VSTEP READING PRACTICE TEST 1

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VSTEP READING PRACTICE TEST PASSAGE – Questions 1-10 Jonas Salk is the American physician and medical researcher who developed the first safe and effective vaccine for poliomyelitis Salk received his M.D in 1939 from New York University College of Medicine, where he worked with Thomas Francis Jr., who was studying how to develop vaccines from killed viruses Salk joined Francis in 1942 at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and became part of a group that was working to develop a vaccine against influenza In 1947, Salk became associate professor of bacteriology and head of the Virus Research Laboratory at the University of Pittsburg School of Medicine, where he began research on poliomyelitis Working with scientists from other universities in a program to classify the various strains of the polio virus, Salk corroborated other studies in identifying three separate strains He then demonstrated that killed virus of each of the three, although incapable of producing the disease, could induce antibody formation in monkeys In 1952, he conducted field tests of his killed-virus vaccine, first on children who had recovered from polio and then on subjects who had not had the disease The results of both tests showed that the children’s antibody levels rose significantly and no subjects contracted polio from the vaccine His findings were published the following year in the Journal of theAmerican Medical Association In 1954, a mass field trial was held, and the vaccine, injected by needle, was found to safely reduce the incidence of polio On April 12, 1955, the vaccine was released for use in the United States Salk served successively as professor of bacteriology, preventive medicine, and experimental medicine at Pittsburg, and in 1963, he became fellow and director of the Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, later called the Salk Institute Among many other honors, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 What is the main idea of the passage ? A How Jonas Salk trained to be a physician and medical researcher B How the medical research of Jonas Salk led to the development of the polio vaccine C How Salk and his colleagues learned to kill viruses D How Salk was promoted to important positions at the University of Pennsylvania Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the underlined word “vaccine” as used in paragraph of the passage ? A Medicine designed to cure a disease temporarily B Medicine that cures a disease after the patient gets sick C Medicine designed to kill viruses that are fatal to children D Medicine that creates immunity against a disease In the first paragraph, what was Thomas Francis Jr studying ? A How to prevent the spread of influenza in Michigan B How to work with physicians from Manhattan C How to develop vaccines from killed viruses D How to get a degree in medicine from New York University Which sentence in the second paragraph describes Salk’s first work at the University of Pittsburg ? A The first sentence B The second sentence C The third sentence D None of the above Which word is closest in meaning to the underlined word “corroborated” as used in paragraph of the passage ? A Rejected B Published C Examined D.Confirmed All of the following statements about the killed virus vaccine are true EXCEPT : A it did not induce antibody formation in monkeys B it had three strains that scientiests worked with C it was incapable of producing the disease D it helped monkeys form antibodies The underlined word “findings” in paragraph refers to A Results B Antibody levels C Vaccine D Polio From the passage, it can be inferred that the experimental polio vaccine was given to people by A pill B injection C surgery D liquid9 In the passage, it is implied that the Salk Institute was A originally called the Institute for Biological Studies B originally the University of Michigan School of Public Health C originally the Virus Research Laboratory at the University of Pittsburg D originally the medical school at New York University 10 Where in the passage could the following sentence best fit? Thousands of children and adults were free from the fears of contracting this terrible disease A At the end of paragraph B At the end of paragraph C At the end of paragraph D At the end of paragraph PASSAGE – Questions 11-20 Rainforests are disappearing in tropical areas around the world They are being cut down, burned and damaged through a process called “deforestation” This is a serious problem in developing countries within tropical regions The impact of deforestation also has vast global implications It is, therefore, very important to find solutions to these problems Unfortunately, progress in this area has been very slow According to World Bank statistics, many developing countries, such as Brazil, Ecuador, and Indonesia had lost almost half of their rainforests by 1991 Worldwide, in 1800 there were 7.1 billion acres of tropical forests, while today there are only3.5 billion acres Recent statistics suggest that an area of tropical forest larger than North Korea is deforested every year Most importantly, the rainforests play an important role in the health of our environment Trees and other plants act as filters that clean pollutants out of the air and produce clean air With air pollutant increasing as forests decline, the world is facing a potential crisis with regard to air quality Poverty is one of the main forces behind deforestation in tropical countries, where many rely on farming as a way of life The most practical method is “slash and burn” agriculture, in which a small area of trees is cut down and then burned to fertilize the soil For a period of time, the soil can produce good crops, but rain gradually washes away the nutrients, reducing fertility and causing crops to grow at a slower rate Eventually, the soil can no longer support crops, and farmers are often forced to abandon the land Government policies also contribute to the destruction of rainforests In countries like Brazil, much of the rainforest is owned by the state However, the state does not have enough resources to control access to the forests Therefore, the government allows people to claim area of land within the forest To this, people must clear the land that they want to claim Small farmers, then, often clear plots and then sell them They then move to a new area, clear it, and then sell it again While this is good for farmers, it is highly destructive to forests Larger companies contribute to their own problems Logging companies can a great deal of damage on their own, but they also cause secondary damage through their effects on small farmers Often, road construction companies hired by the government claim land that they clear during their projects, thus pushing small farmers further into forests In addition, the government might set low tax rate for agricultural production Corporations and wealthy investors buy up lands, and the small farmers are gain forced to find plots in unclaimed areas of the forests The problem of deforestation is strongly affected by poverty in developing countries Clearly, any long-term solution to deforestation must focus first on how poverty can be reduced Any other solution can only be a temporary measure According to World Bank statistics, a lot of developing countries had lost ……… their rainforests by 1991 A A half of B Nearly a half of C One third D A fourth The phrase “way of life” in paragraph is closest in meaning to A Daily living B Hobby C Interest D Future survival The author mention North Korea to A Demonstrate the impact of deforestation in North Korea B Demonstrate that North Korea policy is favorable to that of Brazil C Demonstrate how much forest is being destroyed each year D Demonstrate that deforestation is not as serious as we thought The word “this” in paragraph refers to A Claiming land B Burning the forest C Allowing farmers to claim land D Making policies What is the main purpose of paragraph 6? A To explain the primary damage caused by logging companies B To explain how large companies affect small farmers C To explain agricultural taxes D To show how corporations purchase land According to the passage, why is “slash and burn” agriculture harmful? A It leaves areas of land infertile B It pollutes the water supply C It keeps farmers in poverty D It can cause forest fires All of the following are mentioned in the passage EXCEPT A The extent of rainforest destruction B The fast food industry clearing rainforests for grazing land C The practice of slash and burn agriculture in Brazil D Logging companies and their effects on farmers From the passage, it can be inferred that A Deforestation is the main cause of poverty in tropical countries B Deforestation must be addressed if developing countries are to succeed C Deforestation is a serious problem for small farmers D Deforestation is driven by economics According to the passage, why does Brazilian government allow farmers to make claims on rainforest land? A They want to improve living conditions of farmers B If the farmers not claim them, larger companies will C They not have the resources to prevent it D The economy is based on agriculture 10 According to the passage, which of the following would be best addressed the problem of deforestation? A Changing government policies B Increasing angricultural taxes C Reducing poverty D Studying plant life for medicinal benefits PASSAGE – Questions 21-30 Every modern war has its icon, the technological development essential to the conflict, the one that changes the course of battle and becomes, ever after, symbolic of the time The Civil War’s cannon, World War I’s machine gun, World War II’s tank — each left its mark on the landscape and the soldier Vietnam’s icon was the helicopter, specifically the UH-1 utility helicopter soldiers referred to as “the Huey.” The geographic and political realities of Vietnam called for a new kind of warfare, one the U.S Army termed “Airmobile.” Remote battle zones, mountains topped in old-growth hardwood jungles, and poorly developed roads eliminated motor vehicles as a means of quickly moving masses of troops and supplies Helicopters took over In Airmobile warfare, flocks of helicopters took troops and supplies to strategic locations, monitored operations from the air, engaged in battle, and evacuated forces The famed U.S Army 1st Cavalry joined aviation units already in Vietnam to pioneer Airmobile operations, trading its horses for helicopters and creating an archetype followed by the 101st Airborne, the 1st Aviation Brigade, and several other aviation units and smaller detachments Many helicopters were used in Vietnam, but none was as widely employed as the Huey The UH-1 “Iroquois,” popularly dubbed the Huey, is known as “the workhorse of the Vietnam War,” used by all military forces for troop transport, medical evacuation, and combat assault Hueys transported soldiers and supplies to the lines as the horses for a modern cavalry The U.S Army and Marine Corps made them into gunships, modifying them with machine guns and air-to-ground rocket pods and putting them to work in frontal assaults Hueys carried officers to develop battle plans, soldiers to battle, nurses to orphanages, and “Donut Dollies” to entertain troops Outfitted with broadcasting systems, they ferried Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) messengers And, perhaps most significantly, Hueys were the technology behind “Dustoffs,” evacuations of the wounded so-named by a pilot who gave his life doing it The ability to swoop into the battle, load the Huey with wounded, and fly to evacuation hospitals, started in Korea and refined in Vietnam, has been called “one of the major medical innovations of the Vietnam War.” This quick transport meant that more than 90 percent of wounded soldiers who reached a medical facility survived The medical evacuation technology gained in the Huey experience of Vietnam came home to become the air rescue operations we today take for granted The Huey is an enormously versatile helicopter, easily modified for various missions The interchangeable interiors of the Huey allowed for easy conversion from troop carrier to ambulance It was also an amazing machine, capable of flying in extreme stress and relatively easy to get in and out quickly–a feature crucial in troop extraction and rescue missions Those who flew and maintained them, the pilots and crew chiefs, are fiercely loyal to the Huey, even though many have flown many other aircraft More than 7,000 Huey helicopters served in Vietnam and nearly half were lost 2,177 Huey crew members were killed in action Because the Huey was always there for them, for soldiers on the ground, the distinctive WHOP WHOP of the Huey’s 48-foot rotor blades slapping the air was the sound of their lifeline 21 What was the icon of The Civil War? A cannon B machine gun C tank D helicopter 22 Which list best describes the conditions that necessitated the use of the helicopter in Vietnam? A strategic operations, supply routes, troop movements B large rivers, vast shoreline, marshy rice paddies C dense jungles, remote battle sites, bad roads D rapid transport, medical evacuation, soldier resupply 23 The word “its” in paragraph refers to A The 101 st Airborne B The famed U.S Academy 1st Cavalry C Vietnam D Airmobile operations 24 The word “assault” in paragraph is closest in meaning to A advance B aggression C attempt D strike 25 The word “them” in paragraph refers to A Hueys B soldiers C horses D The U.S Army and Marine Corps 26 What name was given to helicopter ambulance missions? A Dustoff B PSYOP C Donut Dollies D Cavalry 27 What is the best title for this passage? A Icon of Wars B Helicopters C The UH-1 Helicopter: Icon of the Vietnam War D Kinds of helicopters in Vietnam 28 The word “versatile” in paragraph is closest in meaning to A adaptable B flexible C resourceful D talent 29 Read the sentence below, then answer the question The interchangeable interiors of the Huey allowed for easy conversion from troop carrier to air ambulance Which of these is the best category for this fact? A Safety features of the Huey B Huey crew members C Versatility of the Huey D Effects of the Huey on the enemy force 30 What can be inferred from the last paragraph? A Flying a Huey in Vietnam was dangerous work B The Huey helicopter was extremely versatile C Other helicopters were safer than the Huey D Most military personnel preferred a motor vehicle to a Huey PASSAGE – Questions 31-40 Photographic evidence suggests that liquid water existed on the surface of Mars Two types of flow features are: runoff channels and outflow channels Runoff channels are found in the southern highlands These flow features are extensive systems-sometimes hundreds of kilometers in total length-of interconnecting, twisting channels that seem to merge into larger, wider channels They bear a strong resemblance to river systems on Earth Geologists think that they are dried-up beds of long-gone rivers that carried rainfall on Mars from the mountains down into the valleys Runoff channels on Mars speak of a time billion years ago when the atmosphere was thicker, the surface warmer, and liquid water widespread Outflow channels are probably relics of catastrophic flooding on Mars long ago They appear only in equatorial regions and generally not form extensive interconnected networks Instead, they are probably the paths taken by huge volumes of water draining from the southern highlands into the northern plains The onrushing water arising from these flash floods likely also formed the odd teardrop-shaped "islands" (resembling the miniature versions seen in the wet sand of our beaches at low tide) that have been found on the plains close to the ends of the outflow channels Judging from the width and depth of the channels, the flow rates must have been truly enormous Flooding shaped the outflow channels billion years ago, about the same times as the northern volcanic plains formed Scientists speculate that Mars may have enjoyed an extended early Period during which rivers, lakes, and perhaps even oceans adorned its surface A 2003 Mars Global Surveyor image shows what mission specialists think may be a delta-a fan-shaped network of channels and sediments where a river once flowed into a larger body of water, in this case a lake filling a crater in the southern highlands Other researchers go even further, suggesting that the data provide evidence for large open expenses of water on the early Martian surface A computer-generated view of the Martian North Polar Region shows the extent of what may have been an ancient ocean covering much of the northern lowlands The Hellas Basin, which measures some 3,000 kilometers across and has a floor that lies nearly kilometers below the basin's rim, is another candidate for an ancient Martian sea These ideas remain controversial Proponents point to features such as the terraced "beaches" shown in one image, which could conceivably have been left behind as a lake or ocean evaporated and the shoreline receded But detractors maintain that the terraces could also have been created by geological activity, perhaps related to the geologic forces that depressed the Northern Hemisphere far below the level of the south, in which case they have nothing whatever to with Martian water Furthermore, Mars Global Surveyor data released in 2003 seem to indicate that the Martian surface contains too few carbonate rock layers-layers containing compounds of carbon and oxygen-that should have been formed in abundance in an ancient ocean Their absence supports the picture of a cold, dry Mars that never experienced the extended mild period required to form lakes and oceans However, more recent data imply that at least some parts of the planet did in fact experience long periods in the past during which liquid water existed on the surface 31 What does the word “these” in paragraph refer to? A runoff channels B outflow channels C both A and B D flow features 32 What does the discussion in paragraph of runoff channels in the Southern Highlands suggest about Mars? A The atmosphere of Mars was once thinner than it is today B Large amounts of rain once fell on parts of Mars C The river systems of Mars were once more extensive than Earth's D The rivers of Mars began to dry up about billion years ago 33 The word “miniature” in paragraph is closest in meaning to A temporary B small C multiple D familiar 34 According to paragraph 2, all of the following are true of the outflow channels on Mars EXCEPT: A They formed at around the same time that volcanic activity was occurring on the northern plains B They are found only on certain parts of the Martian surface C They sometimes empty onto what appear to have once been the wet sands of tidal beaches D They are thought to have carried water northward from the equatorial regions 35 According to paragraph 3, images of Mars' surface have been interpreted as support for the idea that A The polar regions of Mars were once more extensive than they are now B A large part of the northern lowlands may once have been under water C Deltas were once a common feature of the Martian landscape D the shape of the Hellas Basin has changed considerably over time 36 What can be inferred from paragraph about liquid water on Mars? A If ancient oceans ever existed on Mars’ surface, it is likely that the water in them has evaporated by now B If there is any liquid water at all on Mars’ surface today, its quantity is much smaller than the amount that likely existed there in the past C Small-scale gullies on Mars provide convincing evidence that liquid water existed on Mars in the recent past D The small amount of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere suggests that there has never been liquid water on Mars 37 All of the following questions about geological features on Mars are answered in paragraph EXCEPT: A What are some regions of Mars that may have once been covered with an ocean? B Where mission scientists believe that the river forming the delta emptied? C Approximately how many craters on Mars mission scientists believe may once have been lakes filled with water? D During what period of Mars' history some scientists think it may have had large bodies of water? 38 Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? A But detractors argue that geological activity may be responsible for the water associated with the terraces B But detractors argue that the terraces may have been formed by geological activity rather than by the presence of water C But detractors argue that the terraces may be related to geological forces in the Northern Hemisphere of Mars, rather than to Martian water in the south D But detractors argue that geological forces depressed the Northern Hemisphere so far below the level of the south that the terraces could not have been formed by water 39 According to paragraph 4, what the 2003 Global Surveyor data suggest About Mars? A Ancient oceans on Mars contained only small amounts of carbon B The climate of Mars may not have been suitable for the formation of large bodies of water C Liquid water may have existed on some parts of Mars' surface for long periods of time E The ancient oceans that formed on Mars dried up during periods of cold, dry weather 40 In paragraph of the passage, there is a missing sentence The paragraph is repeated below and shows four letters (A, B, C, and D) that indicate where the following sentence could be added These landscape features differ from runoff channels in a number of ways Where would the sentence best fit? Outflow channels are probably relics of catastrophic flooding on Mars long ago (A) They appear only in equatorial regions and generally not form extensive interconnected networks (B) Instead, they are probably the paths taken by huge volumes of water draining from the southern highlands into the northern plains (C) The onrushing water arising from these flash floods likely also formed the odd teardrop-shaped “islands” (resembling the miniature versions seen in the wet sand of our beaches at low tide) that have been found on the plains close to the ends of the outflow channels (D) Judging from the width and depth of the channels, the flow rates must have been truly enormous—perhaps as much as a hundred times greater than the 105 tons per second carried by the great Amazon River Flooding shaped the outflow channels approximately billion years ago, about the same time as the northern volcanic plains formed A Option A B Option B C Option C D Option D 10 ... as Brazil, Ecuador, and Indonesia had lost almost half of their rainforests by 19 91 Worldwide, in 18 00 there were 7 .1 billion acres of tropical forests, while today there are only3.5 billion acres... Army 1st Cavalry joined aviation units already in Vietnam to pioneer Airmobile operations, trading its horses for helicopters and creating an archetype followed by the 10 1st Airborne, the 1st... evacuation, soldier resupply 23 The word “its” in paragraph refers to A The 10 1 st Airborne B The famed U.S Academy 1st Cavalry C Vietnam D Airmobile operations 24 The word “assault” in paragraph
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