Advances in agronomy volume 17

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A D V A N C E S IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 17 CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS VOLUME MARKA BARMORE HOWARD J BROOKS A J CLINE ROUSES FARNHAM GEORGET FELBECK, JR H R FINNEY HAROLD W FOCLE H J GORZ ERHARDT R HEHN DONAL D JOHNSON JOHN W MCKAY LEWISR NELSON W K SMITH ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMEZICANSOCETYOF AGRONOMY VOLUME 17 Edited by A G NORMAN The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan ADVISORY BOARD H D MORRIS F L PATTERSON K T PAYNE C GARDNER C L HAMILTON W P MARTIN 1965 @ ACADEMIC PRESS New York and London COPYRIGHT @ 1965, BY ACADEMICPRESSINC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM, BY PHOTOSTAT, MICROFILM, OR ANY OTHER MEANS, WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION FROM THE PUBLISHERS ACADEMIC PRESS INC 111Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by ACADEMIC PRESS INC (LONDON) LTD Berkeley Square House, London W.1 LIBRARYOF CONGRESSCATALOG CARDNUMBER: 50-5598 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 17 Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin BARMORE, MARKA ( G ) ,Chemist, Western Wheat Quality Laboratory, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington BROOKS,HOWARDJ (283) Research Horticulturist, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland CLINE,A J (233), Senior Soil Correlator, Soil Conservation Service, Fort Collins, Colorado FARNHAM, ROUSES ( 115),Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, University of Minnesota, Institute of Agriculture, St Paul, Minnesota FELBECK, GEORGE T., JR (327), Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island FINNEY,H R (115), Research Assistant, Department of Soil Science, University of Minnesota, lnstitute of Agriculture, St Paul, Minnesota FOGLE,HAROLD W (283), Research Horticulturist, Crops Research Diukion, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Mayland GORZ,H J (la), Research Geneticist, Crops Researoh Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, and Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln,Nebraska HEHN,E R H A ~R.T (S), Head, Department of Plant and SOU Science, Montana State College, Bozeman, Montana DONAL D (233), Professor of Soils, Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado JOHNSON, MCKAY,JOHN W (283),Research Horticulturist, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Seroice, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland V vi CONTRIBUTORS NELSON, LEWISB ( l ) ,Manager, O@ce of Agricultural and Chemical Development, Tennessee Valley Authority, Wilson Dam, Alabama SMITH,W K (la), Professor, Departments of Agronomy and Genetics, and Agent, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin PREFACE In all countries of the world in which scientific agriculture is practiced, crop production and acre yields have increased markedly in the last two decades Fertilizers, efficiently used, have contributed substantially to this progress World-wide fertilizer consumption is steadily rising As technical and economic resources are acquired in areas now less favored, so is it to*be expected that striking changes in production will occur The slopes may even be steeper Although specific recommendations may not be applicable, the principles of efficient practice are transferable, and technological improvements in fertilizer chemistry, which have made new materials available, have widened the possibilities of fertilizer choice In several earlier volumes, authors have dealt with developments in fertilizer technology and usage, but no apology is needed for returning again to these topics The lead article in this volume, by L B Nelson, is an authoritative and comprehensive review of the newer developments which hold so much promise in meeting the needs for food by the expanding world population The improvement of crop varieties through recombination of available germplasm is another powerful factor in increased yields The article by W K Smith and Gorz on Sweetclover Improvement includes an elegant discussion of the complex considerations that must be encompassed in a crop breeding program Similarly, when quality for a specific purpose is the primary objective, as in the case with wheat for milling and baking, the criteria to be superimposed on those relating to agronomic characters become quite sophisticated, Hehn and Barmore give an account of work which, though not widely known, affects everyone's daily bread From time-to-time, it is appropriate to include consideration of horticultural crops, some of which in an era of high labor costs present severe problems to the grower Tree fruit and nut production in the United States are discussed by Brooks, Fogle, and McKay, who stress the necessity for research on improvements in the characteristics of the trees and modifications in management practice to meet these new situations The remaining three chapters are examples of different types of basic work on soils G T Felbeck presents a scholarly review of the old, but ever new, problem of the chemistry of soil humus substances, a durable and recalcitrant problem, which is being reduced slowly by the application of new techniques in chemistry Organic soils have long presented difficulties in classification Systems hitherto available have been less comprehensive and firmly based than those developed for mineral soils Vii viii PREFACE Farnham and Finney have faced the need for a new system, which should be a more refined tool in mapping and management, and which incorporates nomenclature changes consistent with those adopted in “Soil Classification, 7th Approximation” by the Soil Survey staff of the U.S Department of Agriculture Fascinating aspects of soil genesis are reviewed in the chapter on Colorado Mountain Soils by Johnson and Cline This state is veritably a laboratory in which soil-forming processes may be studied, because of the enormous range of climatic, geological, and vegetation variables that occur therein Within a few miles may be found representative soils that elsewhere lie far apart Once again it is appropriate to conclude with a recognition of the services provided by our authors in making available to their colleagues these stimulating reviews A G NORMAN Ann Arbor, Michigan July, 1965 CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME17 PREFACE Page v vii ADVANCES IN FERTILIZERS LEWISB NELSON I I1 I11 IV V VI VII VIII IX Introduction Fertilizer Consumption and Use Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Mixed Fertilizers Sulfur Micronutrients Outlook References 11 29 49 56 70 74 78 80 BREEDING WHEAT FOR QUALITY ERHARDT R HEHNAND MARK A BARMORE I I1 I11 IV V VI VII Introduction The Protein Story Milling and Baking Research Laboratories Microquality Flour Tests Micromilling Methods Genetics and Breeding Conclusions References 85 86 88 90 99 100 111 112 CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC SOILS R S FARNHAM AND H R FINNEY I Introduction 11 Distribution and Extent ix 115 116 372 AUTHOR INDFX G Gadaas, R F., 180, 225 Garber, R J., 212, 224 Gardner, C O., 217, 224 Gardner, F P., 174, 227 Carver, S., 172, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 220, 225 Gasser, J K R., 20, 81 Gaston, H P., 305, 325 Gates, T B., 208, 226 Geddes, W F., 91,93, 100, 113 Gelcinskaja, R B., 201,208,225 Gerdemann, J W., 212, 225 Gettys, R E., 189, 188,225 Gibbs, R L., 25, 81 Gillis, K A., 97, 113 Girard, H., 131, 132,161,162 Gittings, E B., 238, 281 Glenn, R.A., 345,366 Godwin, H., 122,161 Goforth, F., 193,227 Gonzales, C I., 294, 325 Goodwin, R H., 197,225 Goplen, B P., 184, 185, 188, 199, 201, 202, 204, 209, 210, 211, 215, 225, 228 Gordon, T C., 117, 162 Gorham, E., 118,161 Goring, C A., 28,82 Gortner, R A,, 98, 98, 114 Con, H J., 170, 181, 182, 184, 185, 189, 190, 192, 193, 198, 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 210, 211, 214, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 231 Gottlieb, S., 340, 366 Graber, L F., 171, 172, 173, 179, 225, 229 Grande, F., 318,325 Grandt, A F., 175,225 Graves, C., 37,82 Greenaway, W T., 97, 104, 105, 107, 108, 113, 114 Greene, G., 334, 366 Greenshields, J E R., 189, 176, 177, 178, 181, 183, 184, 185, 187, 190, 194, 199, 201, 202, 204, 209, 210, 211, 220, 221, 222, 225, 226 Greenwood, D., 208,224 Griggs, W H., 294,325 Grisso, R D., 85, 81 Groom, P S., 72, 83 Gross, A T H., 218, 226 Gross, D L., 188, 230 Guemey, G M., 97, 104, 105, 107, 108, 113, 114 Gupta, U C., 347,367 Gustafson, A G., 105,109,114 Gutierrez, M G., 189,226 H Hackleman, J C., 216,225 Haertl, E J., 75, 82 Hale, W S., 110,113 Halpin, J E., 212, 226 Hamly, D H., 188,226 Hansen, E., 294, 325 Hanson, A A., 178,224 Hanson, E W., 212, 214, 215, 226, 228 Hanson, W D., 110,113 Harle, A J., 198,226 Harmer, P M.,117,121,161 Harper, W G.,281 Harris, D V., 281 Harris, F J., 58, 82 Harris, R H., 94, 98, 105, 107, 108, 109, 113 Hartwig, E E., 183, 184, 185, 188, 187, 193 226 Haskins,'F A., 184, 198, 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 208, 210, 223, 225, 226, 229, 231 Hass, A R C., 132,161 Hauck, R D., 28,82 Haunold, A., 103, 104,105,113 Havis, A L., 301, 302,325 Haws, B A., 216,217,225, 226,231 Hayashi, T., 337, 366 Hayes, H K., 101,105,113 Hayes, W J., Jr., 208,226 Hays, W M., 95,113 Heady, E O., 8,82 Heaton, E K., 318, 325 Hedden, S L., 305,325 Hehn, E R., 106,114 Hein, M A., 171, 230 Heinly, N A., 75, 82 Heinselman, M L., 118,121,161 Heizer, H K., 94, 108, 109,113 Helgeson, E A., 188, 226 Helm, C A., 178,226 Henderson, R C., 178,179,229 373 AUTHOR INDEX Hendricks, S B., 340,366 Herbert, T T., 102, 107, 112 Herissey, H., 203, 224 Hennann, W., 192, 226 Herron, J C., 216,217,226 Hervey, R J., 176,226 Heusinkveld, D., 192,226 Heyne, E G., 111, 113 Hickman, C A., 117,162 Hide, J C., 177, 223 Hignett, T P., 34, 60, 63, 66, 77, 82 Hill, R E., 219, 228 Hill, W.L., 47, 82 Himes, F L., 330, 348, 367 Hinson, K., 191, 226 Hirst, M., 339, 340, 365 Ho, A., 334, 368 Hockensmith, R D., 281 Hodges, E M., 179,227 Hodgson, D R., 175, 226 Hodgson, H J., 174,226 Hoffman, I., 341, 367 Holdaway, F G., 216,217,226 Holden, E R., 74, 82 Holliday, R., 175, 226 Hollowell, E A., 182, 192,222,226 Honda, C., 332, 366 Hoover, M M., Jr., 193, 227 Hopper, T H., 180,224 Homer, G M., 177, 226 Homer, W H., 184, 201, 202, 208, 209, 226, 231 Hough, L F., 291,326 Houston, E C., 48,82 Hoveland, C S., 179,230 Howe, W L., 220,226 Hubbard, A B., 356, 366 Huberty, M R., 132,161 Huebner, C F., 207,230 Hiilsmann, G., 197, 203, 204, 210, 223, 229 Hulburt, W E., 22, 23, 25, 80 Hunt, C M., 27,81 Hunt, I V., 175, 226 Hurst, H M., 339, 340, 365, 366 Hurst, T L., 36, 82 Hyslop, J A,, 215, 226 I Ibach, D B., 10, 82 Immer, F R., 101, 105, 113 Irvine, G N., 98,113 Isely, D., 104, 226 Ivanova, E N., 125,126, 161 Izeki, A., 332, 366 J Jackobs, J A., 211,226 Jackson, W A., 75, 82 Jacob, K D., 2, 10,54,82 Jacquin, F., 329,366 Jakab, T., 329,332,334,337,366 Jansen, D D., 294, 325 Jaques, L B., 211,228 Jaranowski, J K., 190, 191,226 Jenkinson, D S., 359,366 Jeter, B E., 179,227 Johnson, J A., 93, 105, 113, 114 Johnson, H W., 110,113 Johnson, I J., 169, 172, 174, 176, 177, 186, 188, 189, 193, 194, 196, 225, 227, 229, 230 Johnson, V A., 103, 104, 105, 107, 113, 114 Johnson, W M., 281 Johnston, F B., 202, 204,231 Johnston, H H., 330,341, 348,366 Johnston, J R., 176,226 Jones, D W., 179,227 Jones, F R., 212,213,214,227 Jones, G D., 70, 81 Jones, R J., 2,82 Jordan, J E., 64, 80 K Kahnt, G., 199,203,205,210,227 Kaila, A., 135, 138, 161 Kaiser, V G., 177, 221,229 Kajiyama, S., 350, 368 Kanewskaja, S G., 202,203,227 Kang, K S., 301,366 Kapp, L C., 170,226 Kapusta, E C., 50, 54, 55, 82 Kasperbauer, M J., 174, 175, 227 Kavanagh, F., 197,225 Kazakov, G., 116,119,124,161 Keil, H L., 293,325 Kelleher, J S., 216, 217,223, 227 Kellenbarger, S., 105, 113 Kelley, W P., 175,227 Kellog, C E., 281 Kemkamp, M.F., 212,217,225,227 Kettner, H., 354,360,368 Keys, A., 318, 325 374 AUTHOR INDEX Khan, E J A., 333, 366 Kieckhefer, R W., 218,219,227 Kiesselbach, T A., 172, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182,183, 220,225 Killinger, G B., 179,227 Kirchner, O., 189,227 Kirk, L E., 189, 183, 184, 185, 188, 187, 188, 189, 190, 194, 197, 227, 230 Kirk, W G., 179, 227 Kita, F., 190, 227 Kivinen, E., 122,161 Klebesadel, L J., 180,230 Klingman, G C., 25, 82 Koch, E J., 108, 111,113 Koehler, F E., 177, 229 Kolterman, D W., 20, 82 Kononova, M M., 328, 329, 335, 339, 358, 359, 381, 366 Kosaka, J., 332, 366 Kosuge, T., 198, 199, 202, 203, 205, 227 Koukol, J., 199, 227 Koutler-Andersson, E., 132, 161 Kreitlow, K W., 215, 226 KubiEna, W L., 124, 181 Kukharenko, T A,, 340,366,367 Kumada, K., 337,348,367 Kunz-Krause, H., 204, 228 Kuspira, J., 104, 113 L Ladd, J N., 382,383, 368 Lahiri, A., 348, 367 Lamb, C A., 94, 113 Lancaster, J D., 81,84 Landa, S., 358,367 Lang, A L., 175,225 Lang, R C., 189, 190,228 Larkin, R A., 110, 113 Larmour, R K., 203,224 Larthe, Y.,208, 223 Latch, G C M., 214,228 Laude, M M., 92,100,114 Law, A G., 178,228 Leat, J N., 132,160 Lebeau, J B., 213,224,228 Lebsock, K L., 97, 104, 105, 107, 108, 112, 113, 114 Leffel, R C., 110,113 Lehman, I H., 70,81 Leighty, C E., 188,228 Lemas, M A., 215,218,217,228 Levin, J H., 305, 325 Lewis, J P., 88, 114 Lewis, T E., 342, 348, 367 Link, K P., 199, 202, 203, 204, 205, 208, 207, 208, 209, 224, 228, 229, 230 Linton, J H., 211,225, 228 Lippmaa, E T., 355, 357,365 Lloyd, W A., 185, 175,228 Loan, C., 217,228 Logsdon, C E., 213, 228 Loomis, W E., 174,227 Love, H H., 188,228 Lovell, H B., 183,228 Lubisick, T M., 110, 112 Lucas, R E., 118, 117, 123,132,161 Ludwick, A E., 76, 82 Lutz, J A., Jr., 81, 84 Lutz, W A., 42, 45, 82 Lyford, W H., 281 Lyons, L E., 198,226 M McCall, A G., 177, 226 McCants, C B., 56, 82 McClelland, J E., 281 MacDonald, R A., 51, 52, 53,55,82 McFarland, A,, 188, 228 McKay, G., 180,223 McKenzie, R E., 175,228 McLaren, P D., 180, 223 MacMasters, M M., 110,113 McMurry, E B., 187,228 MacNary, C G., 218,228 McNeal, F H., 108, 111,113 McQuillin, F J., 339,367 Magistad, 0.C., 175,228 Magness, J R., 283, 325 Magoon, M L., 190,227 Makower, B., 45, 82, 83, 84 Manglitz, G R., 192, 218, 218, 219, 220, 228 Marr, J W., 244,281 Marriott, T A., 87, 82 Martin, F., 329, 343, 345, 348, 347, 358, 366, 367 Martin, G C., 289, 295, 325 Martin, J N., 187, 168, 169, 171, 181, 224, 228 Mattem, P J., 104,113 Mattson, S., 132, 161 375 AUTHOR INDEX Matyukhina, S G., 349, 351, 367 Mead, H W., 212,228 Mecham, D K., 110, 112,113 Mehta, N C., 328, 329, 330, 332, 334, 338, 337, 338, 342, 343, 345, 348, 347, 355, 358, 366, 367 Micke, A., 184, 197, 199, 203, 204, 210, 228 Middleton, G K., 102, 107, 112,113 Miller, H., 98,108, 109, 113 Millon, E., 87, 113 Mills, H H., 309, 326 Mitchell, B D., 341, 367 Mogen, C A., 281 Moore, A W., 338,340,367 Morita, H., 338, 367 Moms, R., 104,113 Morris, V H., 94, 98, 108, 109, 113 Morrison, R I., 333, 335, 338, 339, 366 367 Mortensen, J L., 329, 330, 332, 335, 348, 367, 368 Moschopedis, S E., 355, 357, 367, 368 Mukhejee, P N., 346,367 Munn, M T., 188,228 Munro, J A,, 215,216,217,228,230 Murphy, D., 338,340,367 N Nagai, T., 337, 366 Nagar, B R., 341,367 Nason, M C., 88,84 Neugebauer, L., 205,229 Newton, J D., 178, 228 Nikitin, A A., 74, 77, 83 Nishimura, J Y., 281 Nordby, H E., 334,368 Nonis, M J., 219,229 Nostdahl, W D., 215, 218, 217, 228 Nygard, I J., 121,161,281 Obermayer, E., 203,229 Ogg, W G., 120,161 O’Hare, T E., 13,81 Olenin, A S., 116,161 Olmo, H P., 301, 325 Olson, T M., 179,229 Orlov, D S., 349, 351, 367 Ozimek, R T., 70,83 P Page, N R., 74,82 Painter, R H., 218,219,229 Parker, F W., 5, 8, 83 Patterson, J K., 177, 225 Patzak, R., 205,229 Payne, J H., Jr., 40, 41, 43, 45, 83 Pell, K L., 100, 114 Pelshenke, P., 95, 105, 113 Peperzak, P., 5,8,83 Peters, D C., 218, 219,229 Phillips, A B., 32, 33, 37, 43, 72, 73, 83 Pinckney, A J., 97,105, 113 Piombino, A J., 51, 54, 83 Pirhger, A A., 289,326 Platt, J R., 385,367 Plucknett, D L., 170,229 Poehlman, J M., 97, 105,112 Pole, G R., 56,81 Pollock, B E., 208,229 Pommer, A M., 344,367 Pons, L J., 128,161 Post, L V., 122, 134, 161 Post, R L., 217,228 Potts, J M., 68, 69, 83 Potts, K T., 338,338,367 Potts, R C., 176, 181, 182, 213, 214, 220, 229 Powell, R G., 13, 17,83 Powers, W L., 175,223 Pratt, C J., 17, 19, 29, 35, 42, 43, 45, 80, 82, 83 Pratt, P F., 74, 81 Prince, V E., 301, 325 Proebsting, E L., 308, 309, 325, 326 Pubols, B H., 284, 288,292, 326 Pumphrey, F V., 177,229 Puustjarvi, V., 132, 133, 161 Pyavchenko, N I., 118,161 Q Quackenbush, H E., 288, 326 Quick, A J., 206,207, 229 R Radforth, N W., 120,121,161 Ragan, W H., 284,326 Raudsepp, K T., 358, 367 Rea, H E., 177,229 Reed, J F., 53, 83 376 AUTHOR INDEX Rees, B., 168, 229 Reid, T., 352, 368 Reinsch, H., 198,229 Reitz, L P., 103, 113 Rennie, W W., 20,82 Retzer, J L., 257,281 Reuter, J H., 355, 366 Rex, R W., 352,367 Reynolds, E B., 177,229 Rich, P A., 177,229 Ries, S K., 288, 326 Rigg, G B., 117, 123,161 Rincker, C M., 168,229 Rinke, E H., 202, 209, 229 Risi, J., 131, 132,161, 162 Rist, C E., 110, 113 Ritchey, G E., 179, 227 Roberts, J E., 177,229 Roberts, W L., 199, 202, 203, 204, 205, 207,209,224,229 Robertson, I M., 132,162 Robertson, J A., 176,228 Robinson, A D., 206,224 Rockwell, G R., Jr., 286, 325 Roderick, L M., 206,229 Rogers, H T., 2, 82 Rogler, G A., 180,225 Romberg, L D., 318, 326 Rothbaum, H P., 72, 83 Roulet, N., 329, 366 Rozanova, N., 349, 351,367 Rozov, N N., 125, 126,161 Rucker, D L., 40,42,45, 71, 81, 84 Rudorf, W., 184, 194, 199, 202, 205, 210, 211, 214, 229 S Sachsel, G F., 14, 84 Salutsky, M L., 27, 75, 81 Sandal, P C., 169,229 Sandstedt, R M., 88, 112 Sass, J E., 196,227 Sauchelli, V., 25, 83 Saunders, C E., 87,114 Savage, A., 206,224 Savage, B G., 202,204,231 Savage, S., 336,359,367 Savel'ev, A S., 340,366 Schaeffer, G W., 184, 199, 201, 208, 210, 229 Schalk, A F., 206,229 Scheffer, F., 328, 330, 342, 345, 347, 367 Scheibe, A,, 197,210, 229 Schlosser-Szigat, G., 190,229 Schmidt, G W., 6, 23, 30, 48, 49, 54, 59, 83 Schmidt, J W., 103, 104, 105, 107, 113, 114 Schneider, H., 294, 325 Schnitzer, M., 336, 337, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 349, 353, 358, 363,365,367,368 Schon, W J., 199,203,205,210,227 Schofield, F W., 206,229 Scholl, W., 6, 8, 23, 30, 48, 49, 54, 59, 65, 83 Schroer, F W., 281 Schulhoff, H., 117,162 Schulz, E., 164,167,229 Schuyer, J., 344,356,368 Schwarze, P., 184, 199, 202, 205, 210, 211, 229 Schwendiman, J L., 177, 178, 221, 225, 228, 229 Scott, A I., 348,365 Scott, L E., 301,325 Scott, W C., 68, 69, 83, 84 Sears, E R., 104,114 Sears, H., 176,229 Sedlack, F., 19, 83 Seeborg, E F., 100, 105, 113, 114 Shaler, N S., 118, 162 Shapiro, S., 208, 229 Sharp, J C., 13,17,83 Sharp, P F., 96, 98,114 Shastry, S V S., 164, 190, 191, 229 Shaw, K N F., 355,366 Shay, J R., 291,326 Shear, C B., 290, 325 Shearer, D A., 349, 367 Shellenberger, J A., 92, 100,114 Shogren, M.,92, 100,114 Shoup, N H., 100,114 Sibbitt, L D., 94, 96, 97, 105, 108, 109, 112, 113 Siegel, M R., 64, 80 Silverberg, J., 69, 83 Siniramed, C., 346, 368 Sjors, H., 119, 162 Slack, A V., 17, 22, 38, 44, 67, 68, 69, 70, 77, 83 377 AUTHOR INDEX Slatensek, J M., 172, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 193, 201, 202, 204, 208,220,225,227,229 Slykhuis, J T., 212, 229 Smale, B C., 293, 325 Smith, A M., 132,162 Smith, Dale, 171,172, 173,229 Smith, G D., 144,162 Smith, G E., 67, 84 Smith, H., 168, 228 Smith, H B., 184, 186, 229 Smith, J C., 176, 179,226,227 Smith, J P., 64,80 Smith, R C., 45, 62,63,84 Smith, R M., 176, 179,229 Smith, T.J., 174,230 Smith, W K., 178, 182, 184, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 206, 207, 209, 211, 214, 223, 224, 225, 229, 230 Smith, W L., 302, 326 Snider, H J., 171, 172,223, 230 Sorgenti, H A,, 14,84 Soubies, L., 67, 84 Spears, B., 179, 180,224 Spence, D., 131,132,161,162 Sprague, H B., 176, 230 Srivastava, S C., 355,367 Stahly, E A., 289, 326 Stahmann, M A., 207,230 Stallcup, T., 179, 230 Stanford, G., 27, 81 Starostka, R W., 27,75, 81 Steelink, C., 330, 334, 352, 353, 366, 367, 368 Stephen, R C., 20, 81 Stephens, C G., 72,84 Stephenson, R L., 216,228 Stemhell, S., 342, 365 Stevens, H M., 34,84 Stevens, K R., 132,162 Stevens, S C., 117, 162 Stevenson, F J., 336, 39, 351, 357, 359, 367, 368 Stevenson, G A., 218,226 Stevenson, T M., 169, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 192, 193, 195, 201, 202, 203, 208, 209, 227, 230, 231 Steward, D D., 5, 6, 83 Stewart, P H.,166,230 Stickler, F C., 172, 176,177, 230 Stoa, T E., 168,230 Stoker, J R., 199,205, 230 Stout, B A., 288,326 Struthers, P H., 175,230 Stuber, C W., 103, 105,107,114 Sukachev, V H., 121,162 Suvorov, V V., 164, 189, 190, 208, 209, 230 Suzuki, A., 337, 367 Swaby, R J., 333, 335, 341, 362, 363, 368 Swain, F., 330,354,368 Swanson, C O., 93,105,113,114 Sweeney, G C., Jr., 12, 84 Swenson, S P., 105, 113, 184, 185, 187, 230 T Takegami, Y., 356, 368 Taylor, J W., 97, 114 Taylor, R L., 180, 230 Taylor, W A., 283, 326 Teitelbaum, S S., 220, 230 Telford, H S., 216, 217,230 Terman, G L., 61,84 Terras, J A., 167,230 Thiele, H., 354, 360, 368 Thigpen, E., 286,325 Thilo, L., 203, 204, 223 Thomas, H L., 217,231 Tiffin, L O., 75,81 Tinsley, J., 359, 366 Tippit, J., 176, 179, 229 Tisdale, S L., 40, 42, 45, 71, 74, 81, 84 Toland, H P., 6, 23, 30, 48, 49, 54, 59, 83 Tollin, G., 352, 353, 368 Toogood, J A., 176,228 Torrie, J H., 211,212,223 Tower, H L., Jr., 28, 84 Towers, G H N., 199,203,224 Townsend, W N., 175,226 Trew, E M., 179, 180, 224,230 Troels-Smith’ J” 123y 13’’ 162 Tukey* B*, 849 289, 326 Turner, J R., 77, 84 Turner, R C., 341,367,368 Tweeten, L G., 6, 82 Tyuremnov, S N., 119,162 743 378 AUTHOR INDEX U Ubaldini, I., 348,368 Ufer, M.,202,204,208, 230, 231 Ulrich, B., 328, 330, 342, 345, 347, 367 Unrau, J., 104, 113 v Van Dijk, H., 343, 368 Van Krevelen, D W., 344, 358, 368 Van Scoyk, W V., 92,114 Van Wazer, J R., 31,84 Varlygin, P D., 138, 162 Veatch, J O., 123, 124, 162 Vogel, A I., 340, 368 von Lippmann, E O., 203,231 Vvedenskaya, T E., 340,367 W Wagner, G H., 349, 351, 357,368 Waid, W C., 20, 81 Waksman, S A,, 117, 124, 132, 134, 162, 359, 368 Waldron, A C., 332, 335,368 Walkden, S B., 339, 340, 365, 366 Walker, C F., 72, 84 Wakup, H G., 67, 81 Wallace, A., 75, 84 Walters, H K., Jr., 89, 83 Washburn, R L., 184, 202, 204, 208, 229 Watson, C A., 108, 111, 113 Watt, J R., 187, 168, 228 Wear, J L., 74, 82 Weber, C A., 119,162 Webster, G T., 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 209, 211, 231 Weedon, B C L., 334,335, 368 Weichsel, G., 196, 231 Weimer, J L., 214,227 Weinberger, J W., 301, 326 Weir, R G., 72, 84 Welsh, J R., 106, 114 Wendt, N E., 50,54,55,82 Werner, E E., 92,114 Weswie W' P H 110.114 ? I Whitcomb, W O., 87, 88, 114 White, W J., 189, 184, 185, 186, 187, 195, 201, 202, 204, 208, 209, 221, 225,226,230,231 Whiteley, E L., 177, 179, 227, 229 Whiteside, A G O., 98, 108, 109, 113 Whittenberger, R T., 305, 325 Wiggans, S C., 174,231 Wilbanks, J A., 68, 84 Wilker, C A,, 54, 59, 83 Willard, C J., 171, 172, 173, 178, 177, 231 William, B H., 281 Williams, L G., 199, 226, 231 Williams, M W., 289, 295, 325 Williams, W A., 72, 84 Wilson, M C., 217, 231 Wilson, P W., 170, 231 Wilson, R A., 293, 325 Wilton, A C., 180, 230 Winter, B., 105, 109, 114 Wipf, L., 164, 197, 231 Wittwer, S H., 74, 84 Wood, J C., 355, 357, 367, 368 Wood, J W., 175, 226 Woodard, A W., 8, 49, 59, 83 Woodruff, J G., 318, 325 Working, E B., 93, 114 Works, D W., 188,231 Worzella, W W., 95, 97, 105, 112 Wright, B., 61,84 Wright, D., 199, 203,224 Wright, J R., 338, 337, 341, 342, 343, 344,345,348,347,349,367,368 Wylie, A P., 164, 224 Y Yamazaki, W T., 98, 98, 99, 100, 105, 107, 110,113, 114 Yokokawa, C., 358, 368 Yuan, T L., 132,162 Z Zeleny, L., 97, 105, 108, 113, 114 Zwenger, C., 197,231 SUBJECT INDEX A Abies concolor, 242 Abies lasiocarpa, 242 Abies lasiocarpa adzonica, 242 Achillea lanuloso, 242, 243 Actina, 243 Agoseris aurantica, 243 Agropyron dasystachyum, 240, 241 Agropyron smithii, 241 Agropyron spicatum, 241 Agropyron trachycaulum, 242 Agrostis humilis, 243 Agrostis scabra, 243 Alfalfa, 170, 172, 175, 178, 207,237 Alfalfa mosaic, 215 Alkaline water retention capacity, 99 Alluvial soil, 246, 247,249,251,253, 254, 255, 256-257, 261, 262, 264, 265, 269 Almond, 311, 313-314, 315, 321-323 Alpine bluebells, 243 Alpine meadow soil, 255, 257-259 Alpine turf soil, 255, 257, 259, 263, 275, 276, 278 Alsike clover mosaic, 215 Amblystegium, 125 Amelanchier alnifolia, 241 American pea streak, 215 Amiben, 171 Amino acid, 333, 335 3-Amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid, 171 Ammonia, 12-14, 16, 21-23, 25, 73 Ammoniation, 60-61 Ammonium nitrate, 16, 17-19, 23 Ammonium phosphate, 39, 43-45, 63, 67 Ammonium polysulfide, 73 Ammonium sulfate, 16, 17, 18, 19, 25 Aphis craccivma, 220 Apple, 283-291 Apple measles, 290 Apricot, 297, 310-312 Aquilegia elegantula, 242 Aquods, 253 Aquolls, 246, 251, 253, 260, 261, 264, 266, 269, 278 Arenaria hooked, 241 Arenaria rossii, 243 Argids, 249, 265, 269, 275, 277 Arnica, 242 Arnica cordifolia, 242 Arnica mollis, 243 Artemisia frigida, 242 Ascochyta caulicola, 187, 214 Ascochyta meliloti, 214 Astragalus agrestis, 242 Atrazine, 25 Atriplex cawscens, 240 Atriplex spp., 241 Avens 243 B Bacterial spot, 300 Balsamorrhiza sagittata, 241 Balsamroot, 241 Barley, 237 Basic slag, 42-43 Beauvaria bassiana, 217 Bedstraw, 242 Bent grass, 243 Betula glandulosa, 242 Betula occidentalis, 242 Birch, 242 Bistort, 243 Bitterbrush, 241 Bittemut hickory, 319 Biuret, 20 Blackline disease, 321 Blackstem, 214 Black walnut, 321 Bleeding disease, 206-208 Blueberry, 117, 242 Bluegrass, 117, 178, 241, 242, 243 Blue spruce, 242 B-Nine, 289 Bog, 119, 121 Bog sod, 246, 248, 250, 253, 254, 255, 256, 260 Boralfic agriborolls, 266 Boralfs, 247, 249, 251, 253, 262, 263, 266, 268 379 380 SUBJECT INDEX Boroll, 246, 249, 251, 253, 255, 268, 269, 273, 274, 275 Boron, 77, 175 Bouteloua gracilis, 240, 241 Bristle cone pine, 242 Broadbean mild mosaic, 215 Brome, 242 Bromus anomalous, 242 Bromus carinatus, 242 Brown forest soil, 246, 248, 249, 251, 253, 262, 268, 273, 277, 279 Brown podzolic soil, 251, 252, 253, 254, 259, 262, 263, 273, 275, 276, 278 Brown rot, 300, 308 Brown soil, 246, 247, 249, 250, 260-261, 265, 269, 275 Brunizem, 246, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253 254, 259, 262, 263-284, 268, 269, 274, 275, 277 B y u m argenteum, 340 Buffaloberry, 242 Bunch disease, 316 C Calamagrmtis canadensis, 242 Calciorthids, 246 Calcisol, 246, 248, 265 Calcium, 290 Calcium cyanamide, 17, 21 Calcium metaphosphate, 46-47 Calcium nitrate, 28 Cdiergm, 140 Caltha kptosepala, 244 Carex, 125 Carer albonigra, 243 Carer arapahoensis, 244 Carer atrata, 243 Carer bella, 244 Carex chalciolepis, 243 Carer chimaphila, 243 Carer drummondiana, 243 Carer geyeri, 242 Carer illota, 244 Carer nigricans, 243 Carex nova, 243 Carer physocarp, 244 Carex scapulorum, 244 Carex spp., 242 Carex uernacula, 243 Camallite, 49, 52 C a y a aquatica, 319 Carya cordiformis, 319 Carya illinoensis, 313 Catechol, 334 Ceanothus fendleri, 242 Celery, 117 Cercocarpus ledifolius, 241 Cercocarpus montanus, 241, 242 Cercospora dauisii, 214 Cereals, Chemozem, 246,247,249,251,253.254 255, 259, 266, 268, 269, 274, 275; 349 Cherry, 296,303-307 Chestnut soil, 246, 247, 261, 262, 265, 266, 268-269, 274, 275, 277 Chimaphila umbellata, 242 2-Chloro-6- ( trichloromethyl ) -pyridene, 28 Chokeberry, 241, 242 Chrymepts, 278 Chysopds uillosa, 241 Chysothamnus spp., 240 Cinquefoil, 243 Citrus, 54 Coal, 358, 357 Colletotrichum trifoli, 214 Collomia, 243 C o h n i u linearis, 243 Columbine, 242 Common juniper, 242 Common pea mosaic, 215 Communnizems, 124 Cork bark fir, 242 Corn, 25, 177 C o m w stolonifera, 242 Coryha americanu, 314 C o y h auellana, 314 C o y h cornuta, 314 Cotton, 10, 313 Cotton root rot, 176 Cotton root rot fungus, 219 Cottonsedge, 244 Coumarin, 177, 197-211 Coumarinic acid, '198, 206 Cow parsnip, 242 Cowpea aphid, 220 Cranberry, 117 Crotonylidenediurea, 26, 27 Crown rot, 212-214 Cryapods, 255 Cryaquolls, 255, 259, 280 SUBJECT INDEX Cryochrepts, 253 Cryopsamments, 255 Cryorthents, 255 Cryorthods, 255,283,275,278,278 Cylindrocarpon ehrenbergi, 213 381 granulated mixed, 62-65 liquid mixed, 67-70,77 micronutrients, 74-78 mixed, 56-70 nongranulated mixed, 61-62,76 storage reactions, 64-65 D United States consumption, 8-11 world consumption, 2-6 2-4D,25,221 Fescue, 241,242,243 Dalapon, 170 Dandelion, 242 Festuca arizonica, 241 Danthoniu intermediu, 241 Festuca idahoensis, 241 Degraded chemozems, 251, 252, 266, Festuca ovinu, 242 267-288,273 Festuca thurbed, 242,243 Delphinium, 242 Filbert, 313,314,315,323-324 Delphinium barbeyi, 242 Fire blight, 290,292,293 Deschampsia caespitosa, 242,243 Floranid, 26 2,2-Dichloropropionic acid, 170 Foxtail barley, 240 Dicranum, 140 Fringed sage, 242 Dicumarol, 208 Fulvic acid, 329,332,342,361,363 N-Dimethylaminosuccinamic acid, 289 Fusarium, 211,217 n-Dodecylquanidine acetate, 319 Fusarium aoenuceum, 213 Dogwood, 242 Fusarium culmorum, 213 Douglas fir, 241,250 Fusicladium d u s u m , 316 Dropseed, 240 Dryad, 243 G Dryas octopetala, 243 Galium boreale, 242 Dunun wheat, 86 Geranium, 242 Dysfibric horizon, 140-141 Geranium fremonti, 242 Geum turbinatum, 243 E Golden aster, 241 Eleocharis macrostachya, 244 Golden pea, 242 Elkslip marshmarigold, 244 Gooseberry, 242 Elymus glaucus, 242 Grama grass, 240,241 Engelmann spruce, 242 Grass, English walnut, 313 Gray wooded soil, 246, 247,248, 249, Epicauta, 220 251,253,262, 263, 264, 266, 268, Epilobium alpinum, 243 269-273 Edgeron spp., 241 Greasewood, 240,241 Ariophorum angustifolium, 244 Groundsel, 242,243 Envinia amylooora, 290,292 Grumusols, 279 Erysiphe polygoni, 214 Gumweed, 243 Eufibric horizon, 141 Gypsum, 72 Eumelilotus, 164,167,220 H F Hairgrass, 242 False strawberry, 243 Haploborolls, 253, 257, 268, 273, 276, Farinograph, 92-94 277,279 Fertilizer, see also individual elements Haplorthents, 246 1-84 Hapludolls, 257,288,273,276,277,279 ammoniation, 80-61 Haplustolls, 246,249,251,257,288,269, bulk blends, 85-87 273,278,277,279 382 SUBJECT INDEX Hazelnut, 314 Helenium hoopesii, 243 H e r a c h m hnutum, 242 Hesperocholu kingii, 242 Hirsutelh, 217 Histosol, 248, 253, 255 Hordeum jubatum, 240 Humic acid, 329,332, 333,334, 338,339, 342, 348, 349, 352, 355, 361 Humic gley, 246, 247, 250,251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 258, 258, 259, 260, 281, 264, 288, 289, 273-274, 278 Humic substances, 327-388 alternative structure hypothesis, 357364 degradation, 331-342 functional group analysis, 342-347 nonsoil geological deposits, 354-357 spectroscopy, 347-354 Humification, 135 Humin, 329 o-Hydroxycinnamic acid, 198, 199, 200, 205, 211 o-Hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, 199 Hydrozems, 124 Hylocomium, 140 Hymenoxys grandiflora, 243 Hypnofibric horizon, 140, 146 Hypnum, 130, 140, 148 I Iron, 75 J Jughns hindsii, 321 Jughns nigra, 321 Jughns regia, 313 Juncus drummondii, 243 Juncus purryi, 243 Juncus spp., 242 Junegrass, 241, 242 Juniper, 241 Juniper cammunis, 242 Juniperus monosperma, 241 Juniperus scopulonrm, 241 Juniperus utahensis, 241 K Kainite, 49 Kaolin, 17 Karmex, 25 Knotweed, 243 Kobresia, 243 Kobresia bellardi, 243 Kochia, 240 Kochia scoparia, 240 Koeleria cristata, 241, 242 L Langbeinite, 49, 52, 55 Lathyrus leucanthus, 242 Lespedeza, 178 Lettuce, 117 Lignin, 329, 334,337,340,341,352,361 Lignite, 346 Ligusticum p d e r i , 242 Limber pine, 242 Lime, 121 Limestone, 18 Lipoxidase, 98 Lithic cryothents, 255 Lithic haplorthent, 248 Lithic orthents, 249, 251 Lithosol, 246, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 255, 274-275 Lithozems, 124 Lodgepole pine, 242 Lorox, 25 Lousewort, 242 Lovage, 242 Lower montane soil, 248-250 Lupine, 243 Lupinus wyethii, 243 M Madiu glomerata, 243 M,agnesium ammonium phosphate, 26, 27 Malus syluestrls, 283 Manganese, 75, 76, 77, 290 Meadow rue, 242, 243 Medicago, 184 Melilotic acid, 199, 207 Melilotus, 164, 218, 219 Melilotus alba, 165, 167, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 175, 181, 182, 183, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 192, 194-195, 198-197, 208, 209, 210, 214, 218, 219, 220 Melilotus altissima, 188 Melilotus b i c o b , 164 383 MeZiZotus dentata, 167, 187, 188, 191, 206, 209 Melilotus elegons, 164 Melilotus hirsuta, 188 Melilotus indica, 165, 179 Melilotus infesta, 164, 218 Melilotus itdica, 190 Melilotus messanemis, 190, 191 Melilotus officinulis, 165, 169, 173, 174, 181, 182, 183, 186, 187, 188, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 208, 209, 218, 219, 220 Melilotus polonica, 188, 191 Melilotus segetalis, 190, 191 Melilotus suaveolens, 186, 188, 191, 195198, 209, 210 Melilotus taurica, 188 Melilotus wolgica, 188 Meloidogyne incognita var acrita, 302 Meloidogyne jaoanica, 302 Mertensia dpinu, 243 Mesic horizon, 141-142 Metal ammonium phosphate, 75-76 Micromelilotus, 164, 165, 167, 220 Micronutrients, 74-78 Mildew, 214 Milkvetch, 242 Mint, 117 Mixograph, 93-94, 97 Monilinia fructicda, 300, 308 Moss campion, 243 Mountain mahogany, 241, 242 Mountain soils, Colorado, 233-281 alpine-tundra, 254-256 characteristics of the soils, 256-279 climate, 237-239 general soil patterns, 244-256 geology and physiography, 234-237 lower montane, 248-250 montane zone, 241 mountain parks, 235-237, 238, 240, 241, 246-248 parks and meadows, 246-248 subalpine, 252-254 upper montane, 250-252 vegetation, 240-244 Muck soil, 333 Muhlenbergia montana, 241 Muhly, 241 Mule-ears, 242, 243 N Nectarine, 299 Needlegrass, 241, 242 New Jersey tea, 242 Niter, 49 Nitrite, 20 Nitrogen, 103, 172, 324 consumption, 2-11 fixed sources, 12-14 materials, 15-30 nitric acid, 14-15, 17 slow release, 26-28 solutions, 23-28 Nitrogen materials ammonia, 21-23 ammonium nitrate, 16, 17-19 calcium cyanamide, 21 urea, 19-21 Nitrophosphate, 45-48, 83 Oat, 176 Oatgrass, 242 Onion, 117 Organic soil, 115-162 botanical origin, 122-123 chemical properties, 121- 122, 131- 135 classification criteria, 117-127 distribution, 116-117 genetic processes, 124-126 morphology, 123-124, 135-143 physical properties, 127-131 proposed classification, 143-159 surface vegetation, 120-121 topographical-geographical, 118-119 Orthents, 249, 251, 253, 261, 264, 269, 279 Orthids, 246 Orthods, 252, 259, 262, 263, 273, 275, 278 Oryzopsis hymenoides, 241 Oxamide, 27 P Pasture, 177-179 Peach, 291, 295, 298-303 Peach mosaic, 311 Pea mottle, 215 Pear, 283, 284, 291-295 Pear decline, 294, 295 384 SUBJECT INDEX Pearling index, 97 Peat, 117, 122-123, 337, 338, 342 Peatland, 118, 119, 121 Peavine, 242 Pea wilt, 215 Pecan, 313, 314, 315-319 Pecan scab, 316, 318 Pedicularis groedandica, 244 Pedicularis racemsa, 242 Penstemon halli, 243 Penstemon harbouni, 243 Penstemons, 243 Peronospora tiifoliorum, 214 Persian walnut, 313 Phleum alpinum, 242, 243 Phosphorus, 176, 181 ammoniation, 60-61 consumption, 2-11, 29-30 materials, 38-48 phosphate rock, 30-34, 40, 41, 42, 45, 47-48 phosphoric acid production, 34-38 Photoperiod, 173-175 Phymutotrichum omnivorum, 213, 219 Phytophthora cactmm, 212, 216 Picea engelmanni, 242 Picea pungens, 242 Pineapple, 54 Pine forest soil, 342 Pinon pine, 241 Pinus aristata, 242 Pinus contorta latifolk, 242 Pinus edulis, 241 Pinus flailis, 242 Pinus porulerosa, 241 Pipsissewa, 242 Planosols, 279 Plantazems, 124 Plenodomus, 213 Plenodomus melibti, 213 Plum, 296, 307-310 Plum curculio insect, 308 Poa alpina, 243 Poa artica, 243 Poa compressa, 242 Poa fendleri, 241 Poa fendleriana, 241 Poa littemni, 243 Poa wvad&, 241 Poa pattersoni, 243 Poa pratensis, 242 Poa reflexa, 243 Poa rupicolu, 243 Podistera, 243 Podistera eastwoodae, 243 Podosphaera leucotricha, 290 Podzol soil, 252-253, 254, 259, 263, 273, 275-276, 278, 332, 334, 336, 337, 342, 346, 347, 349, 358, 363 Polygonurn aviculare, 243 Polygonum bktortoides, 243 Polygonum viviparum, 243 Ponderosa pine, 241, 250 P o p u h tremuloides, 242 Potassium, 324 consumption, 2-11, 49 materials, 53-56 mining and processing, 52-53 reserves and production, 49-52 Potassium chloride, 53-54, 55 Potassium magnesium sulfate, 56 Potassium metaphosphate, 56 Potassium nitrate, 55-56 Potassium sulfate, 54-55 Potato, 5, 10, 54, 117, 237 Potentilh fruticosa, 242 Potentilla pulcherrima, 243 Powdery mildew, 290 Protocatechuic acid, 334 Prunus americana, 296, 297 Prunus amygdalus, 313, 322 Prunus angustifoh, 297 Prunus anneniaca, 297 Prunus ameniaca var munshunca, 297 var sibfrica, 297 Prunus avium, 296 Prunus bessegi, 296, 297 Prunus brigantina, 297 Prunus cerasus, 296 Prunus dmstica, 296, 297 Prunus fruticosa, 296 Prunus mira, 322 Prunua m u m , 297 Prunus persica, 295 Prunus ringspot, 311 Prunus salidnu, 296, 297 Prunus spinosa, 297 Prunua subcordata, 297 Prunus tomentosa, 296 Prunus umbellata, 297 SUBJECT INDEX 385 Prunus virginiana melamcarpa, 241, 242 Saltbrush, 240, 241 Psamments, 248, 282, 285 Sandwort, 241, 243 Pseudotsuga menriessii, 241 Sapric horizon, 142-143 Pseudotsuga taxifolia, 241 Sarcobatus venniculatus, 240 Purshia tridentata, 241 Sclerotinia sativa, 213 Pyrus cdleryana, 295 Sclerotinia trifoliorum, 213 Pyrus communis, 283 Scrub oak, 241 Pyws serotinu, 295 Sedge, 242, 243 Pyrus ussuriensis, 295 Senecio serra, 242 Pythium, 211, 212 Senecio soldanella, 243 Pythium akbaryanum, 212 Senecio taraxacoides, 243 Pythium irregulare, 212 Serviceberry, 241 Pythium splendens, 212 Shale, 355, 356 Pythium ultimum, 212 Sheperdiu canademis, 242 Shrubby cinquefoil, 242 Q Sibbaldiu procumbens, 243 Quaking aspen, 242 Silage, 179-180 Quercus gambelii, 241 Silene acualis, 243 Simazine, 25 R Sitona cylindricollis, 171, 215 Rabbitbrush, 240 Sneezeweed, 243 Red clover, 170, 172, 178 Snowberry, 242 Red clover vein-mosaic, 215 Sodium nitrate, 28-29 Reedgrass, 242 Soil, see also humic substances Regosol, 248, 247, 249, 255, 256, 281, see also mountain soil 262, 284, 285, 289, 275, 278-278, see also organic soils 279 Soil pH, 132-133 Resorcinol, 334 Solonchaks, 279 Rhizobium meliloti, 170 Solonetz soil, 279 Rhizoctonia, 211 Sols bums acids, 253, 254, 278, 278-279 Rhus trilobata, 241 Sphagnofibric horizon, 139, 148, 155 Ribes cereum, 242 Sphagnum, 121, 125, 130, 131, 139, 140, Ricegrass, 241 141, 142, 148, 155, 158 Ring pox, 311 Spike fescue, 242 Rootknot nematodes, 302 Spikesedge, 244 Root rot, 212-213 Sporobolus airoides, 240 Rushes, 242, 243 Spotted alfalfa aphid, 218 Russian thistle, 241 Stagonospora meliloti, 214 Stem canker, 214 S Stem rot, 213-214 Sagebrush, 241 Stipa comata, 241 Salix anglorum, 243 Stipa lettermuni, 242 Salix brachycarpa, 243 Subalpine fir, 242 Salix nivalis, 243 Subclover mosaic, 215 Salk petrophila, 243 Sugar beet, 5, 10 Salix planifolia, 243 Sugar cane, 117 Salex pseudolapponum, 243 Sulfur, 27-28, 70-74, 78, 178 Salix saximntana, 243 Sumac, 241 Salk spp., 242 Superphosphate, 39, 40-42, 80, 02, 63, S&oka kdi var tenuifolu, 241 84, 72 386 SUBJECT INDEX Superphosphoric acid, 37-38, 41, 44, 68 Sweetclover, 163-232 breeding, 191-197 coumarin, 177, 197-211 culture, 170-175 diseases, 211-215 genetics and cytogenetics, 183-191 insects, 215-220 morphology and reproduction, 167-169 taxonomy and distribution, 164-165 utilization, 175-183 Sweetclover aphid, 218-219 Sweetclover root borer, 219 Sweetclover weevil, 171, 215-218 Sylvite, 49, 52, 53 T Tannin, 329 Taraxacum oficinale, 242 Tarweed, 243 Tetrastichus, 220 Thalictrum alpinum, 243 Thalictrum fendkri, 242 Therioaphis maculata, 218 Therioaphis riehmi, 218 Theriwphts trifolii, 218 Thewnopsis mntana, 242 Timothy, 242, 243 Tobacco, 10, 54, 56 Tobacco ring spot, 215 Tobacco streak, 215 2,4,5-TP, 312 Tree fruit, 10 Trifolium, 164 Trigonella, 164, 210, 218, 219 Triphenyl tin hydroxide, 319 Trisetum, 243 Trisetum spicatum, 243 Tufted hairgrass, 243 U Udoll, 246, 249, 251, 253, 259, 262, 268, 269, 274, 275, 277 Urea, 17, 19-21, 23, 25, 27, 68 Urea-formaldehyde, 26 Ustolls, 246,259, 261,262, 265, 266, 268, 274, 215 V Vaccinium scoparium, 243 Vaccinium spp., 242 Vernalization, 174-175 Vetch, 242 Viciu amerlcana, 242 Volcanic ash soil, 332, 336, 338, 362 W Walnut, 313, 314, 315, 319-321 Walnut blight, 320 Walnut husk fly, 320 Walshia amorphelliu, 219 Warfarin, 208 Water content, 128-130 Water hickory, 319 Western X-little cherry virus, 305 Wheat breeding, 85-114 flour tests, 90-99 genetics and, 100-111 micromilling methods, 99-100 d i n g and baking research laboratories, 88-90 protein, 86-88 Wheatgrass, 240, 241, 242 White fir, 242 Wild daisies, 241 Wildrye, 242 Willow, 242, 243, 250 Willoweed, 243 Wyethiu amplexicaulis, 242, 243 X X a n t h m n a s pruni, 300 Y Yarrow, 242, 243 Yellow bean mosaic, 215 Yellow clover aphid, 218 Z zinc, 75, 77 ... marketing methods and innovations are exerting tremendous impact The world fertilizer industry has become increasingly technologically minded It is more sophisticated and more e5cient Research in. .. would increase from 5.5 million short tons in 1960 to 27.9 million in 1980 Recent reports indicate that steps are being taken in these countries, especially in the U.S.S.R., markedly to increase... achieved This would increase the N, PzO5, and KzO consumption from 3.0 million short tons in 1960 to 31.2 million in 1980 The task of producing these kinds of increases in nonindustrialized countries
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 17 , Advances in agronomy volume 17 , II. Fertilizer Consumption and Use, Chapter 2. BREEDING WHEAT FOR QUALITY, III. Milling and Baking Research Laboratories, III. Criteria Used in Classifying Organic Soils, IV. Properties of Organic Soils, V. Morphology of Organic Soil Horizons, VI. Bases for Proposed Classification System, III. Characteristics of the Soils of the Mountains of Colorado, Chapter 6. PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS IN TREE FRUIT AND NUT PRODUCTION, Chapter 7. STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY OF SOIL HUMlC SUBSTANCES, III. Chemical Methods of Functional Group Analysis, V. Humic Acid-Like Materials from Geologic Deposits Not Classified as Soils

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