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Ngày đăng: 21/09/2012, 11:02 This page intentionally left blankWar Land on the Eastern Front is a study of a hidden legacy of World WarI: the experience of German soldiers on the Eastern Front and thelong-term eVects of their encounter with Eastern Europe. It presentsan ‘‘anatomy of an occupation,’’ charting the ambitions and realities ofthe new German military state there. Using hitherto neglected sourcesfrom both occupiers and occupied, oYcial documents, propaganda,memoirs, and novels, it reveals how German views of the Eastchanged during total war. New categories for viewing the East tookroot along with the idea of a German cultural mission in these sup-posed wastelands. After Germany’s defeat, the Eastern Front’s‘‘lessons’’ were taken up by the Nazis, radicalized, and enacted whenGerman armies returned to the East in World War II. Vejas GabrielLiulevicius’ persuasive and compelling study Wlls a yawning gap in theliterature of the Great War.vejas gabriel liulevicius is Assistant Professor of History at theUniversity of Tennessee.Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern WarfareGeneral editorJay Winter, Pembroke College, CambridgeAdvisory editorsPaul Kennedy, Yale UniversityAntoine Prost, Universite´ de Paris-SorbonneEmmanuel Sivan, The Hebrew University of JerusalemIn recent years the Weld of modern history has been enriched by the exploration oftwo parallel histories. These are the social and cultural history of armed conXict,and the impact of military events on social and cultural history.Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare presents thefruits of this growing area of research, reXecting both the colonization of militaryhistory by cultural historians and the reciprocal interest of military historians insocial and cultural history, to the beneWt of both. The series oVers the latestscholarship in European and non-European events from the 1850s to the presentday.For a complete list of titles in the series see end of bookWar Land on the Eastern FrontCulture, National Identity, and German Occupationin World War IVejas Gabriel LiuleviciusUniversity of Tennessee         The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom  The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, AustraliaRuiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, SpainDock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africahttp://www.cambridge.orgFirst published in printed format ISBN 0-521-66157-9 hardbackISBN 0-511-03352-4 eBookVejas Gabriel Liulevicius 20042000(Adobe Reader)©ContentsListofmapspageviAcknowledgmentsviiListofabbreviationsviiiIntroduction11Comingtowarland122Themilitaryutopia543Themovementpolicy894TheKulturprogram1135ThemindscapeoftheEast1516Crisis1767Freikorpsmadness2278ThetriumphofRaum247Conclusion278Selectbibliography282Index300vMaps1 Eastern Europe before 1914 132 The German ‘‘Great Advance’’ of 1915 – Eastern Front 183 The Ober Ost state – main administrative divisions 604 The fullest extent of the German advance on the EasternFront by 1918 2075 Postwar Eastern Europe in the 1920s 250viAcknowledgmentsMy thanks for help and assistance in this venture are owed to manyindividuals and institutions. I am especially grateful to Thomas Childersof the University of Pennsylvania, the ideal advisor, Frank Trommler ofthe University of Pennsylvania, and Alfred Rieber of the CentralEuropean University, Budapest. Thanks for suggestions and commentsare due to Michael Geyer, Thomas Burman, and Jay Winter, editor of theseries in which this book appears. My grateful thanks also goes to Eliza-beth Howard, editor at Cambridge University Press.I gratefully acknowledge the support I was given in my studies andresearch by the Mellon Fellowships in the Humanities, the William PennFellowship of the University of Pennsylvania, the DAAD-German Aca-demic Exchange Fellowship, and the Title VIII Postdoctoral ResearchFellowship at the archives of the Hoover Institution at Stanford Univer-sity. While researching, I was grateful for friendly receptions at theBundesarchiv-Milita¨rarchiv in Freiburg, the Bundesarchiv in Koblenz,the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin, the Ger-man Foreign Ministry archive in Bonn, the Lithuanian State HistoricalArchive and the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences library manuscriptsection, both in Vilnius, the archives of the Hoover Institution in Stan-ford, and kind librarians at the University of Pennsylvania, the Universityof Freiburg, and the University of Tennessee.For the production of maps for this book, I thank University of Tennes-see’s SARIF EPPE fund for its award, and Wendi Lee Arms for herskilled cartography.Finally, my thanks go to my parents, to whom this book is dedicated,for their unfailing encouragement and support, and to my grandfather,who awakened my fascination for the past.viiAbbreviationsArchival sourcesBA Bundesarchiv, Koblenz, GermanyBAMA Bundesarchiv-Milita¨rarchiv, Freiburg-in-Breisgau,GermanyGSTA PK Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussicher Kulturbesitz, Berlin,GermanyLCVIA Lietuvos Centrinis Valstybinis Istorijos Archyvas, Vilnius,LithuaniaLMARS Lietuvos Mokslu˛ Akademijos Rankras˘c˘iu˛ Skyrius, Vilnius,LithuaniaPublicationsBUV Befehls- und Verordnungsblatt des Oberbefehlshabers Ost.BAMA PHD 8/20.ZXA Zeitung der 10. Armee. University of Pennsylvania Library;Special Collections.KB Korrespondenz B. BAMA PHD 8/23.viii . annexationist de-mands in the East, indicating suggestive continuities between strivings ofthe Kaiserreich and the Nazi regime. Detailed monographs followed,investigating. understanding the region.1 7The distinctive ideological under-standings, occupation practices, and ambitions crafted in Ober Ost givethis episode its importance.In
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