Addison wesley TCPIP illustrated volume 2 the implementation feb 1995 ISBN 020163354x

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TCP/IPIllustrated,Volume2:The Implementation ByGaryR Wright,W RichardStevens Publisher :AddisonWesley PubDate :January12,1995 ISBN :0-201-63354-X Pages :1200 TCP/IPIllustrated,Volume2 containsathoroughexplanation ofhowTCP/IPprotocolsare implemented Thereisn'tamore practicalorup-to-datebookothis volumeistheonlyonetocover thedefactostandard implementationfromthe4.4BSDLiterelease,thefoundationfor TCP/IPimplementationsrundaily onhundredsofthousandsof systemsworldwide Combining500illustrationswith 15,000linesofreal,working code,TCP/IPIllustrated,Volume 2usesateach-by-example approachtohelpyoumaster Tableof • Contents TCP/IPimplementation Youwill learnaboutsuchtopicsasthe relationshipbetweenthesockets APIandtheprotocolsuite,and thedifferencesbetweenahost implementationandarouter In addition,thebookcoversthe newestfeaturesofthe4.4BSDLiterelease,including multicasting,longfatpipe support,windowscale,timestamp options,andprotectionagainst wrappedsequencenumbers,and manyothertopics Comprehensiveinscope,based onaworkingstandard,and thoroughlyillustrated,thisbookis anindispensableresourcefor anyoneworkingwithTCP/IP TCP/IPIllustrated,Volume2:The Implementation ByGaryR Wright,W RichardStevens Publisher :AddisonWesley PubDate :January12,1995 ISBN :0-201-63354-X Tableof • Pages :1200 Contents Copyright Preface Introduction OrganizationoftheBook IntendedAudience SourceCodeCopyright Acknowledgments Chapter1 Introduction Section1.1 Introduction Section1.2 SourceCodePresentation Section1.3 History Section1.4 ApplicationProgrammingInterfaces Section1.5 ExampleProgram Section1.6 SystemCallsandLibraryFunctions Section1.7 NetworkImplementationOverview Section1.8 Descriptors Section1.9 Mbufs(MemoryBuffers)andOutputProcessing Section1.10 InputProcessing Section1.11 NetworkImplementationOverviewRevisited Section1.12 InterruptLevelsandConcurrency Section1.13 SourceCodeOrganization Section1.14 TestNetwork Section1.15 Summary Chapter2 Mbufs:MemoryBuffers Section2.1 Introduction Section2.2 CodeIntroduction Section2.3 MbufDefinitions Section2.4 mbufStructure Section2.5 SimpleMbufMacrosandFunctions Section2.6 m_devgetandm_pullupFunctions Section2.7 SummaryofMbufMacrosandFunctions Section2.8 SummaryofNet/3NetworkingDataStructures Section2.9 m_copyandClusterReferenceCounts Section2.10 Alternatives Section2.11 Summary Chapter3 InterfaceLayer Section3.1 Introduction Section3.2 CodeIntroduction Section3.3 ifnetStructure Section3.4 ifaddrStructure Section3.5 sockaddrStructure Section3.6 ifnetandifaddrSpecialization Section3.7 NetworkInitializationOverview Section3.8 EthernetInitialization Section3.9 SLIPInitialization Section3.10 LoopbackInitialization Section3.11 if_attachFunction Section3.12 ifinitFunction 3.13Summary Chapter4 Interfaces:Ethernet Section4.1 Introduction Section4.2 CodeIntroduction Section4.3 EthernetInterface Section4.4 ioctlSystemCall Section4.5 Summary Chapter5 Interfaces:SLIPandLoopback Section5.1 Introduction Section5.2 CodeIntroduction Section5.3 SLIPInterface Section5.4 LoopbackInterface Section5.5 Summary Chapter6 IPAddressing Section6.1 Introduction Section6.2 CodeIntroduction Section6.3 InterfaceandAddressSummary Section6.4 sockaddr_inStructure Section6.5 in_ifaddrStructure Section6.6 AddressAssignment Section6.7 InterfaceioctlProcessing Section6.8 InternetUtilityFunctions Section6.9 ifnetUtilityFunctions Section6.10 Summary Chapter7 DomainsandProtocols Section7.1 Introduction Section7.2 CodeIntroduction Section7.3 domainStructure Section7.4 protoswStructure Section7.5 IPdomainandprotoswStructures Section7.6 pffindprotoandpffindtypeFunctions Section7.7 pfctlinputFunction Section7.8 IPInitialization Section7.9 sysctlSystemCall Section7.10 Summary Chapter8 IP:InternetProtocol Section8.1 Introduction Section8.2 CodeIntroduction Section8.3 IPPackets Section8.4 InputProcessing:ipintrFunction Section8.5 Forwarding:ip_forwardFunction Section8.6 OutputProcessing:ip_outputFunction Section8.7 InternetChecksum:in_cksumFunction Section8.8 setsockoptandgetsockoptSystemCalls Section8.9 ip_sysctlFunction Section8.10 Summary Chapter9 IPOptionProcessing Section9.1 Introduction Section9.2 CodeIntroduction Section9.3 OptionFormat Section9.4 ip_dooptionsFunction Section9.5 RecordRouteOption Section9.6 SourceandRecordRouteOptions Section9.7 TimestampOption Section9.8 ip_insertoptionsFunction Section9.9 ip_pcboptsFunction Section9.10 Limitations Section9.11 Summary Chapter10 IPFragmentationandReassembly Section10.1 Introduction Section10.2 CodeIntroduction Section10.3 Fragmentation Section10.4 ip_optcopyFunction Section10.5 Reassembly Section10.6 ip_reassFunction Section10.7 ip_slowtimoFunction Section10.8 Summary Chapter11 ICMP:InternetControlMessageProtocol Section11.1 Introduction Section11.2 CodeIntroduction Section11.3 icmpStructure Section11.4 ICMPprotoswStructure Section11.5 InputProcessing:icmp_inputFunction Section11.6 ErrorProcessing Section11.7 RequestProcessing Section11.8 RedirectProcessing Section11.9 ReplyProcessing Section11.10 OutputProcessing Section11.11 icmp_errorFunction Section11.12 icmp_reflectFunction Section11.13 icmp_sendFunction Section11.14 icmp_sysctlFunction Section11.15 Summary Chapter12 IPMulticasting Section12.1 Introduction Section12.2 CodeIntroduction Section12.3 EthernetMulticastAddresses Section12.4 ether_multiStructure Section12.5 EthernetMulticastReception Section12.6 in_multiStructure Section12.7 ip_moptionsStructure Section12.8 MulticastSocketOptions Section12.9 MulticastTTLValues Section12.10 ip_setmoptionsFunction Section12.11 JoininganIPMulticastGroup Section12.12 LeavinganIPMulticastGroup Section12.13 ip_getmoptionsFunction Section12.14 MulticastInputProcessing:ipintrFunction Section12.15 MulticastOutputProcessing:ip_outputFunction Section12.16 PerformanceConsiderations Section12.17 Summary Chapter13 IGMP:InternetGroupManagementProtocol Section13.1 Introduction Section13.2 CodeIntroduction Section13.3 igmpStructure Section13.4 IGMPprotoswStructure Section13.5 JoiningaGroup:igmp_joingroupFunction Section13.6 igmp_fasttimoFunction Section13.7 InputProcessing:igmp_inputFunction Section13.8 LeavingaGroup:igmp_leavegroupFunction Section13.9 Summary Chapter14 IPMulticastRouting Section14.1 Introduction Section14.2 CodeIntroduction Section14.3 MulticastOutputProcessingRevisited Section14.4 mroutedDaemon Section14.5 VirtualInterfaces Section14.6 IGMPRevisited Section14.7 MulticastRouting Section14.8 MulticastForwarding:ip_mforwardFunction Section14.9 Cleanup:ip_mrouter_doneFunction Section14.10 Summary Chapter15 SocketLayer Section15.1 Introduction Section15.2 CodeIntroduction Section15.3 socketStructure Section15.4 SystemCalls Section15.5 Processes,Descriptors,andSockets Section15.6 socketSystemCall Section15.7 getsockandsockargsFunctions Section15.8 bindSystemCall Section15.9 listenSystemCall Section15.10 tsleepandwakeupFunctions Section15.11 acceptSystemCall Section15.12 sonewconnandsoisconnectedFunctions Section15.13 connectSystemcall Section15.14 shutdownSystemCall Section15.15 closeSystemCall Section15.16 Summary Chapter16 SocketI/O Section16.1 Introduction Section16.2 CodeIntroduction Section16.3 SocketBuffers Section16.4 write,writev,sendto,andsendmsgSystemCalls Section16.5 sendmsgSystemCall Section16.6 senditFunction Section16.7 sosendFunction Section16.8 read,readv,recvfrom,andrecvmsgSystemCalls Section16.9 recvmsgSystemCall Section16.10 recvitFunction Section16.11 soreceiveFunction Section16.12 soreceiveCode Section16.13 selectSystemCall Section16.14 Summary Chapter17 SocketOptions Section17.1 Introduction Section17.2 CodeIntroduction Section17.3 setsockoptSystemCall Section17.4 getsockoptSystemCall Section17.5 fcntlandioctlSystemCalls Section17.6 getsocknameSystemCall Section17.7 getpeernameSystemCall Section17.8 Summary Chapter18 RadixTreeRoutingTables Section18.1 Introduction Section18.2 RoutingTableStructure Section18.3 RoutingSockets Section18.4 CodeIntroduction Section18.5 RadixNodeDataStructures Section18.6 RoutingStructures Section18.7 Initialization:route_initandrtable_initFunctions Section18.8 Initialization:rn_initandrn_initheadFunctions Section18.9 DuplicateKeysandMaskLists Section18.10 rn_matchFunction Section18.11 rn_searchFunction Section18.12 Summary Chapter19 RoutingRequestsandRoutingMessages Section19.1 Introduction Section19.2 rtallocandrtalloc1Functions Section19.3 RTFREEMacroandrtfreeFunction Section19.4 rtrequestFunction Section19.5 rt_setgateFunction Section19.6 rtinitFunction Section19.7 rtredirectFunction Section19.8 RoutingMessageStructures Section19.9 rt_missmsgFunction Section19.10 rt_ifmsgFunction Section19.11 rt_newaddrmsgFunction Section19.12 rt_msg1Function Section19.13 rt_msg2Function Section19.14 sysctl_rtableFunction Section19.15 sysctl_dumpentryFunction Section19.16 sysctl_iflistFunction Section19.17 Summary Chapter20 RoutingSockets Section20.1 Introduction Section20.2 routedomainandprotoswStructures Section20.3 RoutingControlBlocks Section20.4 raw_initFunction Section20.5 route_outputFunction Section20.6 rt_xaddrsFunction Section20.7 rt_setmetricsFunction Section20.8 raw_inputFunction Section20.9 route_usrreqFunction Section20.10 raw_usrreqFunction Section20.11 raw_attach,raw_detach,andraw_disconnectFunctions Section20.12 Summary Chapter21 ARP:AddressResolutionProtocol Section21.1 Introduction Section21.2 ARPandtheRoutingTable Section21.3 CodeIntroduction Section21.4 ARPStructures Section21.5 arpwhohasFunction Section21.6 arprequestFunction Section21.7 arpintrFunction Section21.8 in_arpinputFunction Section21.9 ARPTimerFunctions Section21.10 arpresolveFunction Section21.11 arplookupFunction Section21.12 ProxyARP Section21.13 arp_rtrequestFunction Section21.14 ARPandMulticasting Section21.15 Summary Chapter22 ProtocolControlBlocks Section22.1 Introduction Section22.2 CodeIntroduction Section22.3 inpcbStructure Section22.4 in_pcballocandin_pcbdetachFunctions Section22.5 Binding,Connecting,andDemultiplexing Section22.6 in_pcblookupFunction Section22.7 in_pcbbindFunction Section22.8 in_pcbconnectFunction Section22.9 in_pcbdisconnectFunction Section22.10 in_setsockaddrandin_setpeeraddrFunctions Section22.11 in_pcbnotify,in_rtchange,andin_losingFunctions Section22.12 ImplementationRefinements Section22.13 Summary Chapter23 UDP:UserDatagramProtocol Section23.1 Introduction Section23.2 CodeIntroduction Section23.3 UDPprotoswStructure Section23.4 UDPHeader Section23.5 udp_initFunction Section23.6 udp_outputFunction Section23.7 udp_inputFunction Section23.8 udp_saveoptFunction Section23.9 udp_ctlinputFunction Section23.10 udp_usrreqFunction Section23.11 udp_sysctlFunction Section23.12 ImplementationRefinements Section23.13 Summary Chapter24 TCP:TransmissionControlProtocol Section24.1 Introduction Section24.2 CodeIntroduction Section24.3 TCPprotoswStructure Section24.4 TCPHeader Section24.5 TCPControlBlock Section24.6 TCPStateTransitionDiagram Section24.7 TCPSequenceNumbers Section24.8 tcp_initFunction Section24.9 Summary Chapter25 TCPTimers Section25.1 Introduction Section25.2 CodeIntroduction Section25.3 tcp_canceltimersFunction Section25.4 tcp_fasttimoFunction Section25.5 tcp_slowtimoFunction Section25.6 tcp_timersFunction Section25.7 RetransmissionTimerCalculations Section25.8 tcp_newtcpcbFunction Section25.9 tcp_setpersistFunction Section25.10 tcp_xmit_timerFunction Section25.11 RetransmissionTimeout:tcp_timersFunction Section25.12 AnRTTExample Section25.13 Summary Chapter26 TCPOutput Section26.1 Introduction Section26.2 tcp_outputOverview Section26.3 DetermineifaSegmentShouldbeSent Section26.4 TCPOptions Section26.5 WindowScaleOption Section26.6 TimestampOption Section26.7 SendaSegment Section26.8 tcp_templateFunction Section26.9 tcp_respondFunction Section26.10 Summary Chapter27 TCPFunctions Section27.1 Introduction Section27.2 tcp_drainFunction Section27.3 tcp_dropFunction http://www.noao.edu/~rstevens/tcplw-extensions.txt Braden,R T 1994 "T/TCPTCPExtensionsfor Transactions,FunctionalSpecification,"RFC1644,38 pages(July) Braden,R T.,Borman,D A.,andPartridge,C 1988 "ComputingtheInternetChecksum,"RFC1071,24 pages(Sept.) Providestechniquesandalgorithmsforcalculatingthe checksumusedbyIP,ICMP,IGMP,UDP,andTCP Braden,R.T.,andPostel,J B 1987 "Requirementsfor InternetGateways,"RFC1009,55pages(June) TheequivalentoftheHostRequirementsRFCfor routers ThisRFCisbeingreplacedbyRFC1716 [AlmquistandKastenholz1994] Brakmo,L S.,O'Malley,S W.,andPeterson,L L 1994 "TCPVegas:NewTechniquesforCongestion DetectionandAvoidance,"ComputerCommunication Review,vol 24,no 4,pp 2435(Oct.) Describesmodificationstothe4.3BSDRenoTCP implementationtoimprovethroughputandreduce retransmissions ftp://ftp.cs.arizona.edu/xkernel/Papers/vegas.ps Carlson,J 1993 "Re:BuginManyVersionsofTCP," Message-ID ,Usenet, comp.protocols.tcp-ipNewsgroup(July) Casner,S.,FrequentlyAskedQuestions(FAQ)onthe MulticastBackbone(MBONE),1993 ftp://ftp.isi.edu/mbone/faq.txt Cheswick,W R.,andBellovin,S M 1994 Firewalls andInternetSecurity:RepellingtheWilyHacker Addison-Wesley,Reading,Mass Describeshowtosetupandadministerafirewall gatewayandthesecurityissuesinvolved Clark,D D 1982 "ModularityandEfficiencyin ProtocolImplementation,"RFC817,26pages(July) Comer,D E.,andLin,J C 1994 "TCPBufferingand PerformanceOveranATMNetwork,"PurdueTechnical ReportCSD-TR94-026,PurdueUniversity,West Lafayette,Ind (Mar.) ftp://gwen.cs.purdue.edu/pub/lin/TCP.atm.ps.Z Comer,D E.,andStevens,D L 1993 InternetworkingwithTCP/IP:Vol III:ClientServer ProgrammingandApplications,BSDSocketVersion Prentice-Hall,EnglewoodCliffs,N.J Croft,W.,andGilmore,J 1985 "BootstrapProtocol (BOOTP),"RFC951,12pages(Sept.) Crowcroft,J.,Wakeman,I.,Wang,Z.,andSirovica,D 1992 "IsLayeringHarmful?,"IEEENetwork,vol 6, no 1,pp 2024(Jan.) Thesevenmissingfiguresfromthispaperappearin thenextissue,vol 6,no 2(March) Dalton,C.,Watson,G.,Banks,D.,Calamvokis,C., Edwards,A.,andLumley,J 1993 "Afterburner," Network,vol 7,no 4,pp 3643(July) DescribeshowtospeedupTCPbyreducingthe numberofdatacopiesperformed,andaspecialpurposeinterfacecardthatsupportsthisdesign Deering,S E 1989 "HostExtensionsforIP Multicasting,"RFC1112,17pages(Aug.) ThespecificationofIPmulticastingandIGMP Deering,S E.,ed 1991a "ICMPRouterDiscovery Messages,"RFC1256,19pages(Sept.) Deering,S E 1991b "MulticastRoutingina DatagramInternetwork,"STAN-CS-92-1415,Stanford University,PaloAlto,Calif (Dec.) ftp://gregorio.stanford.edu/vmtpip/sdthesis.part1.ps.Z Deering,S E.,andCheriton,D P 1990 "Multicast RoutinginDatagramInternetworksandExtended LANs,"ACMTransactionsonComputerSystems 8,no 2,pp 85110(May) Proposesextensionstocommonroutingtechniquesto supportmulticasting Deering,S.,Estrin,D.,Farinacci,D.,Jacobson,V.,Liu, C.,andWei,L 1994 "AnArchitectureforWide-Area MulticastRouting,"ComputerCommunicationReview vol 24,no 4,pp 126135(Oct.) Droms,R 1993 "DynamicHostConfiguration Protocol,"RFC1541,39pages(Oct.) Finlayson,R.,Mann,T.,Mogul,J C.,andTheimer,M 1984 "AReverseAddressResolutionProtocol," 903,4pages(June) Floyd,S 1994 PrivateCommunication Forgie,J 1979 "STAProposedInternetStream Protocol,"IEN119,MITLincolnLaboratory(Sept.) Fuller,V.,Li,T.,Yu,J Y.,andVaradhan,K 1993 "ClasslessInter-DomainRouting(CIDR):AnAddress AssignmentandAggregationStrategy,"RFC1519,24 pages(Sept.) Hornig,C 1984 "StandardfortheTransmissionofIP DatagramsoverEthernetNetworks,"RFC894,3 pages(Apr.) Hutchinson,N C.,andPeterson,L L 1991 "ThexKernel:AnArchitectureforImplementingNetwork Protocols,"IEEETransactionsonSoftware Engineering,vol 17,no 1,pp 6476(Jan.) ftp://ftp.cs.arizona.edu/xkernel/Papers/architecture.ps Itano,W M.,andRamsey,N F 1993 "Accurate MeasurementofTime,"ScientificAmerican,vol 269, p 56(July) Overviewofhistoricalandcurrentmethodsfor accuratetimekeeping Includesashortdiscussionof internationaltimescalesincludingInternational AtomicTime(TAI)andCoordinatedUniversalTime (UTC) Jacobson,V 1988a "SomeInterimNotesontheBSD NetworkSpeedup,"Message-ID ,Usenet, comp.protocols.tcp-ipNewsgroup(July) Jacobson,V 1988b "CongestionAvoidanceand Control,"ComputerCommunicationReview,vol 18, no 4,pp 314329(Aug.) Aclassicpaperdescribingtheslowstartand congestionavoidancealgorithmsforTCP ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/congavoid.ps.Z Jacobson,V 1990a "CompressingTCP/IPHeadersfor Low-SpeedSerialLinks,"RFC1144,43pages(Feb.) DescribesCSLIP,aversionofSLIPwiththeTCPandIP headerscompressed Jacobson,V 1990b "4BSDTCPHeaderPrediction," ComputerCommunicationReview,vol 20,no 2,pp 1315(Apr.) Jacobson,V 1990c "ModifiedTCPCongestion AvoidanceAlgorithm,"April30,1990,end2endinterest mailinglist(Apr.) Describesthefastretransmitandfastrecovery algorithms ftp://ftp.isi.edu/end2end/end2end-interest-1990.mail Jacobson,V 1990d "BerkeleyTCPEvolutionfrom4.3Tahoeto4.3-Reno,"ProceedingsoftheEighteenth InternetEngineeringTaskForce,p 365(Sept.), UniversityofBritishColumbia,Vancouver,B.C Jacobson,V 1993 "SomeDesignIssuesforHighSpeedNetworks,"Networkshop'93(Nov.),Melbourne, Australia Asetof21overheads ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/talks/vj-nws93-1.ps.Z Jacobson,V.,andBraden,R T 1988 "TCPExtensions forLong-DelayPaths,"RFC1072,16pages(Oct.) Describestheselectiveacknowledgmentoptionfor TCP,whichwasremovedfromthelaterRFC1323,and theechooptions,whichwerereplacedwiththe timestampoptioninRFC1323 Jacobson,V.,Braden,R T.,andBorman,D A 1992 "TCPExtensionsforHighPerformance,"RFC1323,37 pages(May) Describesthewindowscaleoption,thetimestamp option,andthePAWSalgorithm,alongwiththe reasonsthesemodificationsareneeded [Braden 1993]updatesthisRFC Jain,R.,andRouthier,S A 1986 "PacketTrains: MeasurementsandaNewModelforComputer NetworkTraffic,"IEEEJournalonSelectedAreasin Communications,vol 4,pp 11621167 Karels,M J.,andMcKusick,M K 1986 "Network PerformanceandManagementwith4.3BSDand IP/TCP,"Proceedingsofthe1986SummerUSENIX Conference,pp 182188,Atlanta,Ga Describesthechangesmadefrom4.2BSDto4.3BSD withregardtoTCP/IP Karn,P.,andPartridge,C 1987 "ImprovingRound- TripTimeEstimatesinReliableTransportProtocols," ComputerCommunicationReview,vol 17,no 5,pp 27(Aug.) DetailsofKarn'salgorithmtohandlethe retransmissiontimeoutforsegmentsthathavebeen retransmitted ftp://sics.se/users/craig/karn-partridge.ps Kay,J.,andPasquale,J 1993 "TheImportanceof Non-DataTouchingProcessingOverheadsinTCP/IP," ComputerCommunicationReview,vol 23,no 4,pp 259268(Sept.) Kent,C A.,andMogul,J C 1987 "Fragmentation ConsideredHarmful,"ComputerCommunication Review,vol 17,no 5,pp 390401(Aug.) Kernighan,B W.,andPlauger,P J 1976 Software Tools Addison-Wesley,Reading,Mass Krol,E 1994 TheWholeInternet,SecondEdition O'Reilly&Associates,Sebastopol,Calif AnintroductionintotheInternet,commonInternet applications,andvariousresourcesavailableonthe Internet Krol,E.,andHoffman,E 1993 "FYIon'Whatisthe Internet?',"RFC1462,11pages(May) Lanciani,D 1993 "Re:BuginManyVersionsofTCP," Message-ID,Usenet,comp.protocols.tcpipNewsgroup(July) Leffler,S J.,McKusick,M K.,Karels,M.J.,and Quarterman,J S 1989 TheDesignand Implementationofthe4.3BSDUNIXOperating System Addison-Wesley,Reading,Mass Anentirebookonthe4.3BSDUnixsystem Thisbook describestheTahoereleaseof4.3BSD Lynch,D C 1993 "HistoricalPerspective,"inInternet SystemHandbook,eds D C LynchandM T Rose, pp 314 Addison-Wesley,Reading,Mass AhistoricaloverviewoftheInternetanditsprecursor, theARPANET Mallory,T.,andKullberg,A 1990 "Incremental UpdatingoftheInternetChecksum,"RFC1141,2 pages(Jan.) ThisRFCisupdatedbyRFC1624[Rijsinghani1994 Mano,M M 1993 ComputerSystemArchitecture, ThirdEdition Prentice-Hall,EnglewoodCliffs,N.J McCanne,S.,andJacobson,V 1993 "TheBSDPacket Filter:ANewArchitectureforUser-LevelPacket Capture,"Proceedingsofthe1993WinterUSENIX Conference,pp 259269,SanDiego,Calif AdetaileddescriptionoftheBSDPacketFilter(BPF) andcomparisonswithSun'sNetworkInterfaceTap (NIT) ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/bpf-usenix93.ps.Z McCloghrie,K.,andFarinacci,D 1994a "Internet GroupManagementProtocolMIB,"InternetDraft,12 pages(Jul.) McCloghrie,K.,andFarinacci,D 1994b "IPMulticast RoutingMIB,"InternetDraft,15pages(Jul.) McCloghrie,K.,andRose,M T 1991 "Management InformationBaseforNetworkManagementofTCP/IPbasedInternets:MIB-II,"RFC1213(Mar.) McGregor,G 1992 "PPPInternetProtocolControl Protocol(IPCP),"RFC1332,12pages(May) McKenney,P E.,andDove,K F 1992 "Efficient DemultiplexingofIncomingTCPPackets,"Computer CommunicationReview,vol 22,no 4,pp 269279 (Oct.) Mogul,J C 1991 "NetworkLocalityattheScaleof Processes,"ComputerCommunicationReview,vol 21, no 4,pp 273284(Sept.) Mogul,J.C 1993 "IPNetworkPerformance,"in InternetSystemHandbook,eds D C LynchandM T Rose,pp 575675 Addison-Wesley,Reading,Mass CoversnumeroustopicsintheInternetprotocolsthat arecandidatesfortuningtoobtainoptimal performance Mogul,J C.,andDeering,S E 1990 "PathMTU Discovery,"RFC1191,19pages(Apr.) Mogul,J C.,andPostel,J B 1985 "Internet StandardSubnettingProcedure,"RFC950,18pages (Aug.) Moy,J 1994 "MulticastExtensionstoOSPF,"RFC 1584,102pages(Mar.) Olivier,G 1994 "WhatistheDiameterofthe Internet?,"Message-ID ,Usenet, comp.unix.wizardsNewsgroup(Jan.) Partridge,C 1987 "ImplementingtheReliableData Protocol(RDP),"Proceedingsofthe1987Summer USENIXConference,pp 367379,Phoenix,Ariz Partridge,C 1993 "JacobsononTCPin30 Instructions,"Message-ID ,Usenet, comp.protocols.tcp-ipNewsgroup(Sept.) DescribesaresearchimplementationofTCP/IPbeing developedbyVanJacobsonthatreducesTCPreceive packetprocessingdownto30instructionsonaRISC system http://www.kohala.com/~rstevens/vanj.93sep07.txt Partridge,C.,andHinden,R 1990 "Version2ofthe ReliableDataProtocol(RDP),"RFC1151,4pages (Apr.) Partridge,C.,Mendez,T.,andMilliken,W 1993 AnycastingService,"RFC1546,9pages(Nov.) Partridge,C.,andPink,S 1993 "AFasterUDP," IEEE/ACMTransactionsonNetworking,vol 1,no 4, pp 429440(Aug.) Describesimplementationimprovementstothe BerkeleysourcestospeedupUDPperformanceabout 30% Paxson,V 1994 PrivateCommunication Perlman,R 1992 Interconnections:Bridgesand Routers Addison-Wesley,Reading,Mass Piscitello,D M.,andChapin,A L 1993 Open SystemsNetworking:TCP/IPandOSI AddisonWesley,Reading,Mass Plummer,D C 1982 "AnEthernetAddressResolution Protocol,"RFC826,10pages(Nov.) Postel,J B.,ed 1981a "InternetProtocol,"RFC791, 45pages(Sept.) Postel,J B 1981b "InternetControlMessage Protocol,"RFC792,21pages(Sept.) Postel,J B.,ed 1981c "TransmissionControl Protocol,"RFC793,85pages(Sept.) Postel,J B 1981d "ServiceMappings,"RFC795,4 pages(Sept.) Postel,J B.,andReynolds,J K 1988 "Standardfor theTransmissionofIPDatagramsoverIEEE802 Networks,"RFC1042,15pages(Apr.) Rago,S A 1993 UNIXSystemVNetwork Programming Addison-Wesley,Reading,Mass Reynolds,J K.,andPostel,J B 1994 "Assigned Numbers,"RFC1700,230pages(Oct.) Rijsinghani,A 1994 "ComputationoftheInternet ChecksumviaIncrementalUpdate,"RFC1624,6 pages(May) AnupdatetoRFC1141[MalloryandKullberg1990 Romkey,J L 1988 "ANonstandardforTransmission ofIPDatagramsOverSerialLines:SLIP,"RFC1055,6 pages(June) Rose,M T 1990 TheOpenBook:APractical PerspectiveonOSI Prentice-Hall,EnglewoodCliffs, N.J Salus,P H 1994 AQuarterCenturyofUnix AddisonWesley,Reading,Mass Sedgewick,R 1990 AlgorithmsinC Addison-Wesley, Reading,Mass Simpson,W.A 1993 "ThePoint-to-PointProtocol (PPP),"RFC1548,53pages(Dec.) Sklower,K 1991 "ATree-BasedPacketRoutingTable forBerkeleyUnix,"Proceedingsofthe1991Winter USENIXConference,pp 9399,Dallas,Tex Stallings,W 1987 HandbookofComputerCommunicationsStandards,Volume2:LocalNetwork Standards Macmillan,NewYork Stallings,W 1993 NetworkingStandards:AGuideto OSI,ISDN,LAN,andMANStandards Addison-Wesley, Reading,Mass Stevens,W R 1990 UNIXNetworkProgramming Prentice-Hall,EnglewoodCliffs,N.J Stevens,W R 1992 AdvancedProgramminginthe UNIXEnvironment Addison-Wesley,Reading,Mass Stevens,W R 1994 TCP/IPIllustrated,Volume1: TheProtocols Addison-Wesley,Reading,Mass Thefirstvolumeinthisseries,whichprovidesa completeintroductiontotheInternetprotocols Tanenbaum,A S 1989 ComputerNetworks,Second Edition Prentice-Hall,EnglewoodCliffs,N.J Topolcic,C 1990 "ExperimentalStreamProtocol, Version2(SY-II),"RFC1190,148pages(Oct.) Torek,C 1992 "Re:AProbleminBindSystemCall," Message-ID,Usenet, comp.unix.internalsNewsgroup(Nov.) Waitzman,D.,Partridge,C.,Deering,S E 1988 "DistanceVectorMulticastRoutingProtocol,"RFC 1075,24pages(Nov.) Team-Fly ... ProtocolControlBlocks Section 22 .1 Introduction Section 22 .2 CodeIntroduction Section 22 .3 inpcbStructure Section 22 .4 in_pcballocandin_pcbdetachFunctions Section 22 .5 Binding,Connecting,andDemultiplexing... 004.6 '2 9340000 ISBN 0 -20 1-63346-9(v.l) ISBN 0 -20 1-63354-X(v .2) The BSDDaemonusedon the coverofthisbookis reproducedwith the permissionofMarshallKirk McKusick Copyright© 1995 by Addison- Wesley. .. Binding,Connecting,andDemultiplexing Section 22 .6 in_pcblookupFunction Section 22 .7 in_pcbbindFunction Section 22 .8 in_pcbconnectFunction Section 22 .9 in_pcbdisconnectFunction Section 22 .10 in_setsockaddrandin_setpeeraddrFunctions
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Xem thêm: Addison wesley TCPIP illustrated volume 2 the implementation feb 1995 ISBN 020163354x , Addison wesley TCPIP illustrated volume 2 the implementation feb 1995 ISBN 020163354x , 9 Mbufs (Memory Buffers) and Output Processing, 8 Summary of Net/3 Networking Data Structures, 043 - 3.6 ifnet and ifaddr Specialization, 044 - 3.7 Network Initialization Overview, Chapter 5. Interfaces: SLIP and Loopback, Chapter 10. IP Fragmentation and Reassembly, Chapter 11. ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol, Chapter 13. IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol, 5 Processes, Descriptors, and Sockets, 4 write, writev, sendto, and sendmsg System Calls, 8 read, readv, recvfrom, and recvmsg System Calls, Chapter 18. Radix Tree Routing Tables, 7 Initialization: route_init and rtable_init Functions, 8 Initialization: rn_init and rn_inithead Functions, Chapter 19. Routing Requests and Routing Messages, 11 raw_attach, raw_detach, and raw_disconnect Functions, Chapter 21. ARP: Address Resolution Protocol, 5 Binding, Connecting, and Demultiplexing, 11 in_pcbnotify, in_rtchange, and in_losing Functions, Chapter 23. UDP: User Datagram Protocol, Chapter 24. TCP: Transmission Control Protocol, 6 Initiation of Passive Open, Completion of Active Open, 7 PAWS: Protection Against Wrapped Sequence Numbers, Chapter 31. BPF: BSD Packet Filter, Appendix A. Solutions to Selected Exercises

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