vicinfaba, green manure in wetland rice and, 138 Viral diseases, resistance breeding in chickpea and, 193, 198, 212-213 Volatilization, ammonia, from flooded soils, see Ammonia volatilization from flooded soils W Water deficit, nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, , Water depth, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 353 factors, 311, 315-318, 330 models, 345 348 350-351 Water-holding capability, soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 96 Water-holding capacity green manure in wetland rice and, 149, 174 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 1-42 Water-air interface, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304-305 316 Waterlogging green manure in wetland rice and, 144, 179- 180 nutrient availability, 167- 168 soil properties, 170-172 transformations, 163, 166 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 9-12, 16.24-25,41 Wave length ratio, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 318 Weather agroforestry in acid soils and, 284 green manure in wetland rice and, 160 378 INDEX Weed suppression, agroforestry in acid soils and, 278, 296,298-299 alley cropping, 284-295 managed fallows, 289-291 Weedicide, green manure in wetland rice and, 141 Weeds ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 320,325-326 green manure in wetland rice and, 161 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 6-8 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 96, 100 Western corn rootworm, genetics of resistance to, 241-242 Wet root rot, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 201-202 Wetland rice, green manure in, see Green manure in wetland rice Wheat genetic resources and, 67-69,73 genetics of resistance to insects and, 231-238,243 green manure in wetland rice and, 174 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 9, 1 , 13,40 soil organic matter in semiarid regions and, 99, 103, 118, 120 organic residue, 108, 110-1 12 Wheat stem sawfly, genetics of resistance to, 238 Whitebacked planthopper, genetics of resistance to, 228-230 Wild species, genetic resources and, 68-74 Wind, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 313, 334-335 Windspeed, ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304, 353 models, 335,343-345,348-351 primary factors, 310-311, 315-316, 318-320 secondary factors, 323, 330-33 theory, 308-310 Withdrawal of cultivars, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 210 Wooly apple aphid, genetics of resistance to, 253 X Xylem, disease-resistance breeding in chickpea and, 194 Y Yield agroforestry in acid soils and, 279, 285-288 ammonia volatilization from flooded soils and, 304,353 genetic resources and, 74 green manure in wetland rice and, 136-137, 160, 178-180 incorporation, 149-150 nitrogen accumulation, 143-145, 148 responses, 15 1-158 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 8, 11 legume nitrogen contribution, 27, 37.41 management of nitrogen, 47-48 z Zigzag leafhopper, genetics of resistance to, 230 Zinc green manure in wetland rice and, 169-170 nitrogen in rice-legume systems and, 42 .. .ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 45 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepured in Cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 45 Edited by Nyle... located mostly in the tropics Nineteen of the authors were located at national institutions in developing countries These numbers all emphasize the international character of Advances in Agronomy and... between wheat and rice in a NITROGEN IN RICE-LEGUME CROPPING SYSTEMS 11 rice-wheat rotation in northern India requires irrigation (Singh et al., 1981) Therefore, in determining the cost effectiveness
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 45 , Advances in agronomy volume 45 , II. Nitrogen Dynamics in Rice Soils, III. Legumes in Rice-Based Cropping Systems, IV. Effect of Legumes on Soil Nitrogen, V. Accumulation of Legume Nitrogen, VI. Contribution of Legume Nitrogen to Rice, VII. Effective Management of Legume Nitrogen, IX. Conclusions and Research Needs, II. Development of Global Activities, III. Areas of Research Which Impact Plant Genetic Resources Work, V. Current New Directions in Germplasm Management and Research, CHAPTER 3. LONG-TERM IMPACTS OF TILLAGE, FERTILIZER, AND CROP RESIDUE ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN TEMPERATE SEMIARID REGIONS, II. Tillage Effects on Soil Organic Matter, III. Fertilizer Effects on Soil Organic Matter, IV. Organic Residue Effects on Soil Organic Matter, V. Organic Matter and Microbial Biomass, IX. Predicting Soil Organic Matter Turnover, II. Green Manure Crops for Wetland Rice, III. Biomass and Nitrogen Accumulation in Green Manures, V. Yield Responses of Wetland Rice to Green Manuring, VI. Nitrogen from Green Manure Crops, VII. Transformations of Green Manure Nitrogen in Wetland Rice Soils, VIII. Effect of Green Manuring on Availability of Plant Nutrients Other Than Nitrogen, IX. Effect of Green Manuring on Soil Properties, XI. Residual Effects of Green Manures Applied to Wetland Rice, II. Sources of Genetic Variability, VIII. Conclusions and Future Needs, CHAPTER 6. GENETICS OF RESISTANCE TO INSECTS IN CROP PLANTS, XII. Genetic Engineering and Insect Tolerance, CHAPTER 7. AGROFORESTRY IN ACID SOILS OF THE HUMID TROPICS, IV. Fruit Crop Food Production Systems, CHAPTER 8. ASSESSMENT OF AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM FLOODED SOIL SYSTEMS, IV. Factors Affecting Ammonia Volatilization, VI. Models for Predicting Ammonia Volatilization

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