IELTS practice test 08 reading academic test

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IELTS PRACTICE TESTS READING TEST 08 IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Good Luck! IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Please note that while we truly hope that the pack will help you to achieve the IELTS test band score you need, by purchasing this pack you agree to the 'Terms and Conditions of Use' This pack, which includes all pages and the associated audio files, is for your own individual study only The pack or any of its contents can not be shared or transmitted in any form without the prior written consent of TruLern Ltd Please remember copyright laws exist to help us ALL Breach of copyright kills creativity, innovation and healthy competition If you breach this copyright you could face legal action IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com against you Respecting copyright makes our world a better place Please respect our copyright Once again, many thanks and once again, the very best of luck with your IELTS test © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l 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and you will be considered to have accepted such changes if you use this web site after we have published the changed terms on this web site If you have any questions about this document or our privacy policy, please contact us © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Reading Academic IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Test 08 IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com SECTION Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Questions – 13 Healthy Food? A THE shelves of every supermarket are packed with probiotic yogurts that can supposedly ease constipation and fend off infections, butter substitutes that claim to reduce cholesterol, tomato extracts said to keep skin looking young while warding off cancer, infant cereals enhanced with micronutrients essential for development, and so on Have food companies taken on a higher level of morality or are there other motives for this concern over the health value of their produce? B Food companies have taken to trumpeting the supposed health and nutritional benefits of their products for several reasons Such products may appeal both to health-conscious buyers and to people who know they eat unhealthily, but hope that some vitamins here and some probiotics there might compensate for the junk Best of all, from the food companies’ point of view, these “functional foods”, which blur the line between foods and drugs, hold out the promise of higher margins and faster growth In western Europe sales of functional foods grew by 10.2% a year between 2006 and 2009, for example, whereas sales of packaged food grew by 6.3% That is why Nestlé, the world’s biggest food company, is making a big bet on functional foods as a source of future growth IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com C All this has attracted the attention of regulators on both sides of the Atlantic They are concerned that some of these health claims may be misleading or unsupported by evidence, and are tightening the rules On October 20th America’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said it would overhaul the rules for nutritional claims on food labels and issue new standards early next year It has already rebuked General Mills, the maker of Cheerios, a popular breakfast cereal, for claiming that it is “clinically proven to lower cholesterol” The European Food Safety Authority is also cracking down, requiring companies to back up health and nutrition claims with scientific studies Hundreds of applications submitted to its scientific panel have just been turned down The panel has decided that there is not enough evidence to claim that, for instance, heather helps you sleep, dried cocoa extract helps you lose weight, quinoa makes your hair grow and Jerusalem artichokes make your gut healthy IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com D Many in the industry are howling that these rules are heavy-handed, given that most of their products are perfectly safe and that some health claims go back decades or more Demanding expensive studies to justify such claims will stifle innovation, they argue, and tilt the playing field against smaller firms, which will be unable to afford them Surely, they say, firms that find profit in adding iron, iodine, zinc and vitamins to their products, or cutting levels of high-fructose corn syrup or saturated fat, ought to be applauded, not denounced Many food brands started off as a means of reassuring customers that products were trustworthy The desire to defend their brands gives food firms a strong incentive to ensure that their products are safe E The situation now however is that food companies are claiming their products provide specific benefits—not merely that they are safe to eat Ordinary folk cannot tell whether health claims made by food marketers are scientifically valid, so there is a case for regulatory scrutiny of such claims What’s more, even though it is difficult to imagine someone being harmed by eating too much breakfast cereal or yogurt, say, there is a risk of harm if health claims made about functional foods encourage people to see them as substitutes for drugs or lifestyle changes they may need A few helpings of vegetables will more good than any probiotic yogurt © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding F A lesson from the drugs industry is that industry-funded studies have a clear tendency to produce results that please their sponsors So food companies should have to register all studies and publish even those with unfavourable results Clear guidelines on labelling are also important To its credit, the FDA recently proposed rules that would force food companies to publish all the important components of their products on the front of their packages, rather than picking out the healthy ones and keeping quiet about the fat, salt and sugar G The industry’s claim that greater scrutiny will kill innovation is off the mark Those firms making misleading claims will suffer; those prepared to invest in proper scientific studies to back up their supposed breakthroughs will benefit And in pharmaceuticals, smaller firms seem to be more innovative than bigger ones If food companies wish to make the sorts of claims about their products that pharmaceutical companies do, they must be prepared to submit to similar scrutiny Extraordinary claims, after all, require extraordinary evidence IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding QUESTIONS - Match each heading to the most suitable paragraph i Food companies should benefit from additional regulation ii The need for clarity between food and medicine iii The main reason behind the shift towards functional foods iv Similarities between the pharmaceutical and the food industries v The food industry's case for less regulation vi A new trend in food production vii More transparency in the results of food research viii Demands for food companies to be more accountable Paragraph A Paragraph B IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Paragraph C Paragraph D Paragraph E Paragraph F Paragraph G QUESTIONS - 10 IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Write True, False or Not Given Food companies are investing in functional foods because they are healthier The FDA is going to revise the legislation on food labels next year 10 The food industry welcomes the regulators new demands QUESTIONS 11 -13 Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer 11 For many people it is now difficult to the information given by food producers is true or not 12 New FDA legislation forces companies to put both healthy and unhealthy on the front of their products 13 The food industry must accept the same level of as the pharmaceutical industry if it wishes to make similar claims © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com SECTION Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Questions 14 – 27 Fitter with friends THE enduring image of Sylvester Stallone's legendary pugilist Rocky Balboa is that of a solitary athlete, braving the elements, and his own demons, to prepare for a big fight Yet according to a new study he might have done better by having a bit of company on his long workouts Research by Emma Cohen, an anthropologist at Oxford University, suggests that a better model is provided by Hicham El Guerrouj, a Moroccan middle-distance runner who is the current holder of the world 1,500-metres and one-mile records Before retiring in 2006 Mr El Guerrouj was known for the throngs of training partners that followed him everywhere in Morocco This was a good strategy because, as Dr Cohen reports in a forthcoming issue of Biology Letters, training in a synchronised group may heighten tolerance for pain That, in turn, could allow athletes like Mr El Guerrouj to reach even higher levels of fitness by being able to train longer and harder The reason is almost certainly the effects of endogenous opioids, better known as endorphins When these are released in the brain they make a person feel good What causes their release is, however, more complex Biologists think it is part of an evolved mechanism which rewards behaviour that may not be immediately pleasant but is ultimately useful to the species IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Endorphins show up nearly everywhere Hunting an animal may be tiresome but necessary, so endorphins are secreted during exertion to numb the discomfort induced by lactic acid production in the muscles Collaboration makes it easier to kill animals while others set traps Dr Cohen wanted to see if combining exercise and collaboration would heighten the effect One of the study's co-authors, Robin Ejsmond-Frey, rowed for Oxford and thought it would be a good activity to study For one thing, it is easy to spot a crew that is not well synchronised Secondly, ergometers, machines on which rowers train, provide data on the power exerted on each stroke In addition, it can be rather painful so the endorphins should be out in droves IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com The researchers got 12 members of Oxford's heavyweight squad to row on machines in four 45-minute sessions over two weeks In two sessions they rowed in complete isolation and in the others in groups of six, perfectly synchronised Immediately following each session their endorphin levels were tested Because endorphin levels can only be measured directly through an invasive lumbar puncture-unfeasible, even for notoriously pain-hungry oarsmen-the researchers used a readily accepted proxy: they deduced pain tolerance, and hence endorphin levels, by gradually tightening a cuff around each rower's arm When he said "now" they stopped squeezing and noted the pressure As expected, the rowers' pain thresholds were significantly higher following the group sessions This was despite nearly identical power outputs in all four tests and efforts to control for possible confounding variables, such as the time of day The athletes may be rewarding themselves for their collaboration Whether heightened tolerance is due specifically to rowing synchronously remains unclear Data from other studies suggest that co-ordinated physical exercise can heighten social bonds, as in military training The reverse may also be true As the rowers had been teammates for nearly a year it is possible that the mere presence of friends explains the observed effect The researchers are keen to replicate the study to test for such things Meanwhile, solitary joggers might want to take along a friend or two © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Questions 14 - 19 Write Yes, No or Not Given 14 Emma Cohen's research proves that training in synchronised groups leads to higher levels of fitness 15 Biologists believe that the release of endorphins is part of a reward for useful behaviour 16 Robin Ejsmond-Frey did not believe Dr Cohen's research would be valuable 17 Dr Cohen 's researchers used a cuff to measure the athletes' endorphin levels 18 The rowers' power output changed depending on the time of day 19 The best way to jog is probably in a group Questions 20 - 24 IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Match each name to the sentences below A Dr Emma Cohen B Sylvester Stallone C Hicham El Guerrouj D Robin Ejsmond-Frey 20 Used to train in large groups 21 Represents a good example IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com 22 Is the author of a report soon to be published 23 Is usually seen training alone 24 Does research work with Emma Cohen Questions 25 - 27 Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer 25 In order to find out the endorphin levels of the 12 rowers, researchers first the level of pain the rowers could withstand 26 The power performance of the rowers was almost in every test carried out 27 It cannot be said with certainty that rowers show a higher to pain as a result of rowing synchronously © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com SECTION Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Questions 28 – 40 Glue bones A Torn flesh is usually easy to put back together with stitches, but when bone breaks, repairs are nowhere near as simple Fractures that run in a straight line can often be placed back in their proper alignment and set in a cast for a period of time that allows the break to heal Complex fractures, though, those that involve bones shattered into fragments, are more challenging Large fragments can, with the aid of metal screws and pins, be reattached and set in place for healing Small fragments cannot be treated in the same way, as they are often too tiny to be connected with metal hardware Medics have long sought a glue to this work, and now Russell Stewart of the University of Utah may have found one in the secretions of a marine worm B The sandcastle worm, as the beast is known, lives in a mineral shell It does not, however, secrete this shell directly in the way that, for example, a mollusc would Instead, it secretes a glue and uses this to stick bits of sand together to form its casing, in the way that a freshwater caddis fly larva does The glue does not dissolve in water Indeed, it is able to displace water and thus adhere to surfaces in aqueous solutions It also solidifies soon after being secreted It, or something like it, therefore sounds ideal for repairing bones IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com C Dr Stewart and his team began by analysing sandcastle-worm glue to see how it works What they found was a mixture of proteins, some positively charged and some negatively charged, and also a lot of calcium and magnesium ions The combination produces a material that can, when circumstances are right, bind the protein molecules so tightly together that any water molecules between them are expelled D The trigger for this to happen is a change in acidity The gland in which the glue is generated is mildly acidic In these circumstances the glue remains liquid Seawater, however, is alkaline This alkalinity causes the glue to set It solidifies into a foam within 30 seconds and becomes a flexible, leathery substance over the course of several hours IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com E Having understood how the sandcastle worm performs its trick, Dr Stewart was in a position to replicate it Instead of proteins, he and his team used two synthetic polymers These, however, had the same crucial chemical groups as their natural counterparts, and also similar electric charges F The result, as the team reported to a recent meeting of the American Chemical Society, was a substance even better, from a medical point of view, than the natural glue Not only did it solidify in response to changes in acidity, it also did so in response to changes in temperature, being liquid at room temperature and solid at body temperature G The resulting glue not only sticks bits of bone together in watery environments, but also does so with twice the strength of the glue used by the worm In addition, although it is still early days, preliminary tests suggest it is both non-toxic and biodegradable If further testing confirms this, it means that, as the broken bone heals, the glue will disappear naturally Complex fractures will thus heal more easily © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Questions 28 and 29 Write True, False or Not Given 28 The topic of the text is broken bones 29 Repairing smaller breakages with metal parts is harder than repairing larger ones Questions 30 - 34 Which paragraph contains IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com 30 the man-made version of the sandcastle-worm glue is body-friendly 31 examples of how broken bones can be mended 32 how the sandcastle worm produces its shell 33 an explanation of how the sandcastle-worm glue adheres molecules together 34 how a man-made version of the sandcastle-worm glue was produced IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Questions 35 - 40 Complete the summary with ONE WORD from the text In order for the sandcastle worm to produce its 35 it produces a glue which it uses to stick together bits of sand Because this glue is able to stick to surfaces even when they are in 36 liquids, it is a useful substance in the process of bone repair Dr Stewart, from the University of Utah, and his team have managed to produce a man-made version of the glue using artificial 37 If early 38 prove correct, this man-made version seems to have added benefits over the natural version being 39 as strong, and able to vanish from the repaired area 40 © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Answers IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding 10 11 12 13 vi iii viii v ii vii i False True False tell whether components scrutiny 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Not Given Yes No Yes Not Given Not Given C C A B D deduced identical tolerance 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 False True G A B C E casing aqueous polymers tests twice naturally IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com © IELTS-PRACTICE-TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you [...]... vanish from the repaired area 40 © IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Answers IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com © IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content... you IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 vi iii viii v ii vii i False True False tell whether components scrutiny 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Not Given Yes No Yes Not Given Not Given C C A B D deduced identical tolerance 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 False True G A B C E casing aqueous polymers tests twice naturally IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com.. .IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com Pra ctice Test / Rea ding Questions 28 and 29 Write True, False or Not Given 28 The topic of the text is broken bones 29 Repairing smaller breakages with metal parts is harder than repairing larger ones Questions 30 - 34 Which paragraph contains IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com 30 the man-made version of the sandcastle-worm glue... Not Given C C A B D deduced identical tolerance 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 False True G A B C E casing aqueous polymers tests twice naturally IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com © IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com , All Rights Reserved This content is for your ow n individua l study only You ca nnot sha re or tra nsm it it Non com plia nce could result in lega l a ction a ga inst you... mended 32 how the sandcastle worm produces its shell 33 an explanation of how the sandcastle-worm glue adheres molecules together 34 how a man-made version of the sandcastle-worm glue was produced IELTS- PRACTICE- TESTS.com Questions 35 - 40 Complete the summary with ONE WORD from the text In order for the sandcastle worm to produce its 35 it produces a glue which it uses to stick together bits of sand
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