BỒI DƯỠNG học SINH GIỎI LỊCH sử 12 TRƯƠNG NGỌC THƠI phần 2

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C u n g v o i n h u n g cuoc chii d o n g tien cong d i c h tren chien t r u a n g T r j - chung da nhanh chong to chuc lai luc l u g n g phan cong quan ta gap k h o n g it Thien, D u o n g so . quan ta m o m a n g hang loat tran phan cong danh bai cac kho khan va ton that. Q u a n each mang vao chie'm giCr t r o n g d g t bl cuoc hanh quan " t i m diet" va " b i n h d j n h " cua djch. Loai k h o i v o n g chien da'u day ngoai. * y nghia: Mac d i i co n h i r n g ton that va h ^ n che'do, cupc T o n g tien cong va 151 000 ten d i c h , bin r o i 231 may bay. noi day co y nghIa he't sue to Idn: hau k h i p cac v i i n g nong thon, quan c h i i n g dug-c sir ho trg- cua l y c l u g n g L a m l u n g lay y chi xam lugec cua quan M I , bugc M I phai t u y e n bo " p h i M I v u trang da d u n g len da'u tranh chong ach k i m kep ciia d j c h , pha t u n g mang hoa" chien tranh xam luge (tue thua nhan that bai cua "Chien tranh cue bg"). / "Ap chien luge". T r o n g hau khap cac t h j , giai cap cong nhan, cac tang i6p M I phai t u y e n bdeha'm d u t k h o n g dieu kien chien tranh pha hoai m i e n Bae, 01 nhan dan lao d o n g khac, hoc sinh, sinh vien, Phat t u , b i n h sT Sai Gon . da'u chju den ban d a m phan Pa ri de ban ve cha'm d u t chien tranh. oc tranh d o i M i riit ve nude, d o i t u dan chu. V i i n g giai p h o n g d u g c m o rong, u y t i n cua M a t tran dan toe giai p h o n g m i e n N a m d u g c nang cao tren t r u o n g iH Cuoc T o n g tien cong va noi day da m o buoc ngoat cua eugc k h a n g chien quoe te. Da chong M I c i i u nuoe cua quan dan ta. Den euoi nam 1967, M a t tran giai p h o n g c6 eo quan t h u o n g true hau he't hi d. Nhimg diem giong vd khdc giiia chien luoc "Chien tranh dac hi^t" cac nude xa h p i ehii nghia va m p t so nuae t h e ' g i o i t h u ba. C u a n g l l n h cua nT vd Chien luoc "Chien tranh cue bg" cua Mi d Vi?t Nam uO M a t tran d u g c 41 nuoe, 12 to chue quoe te, to chuc k h u v u c len tic'ng u n g ho. * Giong nhau: ie c. Cuoc Tong tien cong vd noi day Tei Mau Than nam 1968 Deu la chien tranh xam luge t h y e dan m d i ciia M I , n h a m bien m i e n N a m iL * Hoan cnnh: Buoc vao mua xuan 1968, xuat phat t u nhan d i n h so sanh luc thupe dja kieu m a i cua M I . Deu thuc hien am m u u chong lai each mang va Ta l u g n g thay d o i c6 Igi cho ta sau hai mua kho. N a m 1968 ta Igi d u n g m a u thuan nhan dan mien N a m . Deu su d u n g v u k h i va p h u o n g t i ^ n chien tranh cua M I . "Chien tranh cue b p " m o rpng ca hai mien N a m - Bac. m/ g m i n h , danh d o n m a n h vao chinh q u y e n va d g i Sai G o n gianh c h i n h q u y e n ve Ve t i n h chat ac liet: "Chien tranh cue b p " ac liet h o n , the hien muc tieu, k. co tay nhan dan, bugc M I phai d a m phan, rut quan ve nude. lye l u p n g tham chien, vQ k h i , hoa l y c va p h u o n g tien chien tranh. * Dien bie'n: Cuoc tong tien cong va noi day d u g c m o dau bang eugc tap kieh " C h i e n tranh dae biet" dupe tien hanh bt^ng quan d g i tay sai d u d i sy chi eb oo chien luge cua quan chii luc vao hau k h ^ p cac thj t r o n g d e m 30 rang sang h u y eua co van M I , d y a vao v u k h i , trang bj k l thuat, p h u o n g tien chien tranh 31 - - 1968 (dem giao thua Te't M a u Than). Cuoc tong tien cong va noi cua M I n h a m thuc h i ^ n m u u co ban la " D i i n g n g u d i Viet d a n h n g u d i V i ^ t " , .f ac day dien ba d g t : - - - ; thang va 6; thang va -1968. "Thay m a u da cho xae ehe't". Tien hanh " Chien tranh dae b i ^ t " , M I - n g u y m d Tai Sai Gon, quan giai p h o n g tien cong vao cae v j t r i dau nao eua d j c h , n h u rpng nhieu cupc hanh quan can quet, mue tieu la chong pha each m a n g va b i n h ww w Toa dai s u M I , D i n h "Doe lap". Bp Tong tham m u u q u a n Sai G o n , Bp T u lenh biet k h u T h i i do, T o n g nha canh sat, Dai phat thanh, san bay Tan Son Nha't. * Kt't qua: T u t r o n g eupe T o n g tien cong va noi day, eo them nhieu luc l u p n g m a i ehong M I , chong c h i n h quyen Sai G o n xuat hien, mat tran doan ket dan * Khac nhau: Ve quy m o chien tranh: " C h i e n tranh dac biet" dien a m i e n N a m , ro * Muc dich: N h a m tieu d i f t m g t bp phan luc l u g n g quan MT, quan dong up tien cong va noi day tren toan m i e n N a m , t r o n g tam la t h j . s/ a M l t r o n g n a m bau c u tong thong (1968), ta chii t r u o n g m o m g t eugc Tong d j n h m i e n N a m . C h i i n g coi " A p chien l u p c " la quoe saeh n h ^ m tach each m a n g khdi dan de t h y c h i ^ n eai gpi la "Tat nude bat ca". " C h i e n tranh cue b p " v d i muc tieu la v u a tieu diet quan chu lye v u a b i n h tpe, chong M I c u u nuac d u g c m o rgng. To chuc Lien minh cac luc lugng dan tgc, d j n h m i e n N a m , pha hoai m i e n B3e. L y e l u g n g tham chien d o n g , g o m ca M I , dan chu hoa binh a Sai Gon, H u e ' v a toan mien N a m , dai dien cho tang l o p t r i c h u hau, n g u y , t r o n g quan M I giir vai tro quan t r o n g va k h o n g n g i r n g tang thuc, t u san dan tgc tien bp thj d u g c lap. len ve so l u g n g va trang b i . C h u n g su d u n g v i j k h i hien dai, hoa lye m a n h ca Cupc T o n g tien cong va noi day Te't M a u Than da danh d o n bat n g d , lam cho djch choang vang. N h u n g luc l u g n g djch d o n g (hon ni>a t r i ^ u linh M I va d o n g m i n h , gan trieu quan d g i Sai Gon) co so t h j m a n h , nen !? tren bg, tren k h o n g , tren bien, toe nhanh va m d lien tue nhieu chien djch n h ^ m " t i m d i e t " va " b i n h d i n h " vao "Da't Viet edng". T r o n g hai n a m 1970 4, T h a i k i tu nam 1969 den nam 1973: Mien Nam chien dau chong " V i ? t Nam luoc tranh" cua dequo'c "Viet Nam hod chien tranh" vd "Dong Duong hod quan s u va chi'nh t r i . chien T r o n g hai 24 va 25 - -1970, H g i n g h i cap cao ba nude V i ^ t N a m Mi. - Lao -Campuchia h g p n h a m bieu thj quyet t a m cvia n h a n d a n ba nude D o n g D a u n a m 1969, N i c h x a n vua len n a m chinh quyen da de chien luoc toan D u o n g doan ket chien dau chong MT. cau "Ngan de thuc tc" (thay cho chien luge "Phan u n g l i n h hogt" ciia Kennodi) CUQC T u 30 - den 30 - -1970, quan d g i V i ^ t N a m cd s u p h o i h g p ciia chien tranh xam luge thi^c dan m o i ; thuc h i ^ n chien luge "Vict quan dan C a m p u c h i a da dap tan cugc hanh quan xam luge Campuchia va / va tiep tuc nhan dan ta cung v d i n h a n d a n hai nude Campuchia va Lao g i a n h n h i i n g thang Igi cd y nghia chien luge tren m | t tran hoa chien tranh" ciia M l a. Chien - 1971, 01 Nam hod chien tranh" a m i e n N a m va m o r p n g chien t r a n h toan D o n g D u o n g quan d g i Sai G o n , loai k h o i v o n g chien dau 17.000 d j c h , giai p h d n g nhieu v u n g oc v o i chien luge " D o n g D u o n g hoa chien tranh". rgng I d n dat dai v d i 4,5 trieu dan. iH Chien luge " V i ^ t N a m hoa chien tranh" duge tien hanh bang lue l u g n g quan T u - den - - , quan d g i V i ^ t N a m cd s u phd'i h g p ciia Da d g i Sai Gon la ehu ye'u, c6 su p h o i h g p ve hoa li^c va k h o n g q u a n M I , va van quan dan Lao da tap tan cugc hanh quan m a n g ten " L a m Son -719" ehiem g i u hi M l chi b u y bang h ^ t h o n g eo' van. d u d n g - N a m Lao eiia 4,5 van quan M i va quan d g i Sai Gon, loai k h o i v o n g nT De thuc hien chien luge " V i e t N a m hoa chien t r a n h " M i da: chien da'u 22.0000 d j c h , d u o i het quan M I va quan d g i Sai G o n k h o i d u o n g - uO Rut dan q u a n MT va quan d o n g m i n h k h o i chien tranh de g i a m x u o n g mau. N a m Lao, giu h a n h lang chien luge each m a n g D o n g D u o n g . ie Tang c u o n g luc l u g n g quan d g i Sai C o n n h a m thye hi?n am m u u " D u n g Thang Igi tren mat tran quan su da ho t r g va thuc day p h o n g trao da'u tranh iL n g u a i V i f t d a n h n g u o i V i e t " . M I d i i n g luc l u g n g quan d g i Sai G o n de thuc chinh t r i , chong " b i n h d j n h " . cugc khang chien ciia nhan dan ta. Duong m/ g b. Chien dau chong chien luge "Viet Nam hod chien tranh" vd "Bong ro up Quoc, hoa hoan v o i Lien X6 n h a m ban che s u g i i i p d o ciia eac n u a c d o d o i v o l s/ M I d i m g t h i i doan ngoai giao xao quyet n h u thoa t h u a n v o i T r u n g Ta hi?n " D o n g D u o n g hoa chien t r a n h " . k. co hod chien tranh " ciia Mt. k h a p n o i eae thj, p h o n g trao ciia eac tang Idp n h a n dan no lien tyc. Dac bi?t d Sai Gon, Hue^ Da N a n g , p h o n g trao hoe sinh, sinh vien no ram r g da t h u h i i t d o n g dao g i d i tre t h a m gia. Phong trao t u d i tre, hgc sinh, sinh v i e n cd vai tro q u a n t r o n g , t h u d n g la "Phong trao chdm ngdi no"' cho p h o n g trao c h u n g ciia tang I d p nhan dan t h i . Tai eac v u n g ndng t h o n , d o n g bang, r u n g n i i i , ven t h j , k h a p n o i cd p h o n g chien tranh xam luge toan di?n dugc tang c u o n g va m o r g n g toan D o n g trao ciia q u a n c h i i n g nd'i day ehd'ng " b i n h d j n h " , pha "a'p chien luge" ciia djch. D u o n g , v u a chien dau chong chien djch tren chien t r u o n g , vira dau tranh v o i Den dau nam 1971, each mang gianh quyen lam chii them 3600 ap v d i trieu dan. .f ac djch tren ban d a m phan. eb oo Chien dau chong chien luge " V i ^ t N a m hoa chien t r a n h " la chong lai cugc c. Cugc tien cong chien luge nam 1972 Bude vao n a m 1972, quan ta m d cugc tien cong chien luge t u 30 - s u d o i ciia C h i n h p h i i each m a n g lam t h o i Cong hoa m i e n N a m - - danh vao Q u a n g T r j , lay Q u a n g T r j l a m h u d n g tien cong chii ye'u, r d i phat 1969. D o la c h i n h p h i i cua nhan dan m i e n N a m . V u a d o i , c h i n h p h i i each trien rgng k h i p chien t r u d n g m i e n N a m , keo dai t r o n g n a m 1972. ww w Thang Igi chinh t r i m o dau giai doan chong " V i ^ t N a m hoa chien t r a n h " la m a n g l a m t h a i da d u g c 23 nuoc cong nhan, d o c6 21 nuae dat quan he ngoai giao. Q u a n ta tien cong d i c h v d i c u o n g d o m a n h , q u y m o I d n , tren hau k h a p eac dja ban chien luge q u a n t r g n g . C h i t r o n g thdi gian ngan (den eudi thang - GiCra liie cugc chien chong M I c u u nude ciia nhan dan ta ea hai m i e n dang 1972), q u a n ta choc t h i i n g ba p h d n g tuyen m a n h nhat eiia d i c h , la Q u a n g T r i , tren da thang Igi, thi Chii tjch H o Chi M i n h qua d o i - - 1969. D o la mot Tay N g u y e n , D o n g N a m Bg, loai k h o i v o n g chien da'u h o n 20 v ? n d j c h , giai ton that Ion, khong gi eo the b i i dap d o i v o i dan toe ta, d o i v o i each mang nuac ta. p h d n g nhieu v i i n g dat d a i rgng I d n va d o n g dan. T h u c hien d i chiic ciia C h i i tjch H o C h i M i n h , nhan d a n hai m i e n day m a n h k h a n g chien chong M I c u u nuac. Sau d o n m d dau bat n g d ciia quan ta, quan d g i Sai G o n cd s u y e m t r g eiia M l da p h a n cong lai, gay cho ta nhieu thiet hai; M I t r d lai chien tranh pha pha hoai m i e n Bac. 150 . Cupc tien con^ chien luoc nam 1972 da ^^idn;^ don nqng nevao chien luge "Viet Nam hod chien tranh", buoc Ml phdi tui/en bo "Mi hod" tra lai chien tranh xdm luge (tiec thim nhqn that bqi cua "Vict Nam hod chien tranh"). Ve q u y m o d. Tinh dodn kit chien dau cua quan dan Viet Nam, Lao va Campuchia Vua gay tranh cue V u a gay chien tranh Vi$t N a m , vu-a m o rpng m i e n N a m , vira gay chien Lao, Campuchia. Voi tranh pha tranh xam luge la D u g c tien hanh bSng v u a tieu di?t quan luc l u g n g quan d g i Sai D u o n g , v u a chien dau chong chien djch tren chien t r u o n g , v u a dau tranh v o l ehu 01 Khac oc chien tranh x a m luge toan dien d u g c tang c u o n g va m o rgng toan D o n g / Chien dau chong chien \ugc " V i ^ t N a m hoa chien t r a n h " la chong lai cuoc Da iH djch tren ban d a m phan. T r o n g hai n a m 1970 - 1971, nhan dan ta cung v o i nhan dan hai nuoc pha hoai mien Luc lugng su Nam, phoi h g p ve hoa luc va Bac. k h o n g quan MT, va van tham d o MT chi h u y bang h f - Riit dan quan MT va quan MT quan giir chien vai trpng ro up s/ T u 30 - den 30 - - 1970, quan d p i Viet N a m c6 su p h o l h g p ciia mien G o n la ehu ye'u, c6 t h u doan Ta D u o n g doan ke't chien dau chong M l . binh tho'ng CO van. iL - Lao -Campuchia h o p nham bieu thj quyet tam ciia nhan dan ba nuoc D o n g djnh vua MT, ehu hau, nguy, ie T r o n g hai 24 va 25 - - 1970, H o i nghj cap cao ba nuoc V i ^ t N a m luc tieu chien dong, g o m ca hi uO quan sy va c h i n h t r j . muc Ve am m u u , nT Campuchia va Lao gianh n h u n g thang Igi c6 y nghia chien luge tren mat tran m/ g r p n g Ian dat dai v o i 4,5 trieu dan. chien hod chien tranh" cua Mi quan d p i Sai Gon, loai k h o i v o n g chien dau 17.000 djch, giai p h o n g nhieu v u n g bp" hpai a m i e n Bac chien dau chong chien luge "Vi(t Nam hod chien tranh" va "Dong Duong quan dan Campuchia da dap tan cupc hanh quan x a m luge Campuchia va "chien tro va quan k. co d u o n g - N a m Lao cua 4,5 van quan M I va quan d p i Sai Gon, loai k h o i vong minh khoi de giam x u o n g m a u . Tang c u o n g n g u n g tang len ve luc l u g n g quan d g i Sai so' l u g n g va trang Gon n h ^ m thuc hi^n am bj. C h u n g sir d u n g m u u " D u n g nguoi Vi^t v u k h i hi^n dai, hoa danh nguoi Viet". tren quan dan Lao da tap tan cupc hanh quan m a n g ten " L a m Son -719" chiem g i i i tranh khong lye m a n h ca tren bp, T u 12 - den 23 - - 1971, quan d p i Viet N a m c6 s u p h o i h g p cua dong khong, - D u n g luc l u g n g quan tren d g i Sai G o n de thuc hien bien, toe d p nhanh " D o n g D u o n g hoa chien chien dau 22.0000 djch, d u o i het quan M i va quan d p i Sai G o n k h o i d u o n g t r a n h " . Thoa t h u a n v o i chien N a m Lao, g i u hanh lang chien luge each m a n g D o n g D u o n g . T r u n g Quoc, " t i m diet" va "binh v o i Lien X6 n h a m han 5. Nhung diem giong va khac giua hai chien luge " C h i e n tranh eye bp" d j n h " vao "Dat che s u g i u p d o ciia cac (1965 -1968) va " V i ? t Nam hoa chien tranh" (1969 -1973) cua M I mien Nam. Vi^t cpng". nuoc T i e u chi so sanh N h u n g diem giong va khac ww w .f ac eb oo va m o lien tue nhieu C h i e n tranh cue bp djch nham khang V i ? t N a m hoa hoa hoan do'i v o i euge chien ciia nhan dan ta. chien tranh Bj bai, phai That bai, phai chap nhan chap nhan ngoi vao ki m o i cua MT nham chong lai each m a n g va nhan dan V i ^ t N a m . ban d a m phan v o i eong nhan doc lap, ehii - Deu su d u n g co van MT, v u k h i va p h u o n g tien chien tranh cua MT. ta H p i nghj Pari quyen, de giai quyet van de toan Vif t Nam. Viet N a m . G i o n g nhau: - D e u la chien luge chien tranh xam luge theo kieu thuc dan - Deu d u n g luc l u g n g quan d p i nguy, nguy quyen de l a m tay sai dac luc eho chiing. IS-? Ke't qua that ke't H i e p d j n h thong v?n nha't lanh tho Pari, va cua 6. T h a i k i tvr nam 1969 den nam 1973: L a m cho t i n h than chien d a u cua quan d p i Sai G o n them hoang m a n g , mat t i n h than chien d a u . Mien Nam dau tranh chong chinh sach " b i n h dinh, laun chiem", tao the va Ivc tien toi giai phong hoan toan mien Nam V o l H i ^ p d i n h Pari n a m 1973, ta "ddnh cho Mi cut". N g a y 29 - - 1973, toan C h u n g to kha nang m o i cua quan dan ta co the gianh thang Igi Ion t r o n g l i n h M l cuoi c i i n g da r u t k h o i nuoc ta. N h u n g M I van giO lai h o n van co van thoi gian ngan v o i toe d g nhanh. Chien thang Phuoc L o n g la co so de Bg C h i n h quan su, lap Bp chi h u y quan su, tiep tuc v i e n t r o quan su, k i n h t e c h o chinh tri quyet d i n h giai p h o n g m i e n N a m n a m 1975. Sau chien thang eiia ta, chinh quyen Sai G o n p h a n u n g m a n h va d u a q u y e n Sai Gon. quan chiem lai, n h u n g da that bai. C o n M i chi phan u n g yeu 6t, chu ye'u d i i n g D u g c CO v a n M i chi h u y va n h ^ n v i ^ n trq cua MT, c h i n h q u y e n Sai Gon Phoi h g p v o i d a u tranh quan su, nhan dan ta m i e n N a m day m a n h dau oc l u g n g tien hanh chien djch "tran ngap lanh tho", lien tiep m o n h i r n g cuoc hanh tranh c h i n h t r i , ngoai giao nhSm to cao hanh d g n g eiia M i va chinh q u y e n Sai iH quan "Binh dinh - Ian chiem" v i i n g giai p h o n g . Day thuc chat la hanh d p n g tiep Gon v i p h a m H i ^ p d j n h , pha hoai hoa b i n h , hoa h g p dan toe, neu cao tinh chat Da tyc chien l u o c "Viet N a m hoa chien tranh" cua N i c h x o n . chinh nghla cupe chien dau eiia nhan dan ta; d o i lat d o c h i n h q u y e n N g u y e n hi Ve phia ta, vi^c k i H i e p d j n h Pari ve cham d u t chien tranh Viet N a m , viec Van Thi$u, t h u c hien cae q u y e n t u do, dan chii . 7. H i ? p dinh Pari ve vi|c cham dut chien tranh lap lai hoa b i n h d V i | t N a m d a u tranh uO CUQC nT quan d p i x a m lupc M i r i i t k h o i nuac ta, da tao nen su thay d o i can ban t r o n g so sanh luc l u g n g gii>a each m a n g va phan each m a n g c6 I g i cho a. Dau tranh doi Mixudng ie cua nhan dan m i e n N a m . iL t r u o n g m o t h e m m a t tran tien cong ngoai giao, nhSm to cao tgi ac eiia bgn xam Ta "tran ngap lanh tho" cua c h i i n g vao n h i i n g thang dau n a m sau k i h i ^ p d j n h , ro up s/ quan dan ta da dat d u o c m o t so ket qua nha't d j n h . N h u n g d o k h o n g d a n h gia hoa h g p dan tpc . nen tren m o t so dja ban quan trong, ta bj m a t dat, mat dan. m/ g Thang - 1973, Ban Chap hanh T r u n g u o n g D a n g h o p H o i nghj Ian t h u 21 k. co H p i nghj neu ro n h i e m v u co ban cua each m a n g m i e n N a m t r o n g gia doan h i ^ n tai la tiep tuc cuoc each m a n g dan toe dan ehii nhan d a n . H o i n g h i nhan eb oo m a n h t r o n g bat eu t i n h h i n h nao c i i n g phai tiep tuc d u o n g each mang bao vCrng chien luge tien cong, kien quyet dau tranh tren ca ba mat tran quan su, c h i n h t r i , ngoai giao. .f ac lire, phai nim thang chien tranh va thuong lumg a Hoi nghi Pari D a u 1967, sau thang Igi t r o n g hai m u a kho 1965 -1966 va 1966 -1967, ta ehu T r o n g cuoc dau tranh chong djch "hinh dinh - Ian chiem", chong am m u u het am m u u pha hoai H i e p d j n h ciia dich, d o qua nhan m a n h den hoa binh, 01 ngang nhien pha hoai H i e p d j n h Pari, chung h u y d o n g gan n h u toan bo l u t / ap luc t u xa de doa. luge M l , vach tran l u a n d i e u hoa b i n h b j p b p m cua ehiing, neu t i n h chat c h i n h nghla, lap t r u o n g d i i n g din ciia ta, tranh t h i i r p n g rai s u d o n g t i n h l i n g hp eiia d u luan quoc te. M u e tieu dau tranh ngoai giao trude mat eiia ta la d o i M i cham d u t k h o n g dieu ki?n chien tranh pha hoai m i e n Bae, coi d o la d i e u ki?n tien quyet de d i den t h u o n g l u p n g ban hpi n g h j . N g a y 31 - - 1968, sau d o n bat ngo ciia cupe Tong tien cong va noi day Tet M a u Than eiia quan ta, G i o n x o n tuyen bo n g i r n g nem b o m ban pha m i e n Bae tir VI t u y e n 20 t r o va bat dau noi den t h u o n g l u p n g v o i V i ^ t N a m . N g a y 13 - - 1968, cuoc t h u o n g l u p n g c h i n h thue hai ben, giua dai d i f n n a m 1973 quan dan ta m i e n N a m v u a kien quyet d a n h tra quyet d a n h djch, C h i n h p h i i Viet N a m D a n chii Cong hoa va dai d i ^ n C h i n h p h i i H o a K i a Pari bao v ^ v i i n g giai p h o n g , vua chii d o n g m o n h i r n g euge tien cong d j c h , m o rgng hpp phien d a u tien. ww w Thue h i ^ n N g h j quyet H o i nghj T r u n g u o n g Ian t h u 21 eua D a n g , t u cuoi v u n g giai p h o n g . N g a y - 11 - 1968, G i o n x o n tuyen b o ' n g u n g nem b o m ban pha tren toan C u o i n a m 1974, d a u n a m 1975, ta m o d o t boat d o n g quan s u D o n g - Xuan m i e n Bac. T u day, dau tranh g i u a ta va M i chii yeu xoay q u a n h van de h i n h vao h u o n g N a m Bg, t r g n g tarn la d o n g bang song C u u L o n g va D o n g N a m Bg. thuc, phan h p i n g h i va da d i den thong nha't ve h i n h thuc H p i nghj Bon Q u a n ta da gianh thang Igi vang d p i chien djch D u o n g 14 - Phuoc L o n g . ben giCra Viet N a m D a n chii Cpng hoa. M a t tran dan toe giai p h o n g m i e n N a m * Y nghia cua chien thang Phieac Long: Viet N a m (sau d o la C h i n h p h i i each m a n g lam t h o i C p n g hoa m i e n N a m Vi?t V o i chien thang Phuoc L o n g c h u n g to quan chu luc Sai G o n da den luc N a m ) Hoa K i va Viet N a m Cpng hoa (Chinh quyen Sai Gon). k h o n g d u kha nang chiem g i i i n h i i n g v i m g dat quan t r g n g tren dien rgng. H p i nghj b o n ben ve Viet N a m chinh thue hpp phien dau tien 25 - 1969 tai Pari. 154 Cty TNHH MTV DWH KhaPi^lW b. Hiep dinh Pari 1973 ve chant dut chien tranh, lap lai hoa binh d Viet Nam * Y nghia: Q u a n d i e m cua ta: d o i M7 rut het quan ciia m i n h va quan d o n g m i n h ii " H p c thuyet K a i p h u " Thii tu6ng"Kaiphu dua nam 1991 la s y phat trien tiep tuc Hpc tuyet Phucuda dieu ki?n Ijch s u moi. Nhat Ban thie't lap quan h^ ngoai giao voi Vi^t N a m 21 - -1973. d. Tit nam 1991 den nam 2000 Vekinh te, thap nien 90, dii c6 suy thoai kinh te nhung Nh|it Ban van la mpt ba trung tam kinh te - tai chinh ciia the gioi. Vekhao hoc - ki thuqt, Nhat Ban tiep tuc phat trien trinh dp cao, tap trung vao linh v y c san xuat phuc vu nhu cau dan dung. Trong cong cupc chinh phyc v u tru, tinh den nam 1992 Nhat da phong 49 v^ tinh va hpp tac c6 hi^u qua voi Mi, Nga cac chuong trinh vii try quoc te. Ve chinh tri, sau 38 nam Dang Dan chii T y (LDP) lien tyc cam quyen (1955 - 1993), tij nam 1993 den nam 2000 cac dang doi lap hoac lien minh cac dang phai khac da tham gia chap chinh, tinh hinh xa hpi Nhat c6 phan khong on djnh. C h i nam, tu 1993 den 1996, Nhat Ban da c6 toi Ian thay doi npi cac. Ve doi ngoqi: tiep tyc tri lien minh chat che voi MI. Coi trpng quan h? voi Tay A u va mo rpng hoat dpng doi ngoai voi cac doi tac khac tren pham vi toan cau. Voi khu v y c chau A - Thai Binh Duong, ke tu dau thap nien 90 den nay, cac quan h^ hpp tac kinh te giiia Nhat Ban voi cac nuoc N I C s va A S E A N tiep tuc gia tang voi toe dp cang manh me. eSi dLf&ng HSG Ljch 5u 12 - The. Tnrong N^pc Thai V I I I . C A C H M A N G K H O A HQC - Lam cho nang sua't lao dpng cang tang len, nang cao khong ngung C O N G N G H ? V A X U THE T O A N muc song va chat lupng cupc song nguoi. T u dan den nhiing thay doi CAU HOA Ian ve co ca'u dan cu, chat lupng nguon nhan lyc, nhirng doi hoi moi ve giao 1. Nguon goc va dac diem ciia each mang khoa hpc - cong ngh^ dye va dao tao nghe nghiep, sy hinh mpt thj truong the'gioi voi xu the * Nguon goc: Cupc each mang khoa hpc - k l thuat dien la toan cau hoa. Lam thay doi cac ye'u to ciia san xuat, tao buoe nhay vpt ve luc lupng san nhung doi hoi cua cupc song, cua san xuat nham dap ung nhu cau vat chat va xuat va nang sua't lao dpng. tinh than cang cao ciia nguoi, nhat la tinh hinh bung no dan so Dua loai nguoi ehuyen sang nen van minh moi la "van minh tri tu^". tir sau Chien tranh the'gioi thu hai. NhOng doi hoi biic thiet dat cho cupc Lam cho sy giao luu kinh te^ van hoa, khoa hpc - ki thuat cang dupe oc 01 / the'gioi va su voi can nghiem trpng cac nguon tai nguyen thien nhien, dac biet quo'c te'hoa. nhung cong cu san xuat moi c6 kl thuat va nang sua't cao, tao nhirng vat li^u moi. 3. Xu the toan cau hoa Da iH each mang khoa hpc - ki thuat phai giai quyet, trude he't la che tao va tim kiem a. Nhung bieu hi^n chu yen cua xu the toan cau hod la: hi * Dac diem: Khoa hoc tro luc lupng san xuat true tie'p, khae voi cupc Su phat trien nhanh chong cua quan he thuong mai quoc te. nT each mang cong nghiep the'ki XVIII. Trong cupc each mang kho hpc - ki thuat Sy phat trien va tac dpng to Ion ciia cac cong ti xuyen quo'c gia. uO hif n dai, mpi phat minh k l thuat deu bat nguon tir nghien ciiu khoa hpc. Khoa Sy sap nhap va hop nhat cac cong ti nhung tap doan Ion ie hpc gSn lien voi k i thuat, khoa hpc di truoc mo duang cho san xuat. N h u vay Sy doi ciia cac to chiic lien ke't kinh te^ thuong mai, tai chinh quoc te'va iL khoa hpc da tham gia true tie'p vao san xuat, tro nguon goc chinh cua khu vue. Ta nhihig tien bp ki thuat va cong nghe. s/ 2. N h u n g t u u va y nghia eua each mang khoa hpc - cong ngh? b. Toan cau hod vita Id co hoi, vita la thdch thitc dot vai cdc nuac dang phat trien: ro Trai qua hon nua the'ki, nhat la nhCrng nam 70, cupc each mang khoa hpc - nhiing van de kinh te ehung ciia the'gioi va khu vue. up * Ihcmh tim: Cac to chue co vai tro cang quan trpng viee giai quyet *Vecahoi: m/ g kl thuat da thu dupe nhihig tien bp phi thuong nhirng tuu ki di^u. Tu sau chien tranh lanh, hoa binh the gioi dupe ciing co', nguy co chien k. co Trong linh vue khoa hpc co ban, loai ngudi da dat dupe nhirng tuu tranh the'gioi bj day liii. Xu the ehung ciia the'gioi la hoa binh on dinh va hpp Toan hpc. Vat l i hpc, Hoa hpc, Sinh hpc. Dua vao nhiing phat minh Ion cua cac tac phat trien. eb oo he't sue to Ion, nhOng buac nhay vpt chua tung tha'y ljch su cac nganh vy cupc song cua minh. .f ac nganh khoa hpc co ban, ngudi da ung dung vao k l thuat va san xuat phuc Trong linh vue cong nghf da xuat hi?n nhirng phat minh quan trpng, M Cac quo'c gia deu sue dieu chinh chien lupc phat trien va lay kinh te lam trpng diem, cung sy tang euang hpp tac va tham gia cac lien minh kinh te khu vyc va quoc te. Cac quo'c gia dang phat trien co the khai thae cac nguon von dau tu, kt thuat tinh d i f n tu, may t u dpng va hf thong may t u dpng, nguoi may ro bot .); cong ngh^ va kinh nghiem quan l i t u ben ngoai, nhat la cac tien bp khoa hpc - nhCrng nguon nang lupng moi (nang lupng mat troi, nang lupng gio va nhat la ;ki thuat de co the " d i tat don dau" riit ngSn thoi gian xay dung va phat trien nang lupng nguyen tu ); nhung vat li^u moi nhu (polime - chat deo voi nhieu dat nuoe. ww w nhiing tuu to Ion cac linh vue: nhirng cong cu san xuat moi (may loai hinh khae nhau, cac loai vat lieu sieu sach, sieu cung, sieu ben, sieu dan .); * Ve thdch thitc: cong ngh§ sinh hpc voi nhi>ng dot pha phi thuong cong ngh| di truyen, \c nuoe dang phat trien can nhan thiic day d i i sy can thiet tat ye'u va tim cong ngh$ tebao, cong ngh^ vi sinh va cong nghe enzim; nhiing tien bp than ki kiem ducmg, each thue hpp l i nhat qua trinh hpi nhap quoc te - phat giao thong van tai (cap spi thuy tinh quang dan, may bay sieu am khong buy the'manh; han che'toi muc tha'p nhat nhCrng rCii ro, bat Ipi va ea sai lam; co 16, tau hoa toe dp cao .); chinh phuc vu tru (v^ tinh nhan tao, du hanh vu try ). nhirng buoe d i thich hpp, kjp thoi. *Ynghia: 285 Phan Ion cac nude dang phat trien deu t u diem xua't phat thap ve kinh te^ trinh dan tri thap, nguon nhan luc dao tao c6 chat lug-ng nhieu han che. Sv canh tranh quyet liet ciia thi truong thegioi va cac quan h$ kinh tequoc te nhieu bat binh dSng, gay nhieu thi?t hai doi voi cac nuoc dang phat trien. Van de su dung c6 hi^u qua cac nguon von vay no van bat hgp h'. Tu sau Chien tranh the gioi thu hai den nay, eupc each mang khoa hpe ki thuat khoi dau t u nuoc M i , da Ian nhanh toan the gioi. N h u mpt h§ qua ciia each mang khoa hpe - ki thuat, xu the toan eau hoa da dien nhu mpt Ian song nhanh the gioi. Co the noi toan eau hoa doi hoi cac quoc gia phai c6 loi giai dap va su thich ung de vua kip thoi, vua khon ngoan, tranh vi^e bo 15 co hpi va tut hau he't sue nguy hiem. Van de giu gin va bao ve ban sac van hoa dan tpc, ket hgip hai hoa giua truyen thong va hi^n dai can dupe luu y. 2. Cac xu the phat trien ciia the gioi hi?n nay. Nhung thoi co va nhihig thach thuc doi v o i cac dan tpc 01 / IX. LICH Sir THE GI61 T l / SAU CHIEN T R A N H THE GI61 THU" H A I * Cac xu the phat trim: 1. N h u n g npi dung chii yeu ciia lich su the gioi tir sau Chien tranh the gioi Mot la, sau Chien tranh lanh, hau nhu tat ca cac quoc gia deu sue dieu iH oc DEN N A M 2000 chinh chien lupc phat trien lay kinh te'lam trpng diem, boi kinh te da Da thijr hai den tro npi dung can ban quan h$ quoc te. Xay dung sue manh tong hi Sau Chien tranh the gioi thu hai, mot trat t v the gioi da dupe xac lap. Do la hpp ciia quoc gia thay the cho chay dua vu trang da tro hinh thuc chii hai phe t u ban chii nghla va xa hpi chii nghia hai sieu cuong M i va yeu eupc canh tranh giua cac cuong quoc. Sue manh ciia moi quoc gia la Lien X6 dung dau moi phe. dvra tren mpt nen san xua't phon vinh, mpt nen tai chinh ie uO nT trat t u the gioi hai eve lanta voi dac trung noi bat la the gioi nhu phan doi, chia Voi thang Ipi cvia cac eupc each mang dan chii nhan dan cae nuoc Dong iL Ta s/ up Quoc (1949) va each mang Cuba (1959) da mo rpng khong gian dia l i ciia h^ thong cac nuoc xa hpi chii nghta - mpt dai dat rpng Ion trai dai t u phia dong ro m/ g k. co Ngay sau Chien tranh the gioi thu hai, mpt cao trao giai phong dan tpc da day len manh me cac nuoc A, Phi va M I Latinh. D u o i nhung don da kich eb oo manh li^t ciia cao trao giai phong, h? thong thupc dja va che dp phan bi?t chiing tpc Apaethai kep dai t u nhieu the ki da bj sup hoan toan. .f ac Trong niia sau the ki XX, h? thong de quoc chii nghia da c6 nhung bien chuyen quan trpng. M I da vuon len tro nuoc de quoc giau manh nhat. ww w Tiep theo la Nhat Ban va cac nuoc Tay Au, the gioi Ian lupt xua't hi?n ba trung tam kinh te, tai chinh. Mac dii c6 s\f phat trien nhu the^ chii nghia t u ban thoai, thoa h i f p , tranh xung dpt tryc tiep nham tao nen mpt moi truong quoc te thuan Ipi giiip hp vuon len manh me, xac lap mpt vj tri uu the trat t y b$t la: mau thuan va hai hoa, canh tranh va hpp tac, tiep xiic va kiem che. , Ba la, hoa binh va on dinh la xu the ehii dao ciia tinh hinh the gioi sau pchien tranh lanh, nhung nhieu khu vyc van dien npi chien va xung dpt. Nguy CO cang tro nen tram trpng o nhieu noi lai dien nhung chii nghia l i khai, chii nghia khiing bo . Nhung mau thuan sac tpc, ton giao va tranh chap lanh tho thuong co nhung can nguyen Ijeh su nen vi^c giai quyet khong de dang thuong keo dai. Bon la, nhCrng n5m 90 sau chien tranh lanh, the gioi da va dang chung kien xu the toan cau hoa dien cang manh me. * Thai ca va thach thuc: van khong the kh^c phue dupe nhung mau thuan von c6 ciia no. - Thai ca: So voi cac giai doan Ijeh sii the gioi truoc day, chua bao gio cac quan h? quoc te'lai mo rpng va da dang nhu niia sau the ki XX. Tinh trang doi dau gay gat giita hai sieu cuong, hai phe ma dinh cao la tinh trang "chien tranh lanh" keo dai toi hon bon thap k i . Tuy nhien, cac quoc gia van cung ton tai hoa btnh, vita dau tranh, vita hap tdcCuoi cung, chien tranh lanh cham dut, the gioi chuyen dan sang xu the hoa hoan va hoa dju, do'i thogi va hpp tac phat trien. 286 Hai la, sau chien tranh, quan hf giiia cac nuoc Ion theo chieu huong doi the gioi moi. M61 quan h^ giua cac nuoc Ion mang tinh hai mat noi chau A qua Lien bang X6 viet toi phan phia dong chau A u va Ian sang Cuba vung bien Caribe ciia khu vuc M I Latinh. chac, mpt nen cong nghf co trinh dp cao cung voi mpt lye lupng quoc phong manh. A u , chii nghia xa hpi da vupt khoi pham v i mpt nuoc, tro mpt h^ thong the gioi. Thang Ipi ciia each mang Vi?t Nam (1945), each mgng Trung viJTig Cac quoc gia deu sue dieu chinh chien lupc phat trien va lay kinh te'lam trpng diem, cung sy tang cuong hpp tac va tham gia cac lien minh kinh te khu vyc va quo'c te. Cac quoc gia co the khai thac cac nguon von dau tu, k l thuat cong ngh^ va kinh nghi?m quan If t u ben ngoai, nhat la cac tien bp khoa hpe - k l thuat de dua dat nuoc phat trien. k. 287 "zrty Cac d a n tgc cang c6 tie'ng noi chung, doan ke't c i i n g n h a u dau t r a n h v i 2) 1991 -2000 m p t the g i o i hoa b i n h o n d i n h , h g p tac phat trien v i cong bang h a n h phuc cho m////Am-'pi-v/Kh/injwr - Trat t y hai cue lanta tan ra, cac quoc gia d a n g sue v u o n len de cd v i the tren t r u d n g quoc te. m o i n g u a i , cho m o i d a n tgc tren hanh t i n h . - Cac nude d a n g sue dieu chinh chien luge phat trien, tap - Vethdch thiic: t r u n g vao phat trien san xuat, tang t r u d n g k i n h te va m d D o i v i cac n u d e d a n g phat t r i e n : Can nhan thuc day d u sv can thiet tat ye'u r g n g h g p tac v d i nhau. va t i m k i e m d u o n g , each thuc h g p l i nha't t r o n g qua t r i n h h g i nhap quoc te - X u the'toan cau hoa c6 anh h u d n g to Idn va thuc day su l a m ; c6 n h i r n g buoe d i thich h g p , k i p t h o i . Phan Ion cac n u d e d a n g phat trien d d i ciia cac lien m i n h kinh t e ' k h u v u c va quoc te. Cac dan deu t u d i e m xuat phat thap ve k i n h te^ t r i n h d g dan t r i thap, n g u o n n h a n luc tgc d a n g cd n h i r n g thdi co Idn xen Ian v d i cac n g u y eo. dao tao cd chat l u g n g n h i e u han che. Sv canh t r a n h quyet liet ciia thj - V a n cd n h i r n g eugc chien t r a n h x u n g d g t d nhieu k h u t r u d n g the g i d i va cac q u a n h? k i n h te quoc te n h i e u bat b i n h dang, gay vyc. Da iH oc 01 / - phat h u y t h e m a n h ; han che'tdi m u c thap nhat n h i r n g r i i i ro, bat I g i va ca sal nhieu thi#t hai d o i v d i cac n u d e d a n g phat trien. V a n de s u d u n g cd h i ^ u qua hi 4. Q u a t r i n h h i n h t h a n h va tan ciia trat t y the g i d i h a i eye l a n t a cac n g u o n v o n vay n g v a n bat h g p l i . Van de giir g i n va bao ve ban sac van " Icugc tan cong n h u v u bao ciia H o n g quan L i e n X6 dang tien nhanh ve Beclin. iL dinh,nha't la s u p h a n hoa giau ngheo va n h i r n g m a u t h u a n n g i tai cua da't N h i e u v a n de cap thiet dat cho cac nude D o n g m i n h : N h a n h ehdng d a n h bai Ta nude. Can d i e u c h i n h cac ehinh sach d o i ngo^i cho p h i i h g p v d i x u the hoa s/ b i n h d a n g la n h u cau dat cho n h a n loai. up ro Sy ki^n G i a i do^n m/ g - Sy xae lap trat t y hai cue lanta d o L i e n X6 va M l d u n g d a u k. co m o i cue. - T h a n g I g i cua each m a n g dan tgc d a n c h u d D o n g A u va -1991 m g t so nude chau A. eb oo 1) 1945 h i ^ n m u u d o ba chii the g i d i . .f ac - M I v u o n len m g t n u d e t u ban g i a u m a n h va t h y c - Tay A u va N h a t Ban Ian l u g t t r d t h a n h t r u n g t a m k i n h te'- ww w tai c h i n h cua the g i d i , sue canh t r a n h v d i M I . - Phong trao giai p h d n g dan tgc d a n g cao m a n h m e a chau A, Phi va k h u v u c M I L a t i n h . hoan toan cac n u d e phat xit. To chue lai t h e g i d i m d i sau chien t r a n h . Phan chia jthanh qua chien t r a n h giij-a cac nude thang tran. T r o n g boi canh d d , h g i nghj quoc te duge trieu tap tai lanta (Lien X6) tir jngay 04 den 11 - 02 - 1945. H g i n g h i da d i den n h i r n g quyet d j n h sau day: Mot la, xae d j n h m u c tieu ehung la tieu di?t tan goe chii nghia phat xit D u e va chu nghTa q u a n p h i f t N h a t . De nhanh ehdng ke't thiic chien t r a n h . L i e n X6 se t h a m chien chong N h a t d chau A sau k h i chien tranh da ke't thiic d chau Au. Hai la, lap to chirc L i e n hgp quoc n h a m d u y t r i hoa b i n h va an n i n h e gidi. Ba la, thoa t h u a n ve viee d d n g quan tai cac nude n h a m giai giap quan d g i phat xit va phan chia p h a m v i anh h u d n g d chau Au va chau A. N h i r n g quyet d j n h ciia H g i nghj lanta da dan t d i sy h i n h t h a n h m g t trat t y - The g i d i p h a n d o i , chia hai phe Xa h g i c h u nghla va (the g i d i m d i , d u g e ggi la: " t r a t t y hai eye l a n t a " . Trat t y hai eye lanta d d i T u ban chii nghla. H a i phe dau n h a u gay gSt t r o n g t i n h iam cho the g i d i p h a n chia hai h? thong d o i lap. M g t eye cua L i e n X6 dai trang Chien tranh lanh keo dai n h i e u th^p k i . idi^n cho cac n u d e xa h g i chii nghia va m g t eye ciia M l dai d i f n cho cac nude t u - Cage each m a n g khoa hgc - cong n g h ^ d u a lai n h i m g tien ban chu nghia. T r o n g qua t r i n h ton tai ciia hai eye l a m cho q u a n h# quoc te b g p h i t h u d n g , n h i i n g t u u k i d i ? u cho tat ca cac quoc pd sy d o i dau giira hai phe: Xa hgi chii nghla va T u ban chu nghla. gia d a n tgc. 288 Den n a m 1945, Chien tranh the g i d i Ian thir hai bude vao giai doan cuo'i v d i ie D o i v d i cac n u d e phat trien: Can l a m cho cac v a n de xa h g i d u g e on 3. Cac giai doan cua lich s u the gidi tu nam 1945 den nam 2000 uO nT - Qua trinh hinh thanh: hoa dan tgc, ke't h g p hai hoa giua t r u y e n t h o n g va h i ^ n d a i can d u g e l u u y . ' ' ' - Qua trinh Ian ra: nuoc I o n la U y vien t h u o n g true H o i d o n g bao an Lien H i e p Quo'c tien hanh + Sau nhieu nam t r i tr§ va k h u n g hoang keo dai, toi n h u n g n5m 1989 -1991 t h u o n g l u p n g , thoa hiep va h o p tac v o i nhnii vice d u y t r i trat t y the g i o i ; che xa hpi chu nghia da bj tan a cac nuoc Dong A u va Lien bang X6 vie't. tat ca cac quo'c gia dan toe deu dang d u n g truoc n h u n g t h u thach n h u n g thai + N g a y 28 - - 9 , H p i d o n g t u o n g irq k i n h te (SEV) t u y e n bo giai the va CO de d u a van m e n h da't nuoc m i n h tien len k j p v o i t h o i dai. sau - - 1991, to chuc H i ? p uoc Vacsava c h a m d u t boat d p n g . V o i "cue" Lien X6 tan ra, thong the g i o i cua eac n u o c xa hoi chii nghia k h o n g ton tai va trat t u the g i o i hai eye lanta da syp do. The " h a i eye" cua 01 / CAU HOI ON TAP Igi. Pham v i anh C(iH 1. H a y neu n h u n g quyet nghj ciia H o i nghi Linta (thang - 1945) oc hai sieu c u o n g k h o n g nOa, M I la "eye" d u y nhat h u o n g cua L i e n X6 chau A u va chau A da bj mat, anh h u a n g eua M I cung bi iH phan ti'eh he qua ciia n h u n g quyet nghj do. t h u h ^ p o nhieu n o i . Da Ciiii 2. Neu muc dich, nguyen tac cua Lien hop quo'c. NhCing to chuc cua LitMi 5. Cac t h a i k i cua q u a n h? quoc te tir sau C h i e n t r a n h the g i o i t h u h a i hi hiep quoe tai Viet N a m . 1989 nT a) Thai ki tit 1945 den Can 3. H a y t r i n h bay sy h i n h hai he thong T u ban chii nghia va Xa hoi uO Tren the g i o i da h i n h "trat t y hai eye lanta" va t u 1947 la t h a i k i chien chu nghia sau Chien tranh the giai t h u hai. Vai tro cua M I va Lien X6 doi v o i ie tranh lanh M i phat d p n g lam cho tinh h i n h the g i o i t r o n g t i n h trang cang hai he thong nay. iL thang, gay g a t , p h u c tap v o l cac cuoe dau tranh dan toe, dau tranh giai cap va Ta Can 1991 ro Cupe Chien tranh lanh keo dai tren 40 nam da chain d i i t (cu6"i 1989), up s/ dau tranh giCra hai eye d o i lap X6 - M i va hai k h o i D o n g Tay. b) Thai ki tH cuoi 1989 den m/ g quan h ^ quo'c t e t u x u the'dol thoai, hgp tac tren ca so hai ben cung c6 I p i , ton k. co t r p n g Ian c i m g ton tai hoa b i n h . T i n h h i n h the g i o i t r o nen d i u han, cac eupc t r a n h chap va x u n g d p t k h u eb oo v y c da va dang d a n dan d u p e giai quyet (vy x u n g d p t N a m Phi c6 lien quan den N a m i b i a va cupe npi chien keo dai a Angola, van de A p g a n i t x t a n , van de ww w c) Thai ki tit 1991 den .f ac Campuchia, van de Nicaragoa T r u n g M i , van de hoa b i n h va on d i n h d T r u n g Can D o n g v.v . va " Trat t y hai eye lanta" bj sup do. M i sue v u o n len "the m p t eye" trat t y the g i o i m a i , cac c u o n g quo'c khae eo gang d u y t r i " the da eye", t r o n g do. D u e va N h a t Ban dang d o i hoi t r o hai eye n u a t'-ong the gioi "da eye" nay. T u dau n h i r n g n a m 90, m p t trat t y the g i o i m o i , dang dan dan h i n h va da xua't hi?n m p t so dae d i e m va xu the phat trien. X u the d o i thoai h p p tac tren eo so hai ben cung c6 I p i , t o n trpng Ian t r o n g cung ton tai hoa b i n h d a n g n g a y c a n g t r o t h a n h x u the chu ye'u t r o n g cac m o i q u a n h ^ q u o e te; 4. So sanh Lien m i n h p h o n g thu Vacsava va H i e p uoc Bac Dai Tay D u o n g ( N A T O ) ve: sy lap, muc tieu, tinh chat, vai tro - tac d u n g va neu nhan xet. Can 5. N g u y e n nhan dan den cupe Chien tranh lanh sau Chien tranh the g i o i t h u hai. N h u n g bieu hien cua Chien tranh lanh. Can 6: V i cupe Chien tranh lanh cham diit? Sau k h i Chien tranh lanh cham d u t , tinh tinh t h e g i o i dien n h u the'nao? Clin 7. So sanh n h u n g t u u o Lien X6 t r o n g thai k i k h o i phue k i n h te (1946 - 1950) v o i n h u n g t u u thoi k i xay d u n g eo so vat chat k l t h u a t t u n a m 1950- 1970. Clin S. N e u n h u n g t u u c h i n h ma nhan dan cac n u o c D o n g A u dat dupe eong cupe xay d y n g ehii nghia xa hoi t u nam 1950 den nira dau n h u n g nam 70. N h a n xet ve n h u n g t u u do. Can 9. H a y cho biet sy d o i va hoat d o n g ciia H o i d o n g t u o n g t r o kinh te va ciia To chuc H i e p uoc Vacsava. Vai tro ciia Lien X6 d o i v o i hai to chuc nay. Can 10. T r i n h bay nguyen nhan dan den sy tan cua che'dp xa hpi chu nghia Lien X6 va cac nuoc Dong A u . Phan tieh nguyen nhan quyet d j n h nhat. Can 11. N p i d u n g ca ban ciia d u o n g loi cai each va n h u n g t u u chinh cua T r u n g Quoe t u sau nam 1978 la gi? So sanh eong cupe cai each ciia T r u n g Quoe v o i eong cupe cai to Lien X6. Thai L a n 1959; 1959 - 1978; 1978 - 2000. Riit nhan xet ve c h i n h sach do'i ngoai cua 10 Brunay T r u n g Quoc. 11 Dong Timo Cdu 12. Neu cac chi'nh sach d o l ngoai ciia T r u n g Quoc cac thai k i : 1949 - Cdu 13. H a y p h a n chia cac giai doan phat trien ciia each m a n g giai p h o n g Cdu 18. NiiCrng qua ciia cuoc dau tranh gianh dpc lap ciia n h a n dan dan toe Lao t u n a m 1945 den n a m 1975 va neu npi d u n g c h i n h ciia t u n g giai chau Phi sau Chien tranh the'gioi t h u hai. N e u nhCrng dac d i e m ciia p h o n g trao doan. M o i q u a n he gii>a each m a n g V i ^ t N a m va each m a n g Lao t r o n g n h i i n g I giai p h o n g dan toe chau Phi. Cdu 19. Tai g p i k h u v u c M I L a t i n h sau Chien tranh the g i o i t h u hai la 01 / n a m 1945 - . |j,"Lyc dia b i i n g chay"? NhiJ-ng net chinh ve cupe each m a n g Cuba n a m 1959. oc Cau 14. H a y chpn s u k i ^ n c h i n h lieh su Campuchia t u n a m 1945 den n a m 1993 va neu noi d u n g cua s u kien do. iH Cdu 20. Tai t r o n g khoang 20 n a m sau Chien tranh the'gioi t h u hai, M I t r a Cau 15. So sanh cac chien luoc k i n h te h u o n g noi va h u o n g ngoai evia n h o m Da ^ujlhanh t r u n g tarn k i n h te - tai chinh i o n nhat the'gioi? sang lap A S E A N . N o i d u n g , t u u va han checua t u n g chien lug-c. h u o n g ngoai hi huong npi liupe toan cau" n h u the nao? H a y neu nhan xet ve ket qua thuc hien chien lupe do. nT C h i e n Ixxgc k i n h te [ M I da thuc hien "Chien lupe toan cau" tai chau A t u 1945 -1947 n h u thenao? uO C h i e n luoc k i n h te Cdu 22. N e u nhii-ng sir k i ^ n chinh t r o n g qua t r i n h h i n h t h a n h va phat trien ie T i e u chi so sanh [ Cdu 21. T u sau Chien tranh the'gioi t h u hai den nay, M I da thuc hien "Chien iL 1. T h a i gian bat dau I ciia L i e n m i n h chau A u (EU). Qua t r i n h lien m i n h g i i i a cac n u o c t u ban chau Ta 2. M u c tieu A u va he qua ciia no. V i n o i L i e n m i n h chau A u la to ehuc lien ke't k h u v y e s/ 3. N o i d u n g up 4. T h a n h t u u m/ g ro 5. H a n che k. co Cdu 16. N g u y e n n h a n d o i ciia to chiie A S E A N la gi? H a y cho biet n p i d u n g Ion nhat tren t h e ' g i o i . Cdu 23. N e u n h i i n g n h a n to thiic day su phat trien "than k i " ciia nen k i n h te N h a t Ban. N h i r n g thach thuc d o i v o i nen k i n h t e ' N h a t Ban t u n a m 1950 den 1973 la gi? I Cdu 24. T r i n h bay c h i n h sach d o i ngoai ciia cac nuae M i , A n h , Tay D u e , N h a t cac t h o i k i Heh su. t u sau Chien tranh t h e ' g i o i t h u hai (1945) den 1991 va tae d p n g ciia cac chinh eb oo c h i n h ciia H i e p uoe Bali n a m 1976. Quan h ^ g i i i a V i ^ t N a m v a i A S E A N qua Cdu 17. L a p nien bieu ve cac su k i ^ n chinh qua t r i n h d a u tranh gianh pach d o d o i v a i t i n h h i n h the'gioi? Cdu 25. Lieh s u xa h p i loai n g u o i da trai qua cac cupe each m a n g l a n nao? So Npi dung sxf k i ? n v o i cupe each m a n g cong nghiep truoc day, cupe each m a n g khoa hpc - k y Nuoc Indonexia Mien Dien M a Lai Philippin Xingapo Viet N a m Lao Campuchia 2Q9 Thang, nam ww w TT .f ac dpc lap va xay d y n g dat nude ciia nhan dan D o n g N a m A (1945 - 2000). thuat h i f n c6 n h u n g d i e m khae co ban gi? Cupe each m a n g khoa hpc - k l thuat h i ^ n da c6 n h u n g tac d p n g gi d o i v o i s u phat t r i e n cua xa h p i loai nguoi? Cdu 26. Cho biet n p i d u n g , dac d i e m , t u u va tac d p n g ciia cupe each m a n g khoa hpc k l thuat lan t h u hai. Tir do, anh (chj) co suy n g h i g i ve n h i ^ m !vv cong nghiep hoa ma D a n g Cpng san Viet N a m da neu t r o n g s u nghiep xay d y n g chii nghia xa h p i o nuoc ta h i ^ n ? BSiduSne H50 Ljch Sur 12 - Tha. Trtrong N^pc Thai Caii 27. T ? i n o i : Toan cau hoa v u a la co h g i , vira la thach t h i i c d o i v o i cac M U C L U C nuoc dang phat t r i e n . Cau 28. So sanh H i ^ p h p i cac nuoc D o n g N a m A ( A S E A N ) v o i L i e n m i n h chau A u (EU), r i i t d i e m g i o n g va khac giua hai to chuc ? Phan 1: H u o n g d a n l a m bai t h i hpc sinh gioi m o n ljch sir Cau 29. L a p bang ke cac lien m i n h k i n h te^ c h i n h t r j : SEV, A S E A N va EEC theo cac n p i d u n g sau : N Q I dung Phan 2: L j c h sir V i ^ t N a m h i ^ n d a i SEV EEC ASEAN 10 C h u y e n de 2: Vi?t N a m Kr n a m 1930 d e n n a m 1945 46 Q u a t r i n h t h a n h lap C h u y e n de 3: V i ^ t N a m tir n a m 1945 den n a m 1954 97 M y c tieu \ C h u y e n de 4: Vi?t N a m tir n a m 1954 den n a m 1975 133 V a i tro, ta^ d y n g C h u y e n de 5: V i ^ t N a m tir n a m 1975 den n a m 2000 179 Cau 30. H l y t r i n h bay va phan tich net c h i n h ciia ba s y ki?n ljch sir co anh C h u y e n de 6: T o n g ket lich sir Vi?t N a m 1919 - 2000 190 uO nT hi Da iH oc 01 / C h u y e n de : V i ^ t N a m tir n a m 1919 den n a m 1920 Boi canh lich sir ie h u a n g I a n d e n sir phat trien ciia xa h o i loai n g u o i tir sau C h i e n tranh the g i o i Phan 3: L j c h sir the g i o i h i ^ n d a i iL Ian t h u hai den nay. Ta N h i i n g v a n de co ban ciia ljch sir the g i o i h i ^ n d a i (tir n a m 1917 den n a m ww w .f ac eb oo k. co m/ g ro up s/ 1945) 217 L j c h sir the g i o i h i ^ n dai (tir n a m 1945 den n a m 2000) I 237 [...]... h i e u v i m g I ' 9 n g Ion dat dai v o i 4,5 trieu dan Tir ngay 12 - 2 den ngay 23 - 3 - 1 9 7 1 , quan d p i V i | t N a m c6 s u p h o i h p p ciia A quan d a n Lao da tap tan cuoc h a n h quan mane ten " L a m Son -719" chiem g i i i 3Si du&ng HSG Ljch Si} 12 - Ths Trucmg Ngoc Thai lien Bac ban roi 735 may bay MT, ban c h i m 125 tau chie'n loai k h o i v o n g chie'n d u o n g 9 - N a m Lao cua... C o n cd su y e m t r g cua Ta nhieu v u n g da't dai rgng Idn va d o n g dan ^U: — x^r T ^ - I - 14 - 12 - 19 72, N i c h x a n phe c h u a n ke hoach m d cugc tap k i c h k h d n g q u a n bang m a y bay B 52 vao H a N g i va H a i P h d n g bSt d a u tir chieu t o i 18 den he't ngay 29 - 12 - 19 72 Q u a n dan ta d mien BSc da danh tra djch nhCrng d o n d i c h . Ngay 14 - 12 - 19 72, Nichxan phe chuan ke hoach md cugc tap kich khdng quan bang may bay B 52 vao Ha Ngi va Hai Phdng bSt dau tir chieu toi 18 den he't ngay 29 - 12 - 19 72. Quan dan. nghia 1) 1954 -1 960 1) 1954 -1 960 2) 1961 -1 965 2) 1961 -1 965 3) 1965 -1 968 3) 1965 -1 968 4) 1969 -1 973 4) 1969 -1 973 5) 1973 -1 975 5) 1973 -1 975 Cau 22 . Lap bang thong ke cac chien luge. dan. Tu ngay 1 2- 2 den ngay 2 3-3 -1 971, quan dgi Vi^t Nam cd su phd'i hgp ciia quan dan Lao da tap tan cugc hanh quan mang ten "Lam Son -7 19" ehiem giu dudng 9 - Nam Lao eiia
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