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1 INTRODUCTION Reasons for choosing dissertation topic Children are future owners, human resources of each country Therefore, caring for children is always a top priority in each country's human development strategy In order to have good citizens, to meet the development needs of the country, children must be nurtured and well cared for in order to ensure the development of health, intellect, emotion and behavior However, the reality shows that the current issue of child protection and care is inadequate, especially the situation of child injuries and accidents is increasing and becomes one of the leading causes of death in children Nowadays, about million children at age of 0-6 years are cared for at preschools, accounting for 26% of children in the age group The concern is that children under years of age are vulnerable groups due to children of this age are often active while they are still young both physically and mentally, without knowledge of life skills, and have no experience in preventing accidents , risk" On April 15, 2010, the Ministry of Education and Training issued Circular No 13/2010 / TT-BGD & DT on building safe school, preventing and controlling accidents and injuries in pre-school establishments that clearly stating "Content of building safe schools, preventing and controlling accidents and injuries", "To ensure safety for children, when children are cared for, raised and taught at preschool establishments" In fact, in some kindergartens and private classes, the quality of children's meals is still low, the management of meals is not strict, some establishments have children violence and are not safety for children Non-public preschool establishments still have many shortcomings in activities to prevent and control accidents and injuries for children It is more noticeable that most managers, teachers, staff and parents not really care or be highly aware of child protection and accident prevention Consequences of accidents and injuries are not only cause physical harm, mental weakness but also make them disadvantaged in their rights and obligations Besides, child injury also causes families and society to take on more material difficulties as well as mental injury From the above alarming situation, it shows that preschool education needs professional documents, intensive program content, training programs on management of educational activities to prevent accidents and injuries for children in preschools And these documents and content which are focus on this are still very few From the above theoretical and practical issues, being the principal of a non-public preschool in Ho Chi Minh City, I know the issue "management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments” has both theoretical meaning and practical value Therefore, I chose the topic: "Management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City" as my dissertation topic with the desire to find effective education management measures of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children, contributing to improving the quality of comprehensive education for children of preschool age, especially at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City Research purpose and tasks * Research purpose: On the basis of theoretical and practical research on management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for preschool children, the dissertation proposes major measures to manage education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City, contributing to improving the quality of comprehensive education to meet the requirements of comprehensive fundamental innovation of education and training today * Research tasks Clarifying the theoretical basis for managing education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for preschool children and assessing the reality of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for preschool children; proposing major measures of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for preschool children Testing measures of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for preschool children The subject, object, scope of research and scientific hypothesis * Research subject: Education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City *Research objects: Management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City * Scope of research: The content: the dissertation has studied in depth the situation of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments , from which we proposes and tests the necessity as well as feasibility of such measures The survey: the dissertation focuses on investigating and surveying at 19 non-public preschools and classes in 10 districts in Ho Chi Minh City; With a total number of surveyed guests: 240 people including staff of education bureaus, education departments; Principal; Vice Principal (30 people); Teachers and staff (210 people) About time, limited from June 2015 to the present * Scientific hypothesis: Scientificly managing the educational activities of injury prevention will ensure children enjoy the quality and safe educational impacts at non-public preschools In the past years, education activities of prevention of injuries and management of child injury prevention and combat activities in non-public preschools in Ho Chi Minh City have been concerned, there are still many limitations The main reason is that measures to manage education and injury prevention activities are not really appropriate If the principal of the school performs well the planning of educational activities; direct the implementation of serious and effective education plans; guide teachers to teach children self-injury prevention skills; focus on building a safe environment; effective coordination with families, local authorities and social organizations in the educational process, and scientific and effective management of the educational outcomes implemented, will well manage educational activities The school's pedagogical forces on injury prevention for children in non-public preschools contribute to improving the quality of preschool education in Ho Chi Minh City today Methodology and research methods * Methodology: In the course of researching the dissertaion, we always grasp the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh's thought in studying issues of education and management of educational activities; apply the views of the Communist Party of Vietnam in preschool education development At the same time in the research process, the dissertaion uses the main approaches: the system approaching ; logical historical approaching ; the educational process approaching ; management function and practical view approaching * Research methods: The dissertation uses a combination of theoretical, practical research methods and additional research methods, namely: Theoretical research methods Practical research methods: Observation method; active product research methods; survey and survey methods; deep interview methods; expert consultation method; method of summarizing experience; assay method; Test methods and complementary methods: Methods of processing data by mathematical statistics New contributions of the dissertation Clarifying educational activities of prevent accidents and injuries and management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries is an urgent task to be implemented in the current period at nonpublic preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City; Clarify, supplement and concretize the concepts of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschools; clearly define the management contents, specify the affecting factors of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments; Proposing a system of measures of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in accordance with the conditions of Ho Chi Minh City, contributing to improving the quality of management of preschool education and education quality for preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City Significances of the dissertation In terms of theory: Developing the theoretical system of educational activities to prevent, control accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschools, management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments serve as a basis for proposing measures of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City to manage the effectiveness of educational activities to prevent and control accidents and injuries for children in schools, contributing to improving the quality of preschools establishments in non-public preschools In terms of practice: The survey results provide honest data to help schools clearly recognize and assess the situation of educational activities to prevent and to control accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschools in Ho Chi Minh City The proposed measures in the dissertation are suggestions which help leaders and managers at administration levels to apply in the training practice in schools as well as contributing to improving the quality of protection, education and nurturing preschool children at non-public nursery education establishments Structure of the dissertation The dissertation includes introduction, four chapters (15 periods), conclusions, list of scientific works of the author related to the dissertation, list of references and appendices Chapter OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ISSUES RELATED TO DISSERTATION 1.1 Scientific research works on accidents and injuries of children Children are not miniature adults Physical and cognitive abilities, level of dependence, activities and risk behaviors all change fundamentally when they grow up (Prüss-Ürsün and Corvalán, 2006) [86] As children develop, their curiosity and desire to experiment are not always commensurate with their ability to understand and respond to danger Children are not only affected by injury to themselves, but also by injuries that occur to others (Rahman et al., 2005 [87]; Grossman, 2000 [73] ) However, Vietnam is in the process of transforming the economy, so, like other countries in the region, the situation of injuries in general and child injury in particular is happening very well complex and increasing (Do Thanh Thai, 2014) [49] In fact, there have been many studies discussing the characteristics and situation of child injury in Vietnam, thus giving the correct view that child injury is a public health issue, requires the whole society to develop and implement strategies to reduce the burden of this problem A high risk of injury in boys compared to girls is also observed in many other countries and is thought to be related to more active behavior, tend to carry behaviors at risk of boys higher than girls, and the fact that parents and communities are less restrictive than boys domestic and noncommunity activities (Paden, 2008) [84] 1.2 Scientific research works on preventing and controlling accidents and injuries; education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children Education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments is feasibility and effective solution to decrease accidents and injuries of children Children learn to behave through both instruction and observation from parents, teachers, relatives, friends and people who serve as role models for their behavior and observation Child's behavior will be strengthened and adjusted by the consequences of their actions and the response of others to their behavior Young children learn how to behave through observation and interaction with society rather than just words Therefore, Budara (1977) suggests that young children need to be taught skills through instruction, practice (repetitive) and feedback rather than just speaking theory [70] According to Nguyen Thuy Quynh, Le Vu Anh and Nguyen Duc Quang (2010), child injuries can happen to all age groups and public health issues are currently concerned In developing countries in general and Vietnam in particular, compared to the causes of infectious and non-communicable diseases, child injury is becoming the leading cause of death for children Accidents and injuries of children can be completely prevented through various measures, which enhance the knowledge and skills of injury prevention and injury and create a safe learning and playing environment To implement these measures, a school-based approach is considered feasible and effective [47] 5 1.3 Scientific research works on management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries of children at non-public preschool establishments In preschool, the teacher is the closest person to the child and the first to apply first aid According to the report of Li (2012), the level of first aid knowledge of preschool teachers is generally low [77] Therefore, it is important for preschool teachers to be provided with first aid and practice as well as basic first aid training and education that is mandatory in schools (Campbell , 2012) Orton and his colleague (2016) reviewed evidence of the impact of educational programs in schools to prevent and control unintentional accidents, injuries for children and adolescents Accident and injury prevention and control for children is very important because common injuries at this age can cause serious and long-term effects on children and their families Schools are good environment providing educational programs to prevent accidents and injuries Therefore, the authors conducted a review of the results from 27 studies on the effectiveness of child education on prevention and controlling of accident and injury, improving their knowledge of injury and accident prevention as well as improving their behavior related to safety The results reinforce the views of accident and injury prevention education programs that can improve children's safety skills, safety behaviors and safety knowledge [83] In Vietnam, there are a number of studies which have conducted surveys on accidents and injuries of children at preschools, thereby proposing measures to prevent accidents and injuries in accordance with specific preschool environment According to Dao Thi Minh Tam (2014), the situation of accidents and injuries of children in preschool establishments in our country, especially in the home childcare groups, private preschools is complex Because facilities not meet the requirements, the number of children is too large, the children are very active, curious and inexperienced so it is very easy for the children to have accidents and injuries On the other hand, some preschool establishments have not been trained to handle urgent situations They don’t have experiences, skills for dealing with emergency children Thereby, the author recommends a number of measures of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in which focus on education management measures, that is to increase education communication aimed at raising awareness of preschool education and teachers about safe school construction and accident and injury prevention The author emphasizes that ensuring safety for prevention and control of accidents and injuries for preschool children is an important and urgent role in the current care and education of children contribute to improving the effectiveness of childcare and education in preschool [48] 1.4 Overview of research results of published scientific works related to dissertation and issues that need to be solved 1.4.1 Outline the results of the published scientific work Firstly, injuries and accidents are soon recognized as dangerous killers for children, a global public health problem, attracting the attention of many researchers and international organizations Therefore, in all countries, children have the right to get the highest health insurance and a safe environment, without injury and violence 6 Secondly, research works around the world have presented a complete picture of child injury and accident problems in which identifies the causes of child injuries and accidents, included: unintentional injuries, such as traffic injuries, drowning, burns, falls, poisoning; and other unintentional injuries, such as suffocation, choking, tracheal obstruction, animal or snakebite, hypothermia and high body temperature Consistent with the views of researchers and international organizations, on the basis of analyzing the characteristics related to child injuries and accidents as well as the situation of child injury in Vietnam, research projects in Vietnam identificate the leading cause of fatal injuries in Vietnam is drowning, traffic accidents, poisoning, falls, burns and animal bites, thereby affirming child injuries is an important public health problem that requires the concern of the whole society Thirdly, the prevention of controlling accidents and injuries for children, this not only has the effect of reducing the current injury rate but also has the effect of changing safe behavior for future generations Many research projects in the world affirmed that in order to prevent child injury accidents, there is a need for effective prevention strategies, tools and programs for injury prevention In Vietnam, there should be many different measures suitable to the characteristics of non-public preschools in order to improve the knowledge and skills of injury prevention and to create a safe learning and playing environment for Children are indispensable Fourthly, the management of educational activities to prevent and control accidents and injuries for children at the preschools not only reduce the current injury rate but also change safe behavior for future generations A number of studies have conducted surveys on accidents and injuries for preschool children, from which proposing the appropriate measures of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries, such as games, rolling/group, model /training on prevention skills, educational interventions, planning for child safety systems at child care facilities Experience shows people who provide necessary the life skills, must have the right and responsible professional, including social activists, teachers and psychologists They play a very important role in determining the success of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in preschools 1.4.2 The issues that dissertation to be solved Firstly, research to solve theoretical issues about accidents and injuries, educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries and management of educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool schools in Ho Chi Minh city Secondly, identifying the goals, tasks and contents of the management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool in Ho Chi Minh city Thirdly, making surveys and sketch the current situation of educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children and to manage educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool schools in Ho Chi Minh city and this is practical foundation for proposing measures to manage educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschool schools in Ho Chi Minh City Fourthly, proposing measures to manage educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschool in Ho Chi Minh city in an appropriate and effective manner with characteristics of each school and locality Thus, researching measures to manage educational activities of preventing and controlling of accidents and injuries at non-public preschools are contributing to improving the quality of education and nurturing children at preschool institutions in general and non-public preschools in Ho Chi Minh City Besides, the above research results there are many unresolved issues in Vietnam and foreign scientists are an important support for us to build a theoretical basis for the implementation of the dissertation Conclusion of Chapter From research reviews on accidents and injuries for children, educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children and management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at preschools, it can be seen that there are many profound and comprehensive research works on these issues Particularly for managing educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschools in Ho Chi Minh City, there are only a few research projects discussing measures to ensure prevention and control of accidents and and injuries for children at non-public preschools In fact, there has not been any studies specialized in education management systematically and concretely about education management of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschool schools in Ho Chi Minh City - a leading city in the country in the number of child injury accidents This shows the urgency of the topic that the author chooses to study Chapter THEORETICAL BASIS OF MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION ACTIVITIES OF PREVENTING AND CONTROLLING ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES FOR CHILDREN AT NON-PUBLIC PRESCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS IN HO CHI MINH CITY 2.1 Theoretical issues of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments 2.1.1 Concept of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments * Accidents and injuries for children So far, the concept of "accidents and injuries" has not been defined in a consistent and clear way However, the understanding of the concepts of accidents and injuries is widely supported and recognized by the World Health Organization as: " Accidents and injuries are those that occur due to random factors, or intentional factors, causing physical and mental injury to people” (WHO) [59, 2] * Preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at nonpublic preschool establishments Preventing and controlling accidents and injuries is a system of managers' measures to minimize or limit injuries to the human body For preschool children, preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments is the direct care and education of parents and relatives in child’s families; teachers and staff at non-public preschools and related people who work together in caring and protecting children, creating a safe environment for children in meals, participating in activities of playing, studying, avoiding the risks that can endanger your child's body and mind 2.1.2 Education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments * Education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at preschool establishments Education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at preschool establishments are all educational, training and fostering activities of educational subjects, helping pedagogical forces with solid knowledge, skills and positive attitude to actively prevent accidents and injuries for children in preschools * Education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments Education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments are all activities of education, training, retraining and inspection and supervision of the school, headed by the principal which making pedagogical forces of non-public preschool establishments have solid knowledge and skills as well as a proactive attitude in preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at preschool in a way that is consistent with the characteristics of task of each person * Contents of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments, included contents Firstly, knowledge and skills of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in organizing meals for children; Secondly, knowledge and skills of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in organizing to sleep; Thirdly, knowledge and skills of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in learning activities; Fourthly, knowledge and skills of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in organizing play activities; Fifthly, knowledge and skills of teaching children to ensure safety 2.2 Theoretical issues of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at nonpublic preschool establishments 2.2.1 Concept of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments * Educational management Educational management is the management of systematic, scientific, conscious and purposeful impacts of management subjects on the subject of management, the educational process that makes teaching and educational activities take place in planning to controll and adapt to the educational purposes * Management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments It can be generalized: Management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments are systematic, planned, conscious and targeted impacts of the managing subjects to all forces in the school, first of all, the people who taking care of and educating children to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes to meet the requirements of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for preschool children as well as other forces participate in education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in order to achieve the goal of child care and education 2.2.2 Contents of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments 2.2.2.1 Making plan of education of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at preschools 2.2.2.2 Organizing of education of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at preschools 2.2.2.3 Directing the construction of the safety school environment for preventing and controlling accidents and injuries at non-public preschool establishments 2.2.2.4 Checking and evaluating the results of educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments 2.2.2.5 Managing the management staff, teachers, and school staff in the implementation of educational care, nurturing children safely 2.2.2.6 Managing the conditions of facilities, technical facilities for educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments 2.3 Affecting factors of the efficiency of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments 2.3.1 Policies of the Party and State on non-public preschool education 2.3.2 The interest of leaders at Ho Chi Minh City on injury prevention for preschool children 2.3.4 Economic, political, social and cultural conditions of Ho Chi Minh City 2.3.4 The level of awareness, knowledge and skills of managers, teachers and school staff 2.3.5 Conditions of facilities, pedagogical environment, prestige and brand of the school Conclusion of Chapter Due to the age characteristics, preschool children are not able to protect themselves, are not aware of the dangers to their lives and health, preschool children are easy to encounter dangerous accidents, sometimes causing injuries with long-term influence on the development of children in the future, at the same time cause anxiety for their parents, sometimes arise the public opinion is not good for preschool education and the school, especially the preschool nonpublic It is said that the tasks of prevention and control of accidents and injuries, the protection of children 's safety, especially in non - public preschools, are extremely important Preschool teachers and people in direct contact with preschool children 10 must understand the knowledge and skills in prevention and controlling accidents and injuries, dangers for children in the process of carrying out their preschool duties With non-public preschool establishments, the preschool principal is the highest responsible person in organizing all the activities of the management staff, teachers, and school staff in the preschools, as well as is the highest management subject for prevention and controlling accidents and injuries for children Through their organization and control activities, the principals of non-public preschool establishments must attach importance to education for the school's forces, especially the staff of preschool teachers with high sense of responsibility; have knowledge and skills to prevent and control accidents and injuries for preschool children in all activities according to their responsibilities, and at the same time control and mobilize all favorable factors to ensure facilities and absolutely safe environment for children in school Chapter PRACTICAL BASIS OF MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION ACTIVITIES OF PREVENTING AND CONTROLLING ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES FOR CHILDREN AT NONPUBLIC PRESCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS IN HO CHI MINH CITY 3.1 Overview of non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City 3.2 Overview of the practical situation study 3.2.1 Purpose of investigation and survey Making survey to collect information, specific, accurate and complete data on education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments, management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City Since then, it serves as a practical basis to comprehensively assess the status of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City On that basis, we conduct analyzes, explanations, points out the advantages, limitations, objective and subjective reasons to propose measures to manage the education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City 3.2.2 Centents of investigation and survey The contents of investigations and surveys include: Practical situation of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments; Practical situation of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City and the real situation of factors affecting the management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City 3.2.3 Subjects, sites, time of investigation and survey * Subjects of the survey, focusing on: the staff of Department of Education and Training, Education & Training Officer, Principal, Vice Principal, teachers and staff of non-public preschools in districts in Ho Chi Minh city 11 * Survey sites: We conduct surveys at 19 non-public preschool establishments in 10 districts in Ho Chi Minh city * Survey time: limited from 2015 to now 3.2.4 Methods of investigation and survey Implementing the specific research methods that are: Survey method by questionnaire; deep interview methods; observation methods; discussion method; research methods of active products; expert method and data processing method 3.2.5 Survey and data processing tools The author builds 01 survey form for managers (Appendix 1), 01 survey form for teachers and staff (Appendix 2) To assess the status of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at nonpublic preschool establishments, authors use 3-scale scale corresponding to the performance levels: Good, rather good, Medium; Very often, often, not often; Very necessary, necessary, not necessary; Very guaranteed, guaranteed, not guaranteed; Very influential; influential, no influential 3.3 Practical situation of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at nonpublic preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City 3.3.1 Practical situation of awareness of types of accidents and injuries for children often encountered for children in non-public preschools 3.3.2 Practical situation of awareness about the objective of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children 3.3.3 Practical situation of contents of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children 3.3.4 Practical situation of methods of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children 3.3.5 The results of education of the school's pedagogical forces on preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children 3.4 Practical situation of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children 3.4.1 Practical situation of building plan of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children As a result of the survey, we have the following remarks: most of the nonpublic preschools in Ho Chi Minh city set up an education plans of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children along with the school year plan with highest rate: 73.3%; and the plans have been implemented, accounting for 72.7% When planning non-public preschool establishments based on requirements, regulations and relevant legal documents of ministries, branches and localities However, the education plan for preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children based on regulations - reaching a good and very good level is only 49.3% The contents were assessed at a relatively high level such as: Education plan for preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for preschool children, clearly determining the purpose and content of education; Developing education plan for preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children of the school, compiled from the plans of the professional teams; The plan has clearly defined the tasks of each pedagogical force to be rated at 62.0%, 66.0% and 66.7%, respectively This is 12 also the difficulty of the non-public preschool establishments because it is difficult to find human resources, so it is more difficult to keep people In addition, the prevention and control of accidents and injuries for children is relatively new to nonpublic preschools, so the planning is still general, the purpose and content of education are clearly and scientifically and in line with the characteristics of the establishments, planning for preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children is in line with the yearly plan of studying at non-public preschools Ho Chi Minh city is only average, and many schools have not performed well, accounting for 40.0% Similarly, the development of a plan of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children has concretized the time and method of implementation with an average rate of nearly 50.0%, which indicates that non-public preschools have been limitation of specifying time and instructions on how to implement it clearly Finally, the content: “The plan of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children are developed from the proposals of managers, teachers, and staff” is rated the lowest one of the above items It is shown that the way to set up the plan at non-public preschools is often subjective Most managers give less reference plans or synthesize proposals from teachers and staff, so when implementing less effective Therefore, in order to improve the prevention and controlling accidents and injuries education for children in the school, there is a need to actively and further study and research of the school management staff on this issue 3.4.2 Practical situation of organizing education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children According to the survey, 80% is the highest rate assessed by the pedagogical forces of the schools "Paying attention to exchange experiences of pedagogical forces in the process of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children” and “Arranging people to be involved in preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in accordance with the conditions for performing professional tasks” is rated at 75.3% This figures proves that non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh city know how to use the resources available in the school in this activity The 04 contents that accounting for 60.0% is assessed “good” 60,0% and “very good” 61.3%; the contents related to the focus on fostering and training activities in the educational process is 63,3% and 69,3%; Using the results of training for preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children with the practice of child education; Using a combination of various forms and methods in education, fostering and promoting the self-education and self-fostering role of pedagogical forces in schools Thus, the implementation of these contents at the non-public preschool establishments Ho Chi Minh city is generally satisfactory However, there are some preschools that have not performed well due to many objective and subjective reasons Besides, determining the content of preventing education and controlling accidents and injuries for children close to the professional tasks of each position of the pedagogical force is rated at a good level of 58% and the organization of talks and rehearsals Professional training with specialists in prevention and controlling accidents and injuries for children at preschool public schools is also not appreciated, only 50.0% 13 Interestingly, the combination of education and forstering of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments with facilitating the management and teachers to improve their qualifications at preschool establishments is assessed as the lowest level in which up to 60.7% has not performed well Through discussions with a number of managers and teachers, they said that for most of the years they have not been able to participate in any training courses to foster education and prevention and controls accidents and injuries for children, including they have not been familiarized with this part of the subject in the formal training programs they have learned 3.3.3 Practical situation of directing education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments According to the survey, in general, the direction of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children of managers is assessed “very good” and “good” (80%) In particular, activities such as teacher guidance on plan of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children achieved 76.7%; Directing the plan of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children for staff rated 70% or higher The guidance of plan of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children for the child caring is only 63.3% Management officials rated that the effectiveness was still not good at 3.3% - 7.3% Thus, we can see that the direction of the management and participants of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in nonpublic schools still has a place that is not really close star Therefore, the principals of schools need to consider and consult managers and adjust the way of timely management on the basis of management science to maximize the enthusiasm, creativity and fineness, their responsibility at work 3.3.4 Practical situation of inspection and evaluation of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children Through the survey results, we found that in non-public preschool schools in Ho Chi Minh city have paid attention to the inspection and evaluation of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children with many contents: Examining and assessing knowledge, skills of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children of manager, teacher, and staff; The results of grasping knowledge and skills associated with the school's assignment of professional tasks; Criteria for assessing professional skills and prevention and controlling skills and injuries for children are most appreciated in the above table (accounting for 80%, 83.3% and 84%) In addition, such contents as: Assigning teachers directly to young educational establishments based on preventing and controlling education and injuries; Evaluate the educational results of each teacher through the collective trust; Retention of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries educational outcomes in teachers' preschool education; Combining periodic inspection and regular inspection; planned and sudden examination and daily updates on the capacity of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children of each manager, teachers who perform well in non-public preschool schools 70.7%, 69.3%, 68%, 65.4% and 61.3% However, these contents, the pedagogical force in some schools has not been implemented 14 well, and loose and arbitrary management does not ensure safety for children at school And the development of testing and evaluation of prevention and control of accidents and injuries for children by advanced technical means is 46%, this content has not been highly appreciated This shows the application of advanced technical facilities In order not to be widely cared at many nonpublic preschool institutions, there is a need for timely and appropriate research and implementation to effectively test and evaluate the prevention and controlling accidents and injuries capacity for pedagogical forces Here are some things to consider and take measures to contribute to the examination and evaluation of educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh city made better 3.4.5 Practical situation of forces participating in education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for In fact, the non-public preschools in Ho Chi Minh city have organized many pedagogical forces according to decentralization, assigning clearly and specific responsibilities to the management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children The levels of management in schools regularly actively improve and supplement the number and improve the quality of education management, including the management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children Managers of non-public preschools regularly instruct the subordinate forces to conduct education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children according to the programs and plans set out to promote their role and forte of the staff Specifically, the managers, teachers and the staff of the schools assessed that it was very high for the “Exemplary leaders of school participate and organize the education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children” account of 84% “very good” and “good” The following contents, "Individuals and groups cooperate in participating in educational activities preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in the preschools” and “Attracting the support and support of parents in the process of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children” are assessed with the same high rate (70.7%) In addition, “The sharing of knowledge and experiences in preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children” has been well implemented by the schools, accounting for 69.6% When discussing with managers and teachers, they said that "managers, teachers and employees voluntarily participate in education and fostering activities" quite a few schools performed well, accounting for 58%, in general pedagogical force some unconfirmed schools, inadequate participation and management of the education of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children who are sometimes manifest and ineffective The content "Enhancing local government relations, social organizations in the process of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children" is one of the most restrictive contents rated as 55 , 4% The reason for using this force is sometimes not reasonable; not yet exploiting and promoting the role of external forces in the management of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children Therefore, preventing and controlling education of accidents and injuries for children has not been effective, sometimes even formal 15 3.3.6 Practical situation of technical facility ensure in education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children The survey results show that the non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh city have actively invested, procured and renovated facilities, educational technical facilities and management and exploitation regimes Appropriate facilities are rated the most with 71% of respondents rated good and very good However, there are still 29% of assessment opinions are not good, through exchange, most of the non-public preschool establishments are not supported by the State budget for investment, repair, renovation or upgrading, they must self-management of this funding so the construction of facilities, procurement of young educational technical facilities is not in accordance with the process, not suitable to the program, the educational institutions are still inadequate In particular, many schools have not built a plan to exploit and use facilities and technical education facilities, so it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of use of facilities With the content of maintenance, maintenance, scientific preservation and vehicle system, the educational facilities of the school have modernity and are not evaluated well by managers, teachers and staff from 32% to 34.7%, although the schools have also performed well at the beginning of the plan year, the preschool public schools have organized inventory and re-evaluation of assets on January st every year On that basis, it will organize the management and use of the existing facilities, equipment and facilities and equipment invested and procured in the previous year However, preschools preschools in Ho Chi Minh city not have guidelines for standards of use and management of facilities and techniques for preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children therefore, users are not encouraged to effectively exploit and use technical means: assigned equipment, utensils and toys The responsibilities of the Board of Management have not been clearly defined in the organization, management and use of facilities and technical facilities to perform the tasks of young educational institutions There are no or missing use procedures, monitoring, evaluation and usage logs for each type of facilities and equipment Little changes in facilities, modern technical means of education according to the renovation requirements of the preschool to ensure safety for children have not been regularly updated and invested effectively by schools Management contents in maintenance and repair of facilities and scientific preservation are unclear and inconsistent In 03 contents 4,5,6, only more than 50% of schools surveyed said that facilities and techniques for preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in appropriate schools with the characteristics of non-public preschool fields However, there are many opinions of the pedagogical forces in the surveyed schools that the system of facilities, school facilities that are not meeting the needs of education and preventing and controlling accidents and injuries is still arbitrary and excessive savings because of limited funding; In addition, most schools have not effectively promoted the school's existing child injury prevention education facilities to effectively use for school-based injury prevention education This proves that preschool institutions have not paid due attention to preventing and controlling accidents and injuries to ensure absolute safety for children at school 16 3.5 Practical situation of affecting factors of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City From the survey results, we find that the most influential factor in managing educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschools is: Conditions of facilities and environment, reputation, brand of non-public preschool school: there are 89.3% at level and choose this content The second factor is the policy of the Party and the State on non-public preschool education, the influence level of and is 87.3% The following factors were assessed by managers, teachers and staff, which greatly influenced the management of preventing and controlling education and injuries for children, the concern of leaders at all levels in Ho Chi Minh city about preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for preschool children and the level of awareness, knowledge and skills of educational managers, teachers and staff in preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children, up to 84% and 82.7% of the opinions are important and very important The other element is the economic, political, social and cultural conditions of Ho Chi Minh City, which also affect the management of educational activities of injury prevention for children in outside preschools public, however, managers, teachers, and staff assess the lowest impact to the management of child injury prevention education activities as above conditions, only 12% and 18 ideas were selected at an important level, because according to the study, this factor has little impact on nonpublic preschools due to specific characteristics in autonomous schools in all aspects 3.6 General assessment of the status of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City 3.6.1 Advantages and causes of advantages * Advantages * Causes of advantages 3.6.2 Limitations and causes of limitations * Limitations * Causes of limitations - Về phía nhà trường: Chưa thực ý thức vai trò tầm quan trọng hoạt động giáo dục preventing and controlling accidents and injuries cho trẻ Chưa kịp thời trang bị tu sửa sở vật chất bị hư hỏng, thiếu an toàn cho trẻ, trang thiết bị không quy cách để gây nên cố đáng tiếc Người làm công tác quản lý: chưa thật sát sao, chưa có đạo, quan tâm kịp thời triệt để, chưa kịp thời phát bồi dưỡng cho giáo viên kiến thức kỹ thiếu hụt - The preschools: They are not really aware of the important role of the prevention and controlling education and injuries education for children They have not been able to timely repair damaged and insecure facilities for children and improper equipment to cause unfortunate incidents Managers have not really paid attention, have not had the guidance and timely and thorough attention, not timely discovered and trained for their teachers, the skills knowledge is still lacking - Teachers and staff are not fully equipped with the knowledge and skills 17 of child care, have not implemented the regulations on activities of picking up children and returning children everyday - Parents have not exchanged timely and regularly with the school, teachers and staff about the physiological characteristics, children's habits, habits and importance of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children anytime, anywhere Conclusion of Chapter The assurance of safety and prevention of accidents and injuries for preschool children has a very important meaning, a task associated with the responsibilities of the school, of each manager, teacher and staff Therefore, the non-public preschools in Ho Chi Minh city have focused on building schools that best meet the needs of educational establishments, especially ensuring safety for children The education to improve the quality of the school's pedagogical forces has been carried out, the non-public preschools in Ho Chi Minh city have recently done well the task of young educational establishments, and at the same time secured safe for children, contributing positively to the city's preschool education career However, the issue of education for the monks' pedagogical forces while carrying out professional activities for young educational institutions is incomplete and ineffective Therefore, knowledge, skills, attitudes of managers, teachers and staff on preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children have not met the requirements The reality of child care in some preschool establishments still has unfortunate events causing negative public opinion The causes of these limitations are related to the implementation of the functions of managing education activities and preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschool establishments , which have not been fully and seriously implemented These are practical issues for proposing measures to manage the prevention and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh city in the next chapter Chapter MEASURES OF MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION ACTIVITIES OF PREVENTING AND CONTROLLING ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES FOR CHILDREN AT NON-PUBLIC PRESCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS IN HO CHI MINH CITY 4.1 Measures of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in Ho Chi Minh City 4.1.1 Planning of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments In order to well implement the measure, it is necessary to focus on one of the following contents: Clearly defining the objectives of the school's accident and accident prevention education, helping all managers, teachers and personnel all school members have received the impact of education, thereby raising the sense of 18 responsibility to ensure safety for children, developing love for children; actively and regularly reinforce and improve the knowledge, preventing and controlling skills and accidents for children when performing their responsibilities as young educational institutions Accuracy of educational goals, is the appraisal and accuracy of the goals through the promotion of the collective wisdom of the school's numerous pedagogical forces Principals need to hold comments of managers and teachers through appropriate forms Thus the purpose of education will be practical, close to the characteristics of the school implementation, and the purpose of education is also thoroughly understood for the pedagogical forces of the school Understanding the implementation of the educational plan of the school, it is the review and retention of the implementation of the education plan to help the Principal see what time periods can be organized to educate and prevent education accidents and injuries; Where to implement these educational activities does not affect the implementation of the school year plan Review the status of the capacity and quality of each teacher and staff of the school to specifically classify management staff, teachers and staff on the status of knowledge, skills, attitude and preventing and controlling accidents and injuries, seeing the limitations that need to be completed, identifying the gaps to supplement and work with specific personnel to participate in fostering activities The organization that drafted and promulgated the plan needed to select qualified and experienced people to concretize the Principal's idea, assign specific tasks, provide the necessary guidance for one or one number of people drafting the plan The manuscript should be discussed, consulted, revised appropriately before the principal approves and issues it 4.1.2 Directing foster activities of knowledge, skills and attitudes for the school's pedagogical forces on education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children The educational activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public preschools include many different contents, in which the fostering of knowledge, skills and attitudes for the pedagogical forces of the school is the first work which creates a knowledge base for school managers, teachers and staff to unify in awareness; Serious attitude in ensuring safety for children, skilled in implementing professional tasks to eliminate risks and accidents for children Therefore, it is necessary to work hard to be effective in fostering knowledge, skills, and attitudes about preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children for school pedagogical forces In order to implement this measure, it is necessary to start from the correct needs, content and form of training, ie need to answer the questions: the goal to be achieved of fostering activities; content needs fostering; subjects of fostering; force participating in fostering; It is important to guide the activities of fostering knowledge, skills and attitudes and preventing accidents and controlling accidents and injuries for children in non-public schools 4.1.3 Organizing knowledge and life skills for preschool children to prevent injuries by age Providing children with proper and adequate knowledge to understand the causes of accidents and injuries, types of accidents and injuries, ways to prevent and control accidents and injuries, effective and necessary treatment methods when accidents and injuries occur Help children recognize risks and consequences of accidents and injuries, consequences of accidents and injuries 19 for children and schools Increasing awareness of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at school and young living environment to reduce child mortality and disability due to accidents and injuries In order to well implement the measure, it is necessary to focus on a number of contents: Helping teachers to learn and classify children in their classes in charge; Support teachers to build content for teaching children appropriately; Helping lesson teachers to teach children the knowledge and skills to avoid accidents and injuries suitable for their class groups; Direct teachers to implement lesson plans in their daily education time; Agree on methods and criteria to assess the results of child acquisition and prevention practices and accidents 4.1.4 Directing the construction of a safety environment of preschool for child injury prevention Providing children with correct and complete knowledge to understand the causes of building an environment of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries is an important issue in preschools For managers, building a school environment to ensure safety, "green - clean - beautiful", cleaning schools, cleaning equipment and devices are always clean, tidy, suitable suitable for each age and safety for children; Food hygiene and safety is ensured are prerequisites and important for our management and that helps non-public preschool institutions improve their reputation and quality in their activities education of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children In order to well implement the necessary measures: it is necessary to build a safe school and class environment; Hygiene and food safety; Organize to improve knowledge of environmental sanitation, food safety and hygiene for all managers, teachers and staff in the school at the beginning of the school year Implementing education content to build environment to ensure clean safety in learning activities Actively coordinate with parents' class in educating children to protect the environment; abide by the rules and regulations of the school to ensure safety in the daily activities of children at school In addition, all the pedagogical forces of the school must always be educated, always supervised about the attitude of behavior, how to behave in the right way with each other and with children so that the children can only receive loving words at school, considerate care, friendly behaviors in every teacher like being able to interact with their parents at home 4.2.5 Directing coordination of schools, families and social organizations in education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children Family, school and society are always regarded as important education "triangles" for every child In fact, the cooperation between families and schools in preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children has not been given adequate attention The looseness of this relationship stems from many causes, but by both teachers and students' parents Therefore, the coordination of these three factors is essential to improve the effectiveness of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children in each school Like a three-legged stand, simple, solid and indispensable to any leg In order to implement this measure, it is necessary to focus on a number of contents: Determining the role of the school in building coordination relationships between schools - families and society; Actively proposing content objectives, appropriate and effective forms of coordination; Coordinating in assessing the quality and capacity of pedagogical staff, spreading safe school brand, actively 20 preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children to attract the attention of the whole society The proper assessment will encourage and encourage the school management staff and teachers to make more efforts and responsibilities in the professional activities of the educational institutions safely Unifying the awareness of the importance of coordinating three environments: Family - School and society in the education of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children Considering coordination is the constant implementation at all times and is a long process 4.1.6 Strengthening the inspection and assessment of the results of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children according to the functions and professional tasks of each officer and teacher The promotion of inspection and evaluation activities also aims to help managers to formulate adjustment mechanisms towards achieving the general objectives set by the school development plan to meet the requirements of quality development of preschool Need to check and evaluate each stage will help confirm the correctness of the plan and promptly adjust if there are errors Periodic testing and evaluation will help managers and staff to recognize the effectiveness of education to ensure the prevention and control of accidents and injuries for children, thereby determining the responsibility of the home Management and teachers and staff themselves promote strong and flexible adjustments of errors to suit the set objectives In order to implement this measure, it is necessary to develop a plan to inspect and assess the injury prevention and combat activities simultaneously and synchronously with the educational plan and professional activities plan of the school; Develop criteria to assess the results of awareness, attitude and skills of injury prevention in professional activities of the school This set of evaluation criteria is based on the content and educational programs implemented at the school, reflecting the requirements of knowledge, skills and attitudes in child injury prevention in a specific way; The form of testing and assessing knowledge and skills, attitude of injury prevention for children in preschools must be simple but effective Do not cause stress for managers, teachers and staff on the issue of assessment and evaluation, but must be serious, objective and accurate; The results of the assessment must be kept for a long time as the data of school officials, teachers and staff These data help the school to grasp the characteristics of qualifications, talents and the sense of responsibility of its managers, teachers and staff, as a basis for using managers and teachers members and staff assigned tasks and decided to emulate and reward the school to consider the need to organize appropriate educational and retraining activities, to send people to participate in proper and economical education programs 4.1.7 Relationship between measures Management measures are a diverse and dynamic system No measures are universal, each measure has advantages and certain limitations and has different impacts on the management object Measures have a mutual relationship, support and complement each other in a system Therefore, many measures must be used to coordinate a task It is up to the job, people, circumstances, conditions, time to select and combine appropriate measures 06 measures of management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public preschool establishments in 21 Ho Chi Minh City have close relations with each other Each measure has its own strengths, so no measures can be taken lightly Each measure is an important link, this measure is the basis, premise for the other measure and vice versa The proposed measures must be implemented in a synchronous, scientific, binding, closely linked manner, facilitating and complementing each other in the management process 4.2 Demonstration of measures 4.2.1 Testing the necessity and feasibility of measures 4.2.1.1 General of testing 4.2.1.2 Analysis of test results on the necessity of measures 4.2.1.3 Analysis of test results on the feasibility of measures 4.2.1.4 Comparison between the necessity and feasibility of measures Table 4.5: Comparison of rank correlation between necessity and feasibility of measures Measures Necessity Feasibility D2 Measure 1 Measure 2 Measure Measure Measure 4 Measure To further clarify this issue, it is necessary to use Spearman function to examine the correlation between the necessity and feasibility of measures : In this formula: R is the correlation coefficient 6 D n is the number of proposed R 1  n(n  1) measures D is the difference between the hierarchy of necessity and feasibility After changing the number and calculating if
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Xem thêm: Quản lý hoạt động giáo dục phòng chống tai nạn thương tích cho trẻ ở các trường mầm non ngoài công lập trên địa bàn thành phố hồ chí minh tt tiếng anh , Quản lý hoạt động giáo dục phòng chống tai nạn thương tích cho trẻ ở các trường mầm non ngoài công lập trên địa bàn thành phố hồ chí minh tt tiếng anh , From the above theoretical and practical issues, being the principal of a non-public preschool in Ho Chi Minh City, I know the issue "management of education activities of preventing and controlling accidents and injuries for children at non-public , - Về phía nhà trường: Chưa thực sự ý thức được vai trò tầm quan trọng của hoạt động giáo dục preventing and controlling accidents and injuries cho trẻ. Chưa kịp thời trang bị tu sửa cơ sở vật chất bị hư hỏng, thiếu an toàn cho trẻ, những trang thiết bị kh

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