Advances in agronomy volume 36

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 36 CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS VOLUME C AZCON-AGUILAR J M BAREA P BEMIS WILLIAM E B A BISDOM JEAN-MARC BOLLAG C M DONALD IANB EDWARDS KEITHW T GOULDING J HAMBLIN KRITONK HATZIOS LEMOYNEHOGAN J LOLL MICHAEL J NEILRUTGER K L SAHRAWAT S S VIRMANI ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared in cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 36 Edited by N C BRADY Science and Technology Agency for International Development Department of Srate Washington, D C ADVISORY BOARD H J GORZ.CHAIRMAN E J KAMPRATH T M STARLING J B POWELL J W BIGGAR M A TABATABAI M STELLY EX OFFICIO, ASA Headquarters I983 ACADEMIC PRESS, INC (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers) Orlando San Diego San Francisco New York London Toronto Montreal Sydney Tokyo Sao Paulo COPYRIGHT @ 1983, BY ACADEMIC PRESS, INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY, RECORDING, OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER ACADEMIC PRESS,INC 11 Fifth Avenue, New York,New York 10003 United Kin dom Edition ublished by ACADEM~CPRESS,I& (LONDON) LTD 24/28 Oval Road,London NWI 7DX LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD N U M B E R ISBN 0-12-000736-3 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 83848586 50-5598 This volume is dedicated to Dr Arthur Geoffrey Norman, editor of the first 20 volumes of Advances in Agronomy This Page Intentionally Left Blank CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS xi PREFACE IN MEMORIAM Xlll xv MYCORRHIZAS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN NODULATING NITROGEN-FIXING PLANTS J M Barea and C Azc6n-Aguilar I Introduction I1 Mycorrhizas 23 111 Mycorrhizas in Legumes IV Mycorrhizas in Nodulating Nitrogen-Fixing Nonlegume Plants V Conclusions and Perspectives References 44 45 46 SUBMICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF SOILS E B A Bisdom I Introduction II Submicroscopic Techniques 111 Applications of Electron Microscopy IV Applications of Ion Microscopy V Applications of Other Forms of Submicroscopy VI Conclusions References 55 57 65 88 89 90 91 THE CONVERGENT EVOLUTION OF ANNUAL SEED CROPS IN AGRICULTURE C M Donald and J Hamblin I Introduction II Selection in Domesticated Crops I11 IV V VI Ekotypic Parallelism in Crop Plants Selection, Evolution, and Crop Yield Progress and Prospects in the Development of Annual Seed Crops A Basic Ideotype for All Annual Seed Crops References vii 97 100 111 112 121 134 139 Vlll CONTENTS CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR BREEDING HYBRID RICE AND WHEAT S S Virmani and Ian B Edwards I Introduction Heterosis in Rice and Wheat Advantages of Hybrids over Conventionally Bred Varieties Cytoplasmic-Genetic Male Sterility Systems in Rice and Wheat Fertility Restoration Use of Chemical Pollen Suppressants in Hybrid Production Factors Affecting Cross-Fertilization Seed Production Ix Quality of Hybrids X Economic Considerations XI Problems XI1 Conclusion References 11 I11 IV V VI VII VIII 146 147 155 157 169 180 183 191 196 198 200 202 206 THERMODYNAMICS AND POTASSIUM EXCHANGE IN SOILS AND CLAY MATERIALS Keith W T Goulding I Introduction 11 The Thermodynamics of Ion-Exchange Equilibria 111 Calorimetry in Ion-Exchange Studies IV Thermodynamics Applied to Potassium Exchange in Soils and Clay Minerals V Exchange Equilibrium and the Kinetics of Potassium Exchange VI Summary and Conclusions VII Appendix: List of Symbols References 215 217 228 233 256 258 259 260 HERBICIDE ANTIDOTES: DEVELOPMENT CHEMISTRY AND MODE OF ACTION Kriton K Hatzios I Introduction 11 Development of Herbicide Antidotes III Chemistry of Herbicide Antidotes IV Field Performance of Herbicide Antidotes V Mode of Action of Herbicide Antidotes 265 270 292 296 301 ix CONTENTS VI Degradation of Herbicide Antidotes in Plants VII Summary References 309 310 310 BUFFALO GOURD AND JOJOBA: POTENTIAL NEW CROPS FOR ARID LANDS LeMoyne Hogan and William P Bemis I 11 111 IV Introduction Buffalo Gourd: Cucurbitu foeridissirnu HBK Jojoba: Simmondsiu chinensis (Link) Schneider Conclusion References 317 319 332 346 347 PROTEIN TRANSFORMATION IN SOIL Michael J Loll and Jean-Marc Bollag I I1 111 IV V VI VII Introduction Protein Sources Proteolytic Microorganisms Characteristics of Proteolytic Enzymes in Soils Environmental Factors Affecting Proteolysis Transformation and Binding of Protein in Soil Ecological and Agronomic Importance of Protein Transformation References 352 352 354 361 364 370 376 377 APPLICATIONS OF INDUCED AND SPONTANEOUS MUTATION IN RICE BREEDING AND GENETICS J Neil Rutger I Introduction I1 Breeding Applications of Semidwarf Mutants 111 Breeding Applications of Early Maturity Mutants IV Breeding Applications of Other Types of Mutants V Genetic Applications of Mutants VI Future Uses of Mutation in Rice Improvement References 383 385 396 399 404 408 410 444 K L SAHRAWAT nutrients such as P and K The main problems seem to stem from the fact that nitrogen availability to plants is governed by several environmental and soil factors which are not taken into account whenempirical procedures for determining available N are used However, tests for predicting the nitrogen-supplying capacities of soils are important for the efficient use of fertilizer N It is always good to have a test which can provide a rough estimate of the pool of available N in soils so that fertilizer N can be applied to achieve a given yield of rice This can be illustrated by an example taken from soil test crop-response project work in India (see Velayutham, 1979; Randhawa and Velayutham, 1982) The alkaline permanganate digestion method (Subbiah and Asija, 1956) was used for estimating the available N in soils for several crops, including rice (Ramamoorthy and Velayutham, 1976; Venkateswarlu, 1976) Based on the data obtained for rice grain, it was established that approximately 1.5-1.8 kg N/ha is needed for every 100 kg of grain in the alluvial soils of Delhi From past experience it is known that about 26% of the available N (determined by the alkaline permanganate method) is taken up by the rice crop For example, if the available N in a soil as measured by this method is 250 kg/ha, only about 65 kg of this pool will appear in the rice plants Based on the yield target, the amount of fertilizer nitrogen (corrected for a use efficiency of 3040%) required for wetland rice can be calculated This test gives a rough guide for making fertilizer N recommendations which should result in the more efficient use of fertilizer than in cases where the nitrogen-supplying capacity of the soil is not taken into considerdtion Velayutham (1979) has summarized the Indian work on soil test crop response for rice Briefly, the yield target and the required fertilizer nitrogen for achieving the yield target can be calculated from the following equations: T = ns/(m-r) and F = rns/(m-r) where T is the yield target in 100 kg/ha, n is the ratio of percentage conmbution from soil and fertilizer N, r is the N requirement in kg/ha of grain production, m is the ratio of N requirement and contribution from fertilizer N, s is the soil test N value in kg/ha, and F is the fertilizer nutrient rate in kg/ha This scheme seems to provide a fair degree of approximation for efficient use of fertilizer N considering the N-supplying capacities of soils Another example for fertilizer N recommendation based on the N-supplying capacity of rice soils is from the work done at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines by Ponnamperuma and his colleagues, who used the anaerobic incubation method to measure levels of available N They sampled rice fields in 13 provinces in the Philippines and, based on the analysis of 483 soil samples, the available N in these soils ranged from 10 to 637 ppm It was NITROGEN AVAILABILlTY INDEXES FOR RICE 445 possible to separate low- and high-N-supplying capacities using the anaerobic incubation test (Ponnamperuma, 1978; Castro, 1979) Based on the results of potentially mineralizableN, Ponnamperuma (1978) formulated a rough guide for the fertilizer nitrogen requirements of a crop of tons/ha for Philippine wetland rice soils Soils that needed no fertilizer nitrogen (available N > 150 ppm) Soils that needed 50 kg N/ha at panicle primordia initiation (available N = 100-150 ppm) Soils that needed about 50 kg N/ha at planting and about 50 kg N/ha again at panicle primordia initiation (available N=50-100 ppm) It was further observed that at eight locations in a province, rice yields of 4.5-7 tons/ha were obtained on soils containing more than 155 ppm available N; zinc was applied but N was not (IRRI, 1974; Castro, 1979) These two examples illustrate the principle of basing the recommendation of fertilizer nitrogen needs of rice on the available N results, and it seems to be a step in the right direction It is, however, recognized that these recommendationsmust be modified from time to time to reflect experience gained X PERSPECTIVES The high cost of fertilizer nitrogen combined with the need for increased yields of rice has stimulated research on methods of using soil and fertilizer nitrogen efficiently For the judicious and efficient use of fertilizer, a measure of the nitrogen-supplying capacity of soils is prerequisite because rice soils vary widely in their capacity to release ammonium nitrogen when submerged Our fertilizer recommendations will be only as precise as our methods for measuring the amounts of available soil nitrogen Because of the fact that one-half to two-thirds of the nitrogen used by the rice plant, even in well-fertilized paddies, comes from soil nitrogen through mineralization, research on methods for measuring the nitrogen-supplying capacities of wetland rice soils assumes still greater importance For devising effective methods for measuring available nitrogen in soils, it is essential that the factors that affect mineralization and the availability of soil nitrogen to the rice plant be well understood Soil and environmental factors that affect the mineralization of soil organic nitrogen are fairly well documented However, with the present state of knowledge it is not possible to quantify (1) how the texture and the mineralogical makeup of a soil affect the release of nitrogen under submerged conditions, or (2) how the mineralization of soil organic nitrogen is affected by the presence of the rice plant Attempts should be made in the future by using stepwise regression analyses to separate the effects of 446 K L SAHRAWAT different soil characteristics on nitrogen mineralizationin flooded soils for different regions with due consideration of taxonomic criteria It is envisaged that a knowledge of the environmental (such as temperature and moisture) and soil factors that affect mineralization will be useful in developing improved anaerobic incubation tests and, eventually, in developing models for measuring soil nitrogen mineralization rates and hence nitrogen-supplying capacity under field conditions, No data are presently available on the measurement of soil nitrogen mineralization rates in the field or on the comparative evaluation of mineralization rates as measured in the laboratory and in the field Anaerobic incubation tests have shown potential as indexes for soil nitrogen availability to rice in a large number of greenhouse pot experiments and a few field experiments Improved incubation tests should be devised by consideringthe climatic conditions of a region, especially soil temperature The anaerobic incubation method is quite versatile in that it is very responsive and amenable to ranges in temperature Research is also needed for the development of standardized methods for (1) determining the optimal time of soil sampling, (2) sampling soil (especially for submerged paddy fields after land-preparatory operations), (3) preparing soil samples for laboratory and greenhouse work, and fmally (4) use in laboratory and greenhouse expriments Recent work has revived interest in using organic matter (as measured by organic C and total N) as the index of soil nitrogen availability to wetland rice (Ponnamperuma, 1978; Ponnamperuma and Sahrawat, 1978; Sahrawat, 198Oc, 1982d, 1983b) However, researchers usually have not obtained consistent results It is known that both the quantity and the quality of organic matter affect the mineralization and availability of soil nitrogen Little is known about the quality of organic matter (except for the C/N ratio) in wetland rice soils, which is indicated by our inability to answer simple questions even with our present knowledge about organic matter For instance, (1) What are the criteria for characterizing the quality of organic matter in relation to its contribution to mineralizable nitrogen in submerged soils? and (2) How does the quality of organic matter affect mineralization and soil nitrogen availabilityto rice? More knowledge about the quality of organic matter, and especially about the fraction that contributes to soil mineralizable N pools, should improve our capability to use this simple index for predicting soil nitrogen availabilityto rice Considerableresearch efforts have been devoted to the development of chemical indexes for assessing available soil nitrogen in soils, but these indexes have not been tested extensively for rice soils Ideally, chemical indexes that extract the soil organic nitrogen fraction, which is the source of mineralizable nitrogen through the biological process, should be satisfactory in assessing the nitorgensupplying capacity of a soil However, these conditions are usually not met and, in the case of many chemical indexes, their chemistry is not fully known Alkaline pennanganate digestion is the most extensively used chemical method, especially in India, for assessing the availability of soil nitrogen to rice Recent NITROGEN AVAILABILITY INDEXES FOR RICE 447 knowledge about the chemistry of the method has shown that it exhibits a better potential for predicting soil nitrogen availability to wetland rice than to upland crops (Sahrawat and Burford, 1982) Simple models based on regression equations relating potentially mineralizable nitrogen (as measured by biological indexes) with chemical indexes and/or soil characteristics should be tested for their suitability to predict nitrogen availability to rice, since they have a sound basis (Stanford, 1977; Stanford and Smith, 1978; Sahrawat, 1983b) In view of the diverse soil and climatic conditions (where rice is grown) that affect soil nitrogen availability, it is quite probable that a single index of nitrogen availability will not find universal acceptance Research on nitrogen availability indexes for wetland rice soils compared to arable soils is still in infancy, and it is hoped that this article will stimulate research in this area which holds considerable promise for the efficient use of fertilizer nitrogen as well as for devising conservative soil management and cultural practices to regulate soil nitrogen release in connection with nitrogen uptake by the rice plant International cooperation is desirable for extensive testing of the promising indexes of nitrogen availability ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Part of this work was done at, and supported by, the International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines I am grateful to Dr.F N Ponnamperuma, Principal Soil Chemist, IRRI, for his valuable suggestions I thank Dr.C W Hong for his helpful review of this article REFERENCES Acharya, C N 1935 Biochem J 29, 1116-1120 Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 1930 “Official and Tentative Methods of Analysis of the AOAC.” Washington, D.C Ayanaba, A,, Tuckwell, S B., and Jenkinson, D S 1976 Soil Biol Biochem 8, 519-523 Bajaj, J C., and Hasan, R 1978 Plum Soil 50, 707-710 Bajaj, J C., and Singh, D 1980 Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 11, 93-104 Bajaj, J C., Gulati, M L., and 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News 24, 12-20 Venkateswarlu, J 1976 In “Soil Fertility-Theory and Practice” (J S Kanwar, ed.), pp 410-456 Indian Council of Agric Res., New Delhi Ventura, W., and Watanabe, I 1978 Soil Sci Planr Nu@ (Tokyo) 24,535-545 Wallihan, E F., and Moomaw, J C 1967 Agron J 59, 473-474 Wanasuria, S., Mengel, K.,and DeDatta, S K 1980 Proc Int Symp Applic EUF Agric Production, Budapest Waring, S A., and Bremner, J M 1964a Nature (London) 201, 951-952 Waring, S A,, and Bremner, J M 1964b Nature (London) 202, 1141 Whitehead, D C 1981 J Sci FoodAgric 32, 359-365 Whitehead, D C., Barnes, R J., and Morrison, J 1981 J Sci Food Agric 32, 211-218 Wiklicky, L 1982 Planr Soil 64, 115-127 Yamane, I 1967 Rep Inst Agric Res Tohoku Univ 18, 87-108 Yanagisawa, M., and Takahashi, J 1964 Nogyo Gijutsu Kenkyusho Hokoku B (Bull Natl Inst Agric Sci.) 14, 41-171 Yoshino, T., and Dei, Y 1974 Jpn Agric Res Q 8, 137-141 Yoshino, T., and Dei, Y 1977 Noji Shikenjo Kenkyu Hokoku ( J Cent Agric Exp Stn.) 25, 1-62 This Page Intentionally Left Blank Index A Absorbed-ion activity, 224-226 Acetochlor, 268, 276, 282, 284, 287 AD-2, 268, 280 AD-67, 268, 280, 305 Aegilops, 107 Aegilops bicornis, 167 Aegilops bicuncialis, 167 Aegilops caudata, 158, 167, 171, 172 Aegilops columnaris, 167 Aegilops comosa, 167 Aegilops crassa, 167 Aegilops cylindrica, 167 Aegilops heldreichii, 167 Aegilops juvanalis, 167 Aegilops kotschyi, 163-164, 167 Aegilops longissima, 167 Aegilops mutica, 167 Aegilops ovata, 159, 167, 172 Aegilops sharonensis, 167 Aegilops spelroides, 165, 167 Aegilops squarrosa, 163, 167 Aegilops triaristata, 167 Aegilops tricuncialis, 167 Aegilops umbellulata, 167 Aegilops uniaristata, 167 Aegilops variabilis, 163, 167 Aegilops ventricosa, 167 Aegilotricum, 159 Alachlor, 268, 275, 276, 282-287, 297, 302 Alexandergrass, 270, 283 Alfalfa, 270 Allium cepa, 270 Alnus, 44 Amaranthus retrojlexus, 270 Amiirol, 268 Ammonium production, 417-421 Anabaena, Anhydrite, 72 Ascorbic acid, 288 Asulam, 268, 290 Atrazine, 268, 369 Avena fatua, 270 Avena sativa, 270 Azotobacterin, 291 Barban, 268, 271, 277, 282, 299 Barley, 105, 108, 110, 114-115, 122-123, 270, 278, 281, 282 Bamyardgrass, 270, 286 Bean common, 116, 127-129 field, 129-130, 270, 275, 276, 281 Beet, 270, 291 Bensulide, 268, 285 Bentazon, 369 Bentonite, 237, 248 Beta vulgaris 270 Bluegrass, Kentucky, 270, 276-278 Boron, 37 Brachiaria plantaginea, 270 Bromacil, 369 Butachlor, 268, 276, 285, 287 Butam, 268, 278 Buthidazole, 268, 278 Butylate, 268, 277, 281, 297, 306 C Calcite, 72, 86 Captan, 369 Carbon distribution, 26 Carboxin, 280 Carrot, 270, 291 Casuarina, 44 Cation exchange, thermodynamics, 15 -264 CCC, 268 CDAA, 268, 279 CDEC, 268, 282 Ceanothus, 44 Celestite, 72 Centrosema pubscens, 25 CGA-43089, 268, 272, 274, 280, 283-285, 290, 293-301, 308-309 CGA-92194, 268, 272, 283, 286, 293-301 Chenopodium album, 270 Cblormequat, 268 Chlornitrofen, 268, 289 453 454 Index Chloroacetanilide, 280 2-Chlomthyl phosphoric acid, 181 Chlorsulfuron, 268, 278, 282-283, 285, 286 Cisanilide, 268, 275, 278 Claviceps purpurea, 194 Clay mineral potksium exchange, 215-264 Clover, 33 white, 42, 43 Colletia 44 Competition selection, 105-1 11 Comptonia, 44 Concep I, 297 Concep 11, 297 Coriaria 44 Corn, 270 herbicide antidote, 274-289, 297, 299-310 Cotton, 103, 117, 120, 131-133, 275, 286 Crop evolution, annual, 97-143 Cucurbita foetidissima, 317, 319-331 Cycloate, 268, 277, 280, 282 Cysteine, 288 Cytoplasmic sterility, 157-169 Electro-ultrafiltration, 441-442 Eleusine, 283 Epronaz, 268, 278 Eptam, 369 EPTC, 269, 271-281, 284-287, 291, 297-308 Eradicane, 297-299 Ergot, 194 Erosion, reclamation, 38 Ethephon, 181, 182 Ethofumesate, 269, 279, 280, 285 F Feldspar, 67-68, 82 Flax, 270 Flowering behavior, 183-185 Fluazifop-butyl, 269, 279, 285 Foxtail, green, 270, 275, 286 Frankia, G D 2,4-D, 269, 270-272, 288, 369 Dalapon, 370 Datisca, 44 Daucus carota, 270 DCPA, 268, 278 DDCA, 292 Diallate, 268, 276, 282 Dicamba, 369 Diclopop-methyl, 268, 278, 283, 285 Diethatyl, 268, 276, 282, 284 Dimefuron, 268, 278 2,3-Dimercaptopropanol, 288 Dinoseb, 369 Diphenamid, 268, 275, 278, 280, 283 Diquat, 369 Discaria 44 Diuron, 268, 286 Dowco, 221, 268, 278 Dryas, 44 E Echinochloa crus-gali, 270 Eleagnus, 44 Genetics cross-fertilization factors, 183- 190 cytoplasmic differentiation, 164- 166 cytoplasmic sterility, 157-169 fertility restoration, 169-180 hybrid seed production, 191-196 rice mutations, 383-413 Glomus, 35 Glycine mar, 130, 270 Glycine soja, I30 Glyphosate, 269 Goethite, 73 Gossypium barbadense, 131 Gossypium hirsutum, 131, 270 Gourd, buffalo, 317, 319-331 Gypsum, 72, 73 H H-26910, 269, 276, 282 Hackberry, 74 Halite, 72 Haynaldia villosa 167 Hedysarum coronarium, 33 Helianthus annuus, 133 455 Index Herbicide antidote, 265-316 Heterosis, 147-155 HMI, 289 Hordeum disrichum, 127 Hordeum vulgare, 270 Hyppophae, 44 I Itchgrass, 270, 283 J Jarosite, 73 Johnsongrass, 270 Jojoba, 317, 332-346 Methylbromide, 19 Metoiachor, 269, 272-274, 276, 282-286, 290, 297, 302, 308-309 Metribuzin, 269 Mica, 240-243 weathered, 70-71, 82 Microorganism, proteolytic, 357-359 Millet, 270, 283 Molinate, 269, 277, 282 MON-4606, 268, 272, 285-287, 293-297 Montmorillonite, 237, 240-243, 373 Monuron, 369 Mycorrhiza, nitrogen-fixing, 1-54 Myrica, 44 N K Kaolinite, 240-243, 246, 248 L Lambsquarters, 270, 286 Laterite, 73 Legume, mycorrhiza, 23-44 Lepidociocite, 73 Lignin, 375 Linum usirarissimum, 270 Linuron, 269, 283 Lolium perenne, 270 Lotus pedunculatus, 25 Lycopersicon esculetum, 270 M Maize, 107, 108, 115-116, 124-126 Malathion, 369 Maleic hydrazide, 181 MBR-18337, 269, 285, 369 MCPA, 269, 289 Medicago sariva, 28, 30, 33, 42, 43, 270 Mefluidide, 269, 279, 280 3-Methoxy-5-methylisoxazole, 289 NA See 1.8-naphthalic anhydride I ,8-Naphthalic anhydride, 268, 272, 292, 295-304, 309 Nicotiana tabacum, 270 Nitrofen, 269, 289 Nitrogen biological indexes, 421-428 chemical indexes, 428-435 fertilizer, 37 plant analysis, 442-443 protein transformation, 35 1-382 rice soil, 415-451 Nitrogen fixation, nodulating mycorrhiza, 1-54 Nosroc, NP 5 , 269, 279 Oat, 115, 275, 277, 288, 299 wild, 270, 271, 291 Olivine, 1, 83 Onion, 270 Oryza fatua, 160, 163 Ovza glaberrima, 160, 163, 183 Oryza japonica, 123 Oryzaperennis, 158, 160, 161, 163 Oryza rufipogon, 160, 163 Oryza sativa, 183, 270 Oryza sativa f spontanea, 157, 158, 159-161 456 Index P Panicwn milliaceum, 270 Paraquat, 269, 288, 291, 369, 370 Parasponia, 44 Pasture improvement, 38 P a , 130-131 Pebulate, 269, 282 Pendimethalin, 269, 278 Perfhidone, 269, 279, 283, 285 Pesticide, mycorrhiza affect, 19 Phaseolus vulgaris, 109, 116, 127, 270 Phlewn pratense, 270 Phosphobacterin, 291 Phosphorus, mycorrhiza affect, 11-13, 16, 18, 28-29, 31-36 Photosynthesis, mycorrhiza affect, 17 Pigweed 270, 286 Pisum sativum, 37, 130 Poa pratensis, 270 Pollen suppressant, chemical, 180-182 Pollinator distance, 188-190 PoRu!aca oleracea, 270 Potassium, soil and clay exchange, 215-264 Potato, 270 Propachlor, 269, 276 Propanil, 269, 289 Protect, 297 Protein transformation, soil, 351-382 Pueraria, 28 Purshia 44 Purslane, 270, 286 Q Quartz, weathered, 68-70, 82 R R-25788,268, 272, 274, 279-283, 289, 292, 310 R-28725,268,280, 305 R-29148,268, 280 Redroot, 270, 286 RH531, 181-182 RH2956, 181-182 Rhizobiwn, 3, 23-44 Rhizosphere, 358, 368, 376 Riboflavin, 288 Rice, 105, 107, 114, 123-124, 275 breeding, 145-214 herbicide antidote, 275-289 mutations and genetics, 383-413 nitrogen availability, 415-45 Robus, 44 Roettboelia exaltata, 270 Root exudation, 30 Rubefaction, 79-80 Rye, 270 Ryegrass, 270, 291 S S-449,268, 271 Sand dune stabilization, 38-39 Screen, 297 SD-58525,269, 285 SD-91779,269, 285 Secale cereale, 167,270 Setaria viridis, 270 Sethoxydim, 269, 279, 283, 285 Simetryne, 289 Simmondsia chinensis, 317, 332-346 Soil, protein transformation, 35 1-382 Sodium l-@-chlorophenyl)-l,2-dihydro-4, 6-dimethyl-2-oxonicotinate, 181 Sodium methyl arsenate, 182 Soil nitrogen-fixing mycorrhiza, 1-54 potassium exchange, 215-264 protein transformation, 35 1-382 rice nitrogen, 415-451 submicroscopic examination, 55 -96 Solanum tuberosum, 270 Sorghum, 108, 116, 126-127 herbicide antidote, 272-290, 297,299-302, 308-309 Sorghum, 286 Sorghum bicolor, 270 Sorghum halepense, 270 Sorghum sudanense, 270 Soybean, 33, 34, 106, 116, 130,286 Stylosanthes guyanensis, 25 Sugarbeet, 286, 291 Sunflower, 116, 133-134 SUTAN + , 297, 298 Swep, 269, 289 457 Index T 2,4,6-T, 269, 271-272, 288, 369 Temperature, soil, 364-365 Terbutol, 269, 278 Thenardite, 73 Thiobencarb, 269, 277 Thiocarbamate, 279, 286, 287, 301, 306 Thiram, 369 Tillering, 108 Timothy, 270, 276, 278 Tobacco, 270, 288 a-Tocopherol, 288 Tomato, 270, 271, 275, 278, 281, 283 Triallate, 269, 276, 282, 297 Trifluralin, 269, 275, 278, 280, 283, 288 Trifolium repens, 25, 41 Trifolium subsrerraneum, 37 Triricum, 107 Triricum aesrivum, 163, 165, 167 Triricum araraticum, 163, 167 Triticum boeoricum, 162, 166, 167 Triricum dicoccoides, 167 Triticum dicoccoides, var nudiglumis, 163,167 Triricum diococcum, 167 Triticum durum, 159, 167 Triticum macha, 167, 171 Triticum monococcum, 167 Triticum spelta var duhamelianum, 164, 176 Triricum fimopheevi, 161, 162, 164, 165, 167, 171, 172, 197 Triricum zhukovskyi, 167 V Verdasan, 369 Vermiculite, 240 -243 VERNAM + , 297, 298 Vernolate, 269, 276, 282, 297 Viciafaba, 26, 129 Vitamin D 288 W Wheat, 105, 107, 108, 110, 114, 121-122 breeding, 145-2 14 herbicide antidote, 271, 275-278, 282-283, 291, 297 X Xylachlor, 269, 284 Y Yield, comparison, 119-120 U UBI-S734, 269, 285 Ustilago tritice, 195 Zea mays, 270 See also Corn Zinc methyl arsenate, 182 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ... 0-12-000 736- 3 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 83848586 50-5598 This volume is dedicated to Dr Arthur Geoffrey Norman, editor of the first 20 volumes of Advances in Agronomy This Page Intentionally... L SAHRAWAT S S VIRMANI ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared in cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 36 Edited by N C BRADY Science and Technology Agency for International Development.. .ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 36 CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS VOLUME C AZCON-AGUILAR J M BAREA P BEMIS WILLIAM E B A BISDOM JEAN-MARC BOLLAG C M DONALD IANB EDWARDS KEITHW T GOULDING J HAMBLIN KRITONK
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 36 , Advances in agronomy volume 36 , CHAPTER 1. MYCORRHIZAS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN NODULATING NITROGEN-FIXING PLANTS, IV. Mycorrhizas in Nodulating Nitrogen-Fixing Nonlegume Plants, CHAPTER 2. SUBMICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF SOILS, III. Applications of Electron Microscopy, V. Applications of Other Forms of Submicroscopy, CHAPTER 3. THE CONVERGENT EVOLUTION OF ANNUAL SEED CROPS IN AGRICULTURE, II. Selection in Domesticated Crops, IV. Selection, Evolution, and Crop Yield, V. Progress and Prospects in the Development of Annual Seed Crops, VI. A Basic Ideotype for All Annual Seed Crops, II. Heterosis in Rice and Wheat, IV. Cytoplasmic–Genetic Male Sterility Systems in Rice and Wheat, VI. Use of Chemical Pollen Suppressants in Hybrid Production, II. The Thermodynamics of Ion-Exchange Equilibria, III. Calorimetry in Ion-Exchange Studies, IV. Thermodynamics Applied to Potassium Exchange in Soils and Clay Minerals, V. Exchange Equilibrium and the Kinetics of Potassium Exchange, VII. Appendix: List of Symbols, II. Development of Herbicide Antidotes, III. Chemistry of Herbicide Antidotes, IV. Field Performance of Herbicide Antidotes, V. Mode of Action of Herbicide Antidotes, VI. Degradation of Herbicide Antidotes in Plants, II. Buffalo Gourd: Cucurbita foeridissimu HBK, III. Jojoba: Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider, CHAPTER 8. PROTEIN TRANSFORMATION IN SOIL, IV. Characteristics of Proteolytic Enzymes in Soils, V. Environmental Factors Affecting Proteolysis, VI. Transformation and Binding of Protein in Soil, VII. Ecological and Agronomic Importance of Protein Transformation, II. Breeding Applications of Semidwarf Mutants, III. Breeding Applications of Early Maturity Mutants, IV. Breeding Applications of Other Types of Mutants, V. Genetic Applications of Mutants, VI. Future Uses of Mutation in Rice Improvement, II. Factors Affecting Mineralization of Organic Nitrogen, V. Simple Models of Nitrogen-Supplying Capacity Based on Biological and Chemical Indexes, IX. Nitrogen-Supplying Capacity and Fertilizer Recommendations

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