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Cambridge.University.Press.Language.and.Gender.Feb.2003. Language and GenderLanguage and Gender is a new introduction to the study of the relation betweengender and language use, written by two of the leading experts in the field. Itcovers the main topics, beginning with a clear discussion of gender and ofthe resources that the linguistic system offers for the construction of socialmeaning. The body of the book provides an unprecedentedly broad and deepcoverage of the interaction betweenlanguage and social life, rangingfromnuances of pronunciation to conversational dynamics to the deployment ofmetaphor. The discussion is organized around the contributions languagemakes to situated social practice rather than around linguistic structures orgender analyses. At the same time, it introduces linguistic concepts in a waythatis suitable for nonlinguists.It is set to become the standard textbook forcourses on language and gender.penelope eckert is Professor ofLinguistics, Professor (by courtesy) ofCultural and Social Anthropology and Director of the Program in FeministStudies at Stanford University. She has published the ethnography Jocks andBurnouts: Social Categories and Identity in the High School (1989), the bookLinguistic Variation as Social Practice (2000), and many linguistic articles.sally mCconnell-ginet is Professor of Linguistics at the DepartmentofLinguistics, Cornell University. Together with Ruth Borker and literaryscholarNelly Furman, she edited and contributed to Women and Language in Literatureand Society (1980) and with linguist Gennaro Chierchia, co-authored Meaningand Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics (1990), which has recently beenrevised for a second edition.Language and GenderPENELOPE ECKERTSALLY McCONNELL-GINET  Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São PauloCambridge University PressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge  , United KingdomFirst published in print format - ----- ----- ----© Penelope Eckert and Sally McConnell-Ginet 20032003Information on this title: book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision ofrelevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take placewithout the written permission of Cambridge University Press.- ---- ---- ---Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy ofs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this book, and does notguarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New Yorkwww.cambridge.orghardbackpaperbackpaperbackeBook (NetLibrary)eBook (NetLibrary)hardbackContentsList of illustrations viiAcknowledgments ixIntroduction11Constructing, deconstructing and reconstructing gender9Sex and gender 10Learning to be gendered 15Keeping gender:the gender order32Masculinities and femininities 47Gender practice 502Linking the linguistic to the social52Changing practices, changing ideologies 53The social locus of change 55Linguistic resources 60Analytic practice 79Amatter of method 843Organizing talk91Access to situations and events 92Speech activities 98Speech situations and events 103The pursuit of conversation 109Conversational styles and conversationalists’character 1224Making social moves129Speech act theory 130Functions of talk and motives of talkers: genderoppositions 133vvi ContentsSpeech acts embedded in social action 144Beyond conversation 1565Positioning ideas and subjects157‘‘Women’s language’’ and gendered positioning 158Showing deference or respect? 160Backing down or opening things up? 167Who cares?: intensity and engagement 176Calibrating commitment and enlisting support 183Speaking indirectly 1886Saying and implying192Case study 192Aspects of meaning in communicative practice 195Presupposing: gender schemas and ideologies 203Assigning roles and responsibility 207Making metaphors 2137Mapping the world228Labeling disputes and histories228Category boundaries and criteria 232Category relations 242Elaborating marked concepts 246Genderizing discourse: category imperialism 254Genderizing processes 259New labels, new categories 2618Working the market: use of varieties266Languages, dialects, varieties 266The linguistic market 271The local and the global 273Language ideologiesand linguistic varieties276Case study: standardization and the Japanese woman 278Gender and language ideologies 281Gender and the use of linguistic varieties 282Access 288Whose speech is more standard? 2929Fashioning selves305Stylistic practice 306Style and performativity 315vii ContentsLegitimate and illegitimate performances 320One small step 325Where are we headed? 330Bibliography 333Index 357Illustrations7.1 US cuts of beef 2357.2 French cuts of beef 2367.3 Polarised oppositions 2437.4 Default background, marked subcategories 2438.1 The social stratification of (oh) in New York City (from Labov 1972c,p. 129) 2728.2 Percent negative concord in Philadelphia by class and gender (casualspeech) (from Labov 2001, p. 265) 2968.3 (dh) index in Philadelphia by class and gender (casual speech) (fromLabov 2001, p. 265) 2988.4 Percent reduced-ing in Philadelphia by class and gender (casualspeech) (from Labov 2001, p. 265) 2998.5 Raising of /ay/ among jock and burnout boys and girls 3018.6 Height of /æ/ before /s/ in Philadelphia by class (as represented byoccupational group) and gender (from Labov 2001, p. 298) 301viiiAcknowledgmentsOur collaboration began in 1990 when Penny was asked to teach acourse on language and gender at the 1991 LSALinguistic Instituteat the University of California at Santa Cruz, and Sally was asked towrite an article on language and gender for the Annual Review of An-thropology. We decided to combine these projects into a joint effort torethink approaches to language and gender, and particularly to bringtogether our work in quite different areas of linguistics. Penny’s focusin linguistics has been on sociolinguistic variation, and she was em-ploying ethnographic methods to examine the embedding of linguisticpractice in processes of identity construction. Sally came to linguisticsfrom math and analytic philosophy, and has divided her career betweenteaching and research on language and gender, especially the prag-matic question of what people (as opposed to linguistic expressions)mean, and on formal semantics. Both of us, in our individual writingand teaching, had begun to think of gender and language as comingtogether in social practice. Penny was then at the Institute for Researchand Learning in Palo Alto, California, where she worked with Jean Laveand Etienne Wenger. Their notion of community of practice provided animportant theoretical construct for our thinking about gender, aboutlanguage use, and about how the two interact. We owe special gratitudeto Jean and Etienne.Each time we thought we’d finished working together, a new collab-oration would come up. Our Annual Review article appeared in early1992, and we presented a greatly abbreviated version as a talk at theSecond Berkeley Conference on Women and Language. In 1993, we gavea public talk at the LSAInstitute at the Ohio State University that grewinto the paper in the volume edited by Mary Bucholtz (who was a stu-dent in our Santa Cruz course) and Kira Hall in 1995. Early in 1997, atthe International Conference on the Social Psychology of Language, weparticipated in a session organized by Janet Holmes on communitiesof practice in language and gender research. With Miriam Meyerhoff,Janet edited a special issue of Language in Society, based on that sessionand including a paper from us.ix . Language and GenderLanguage and Gender is a new introduction to the study of the relation betweengender and language use, written. deconstructing and reconstructing gender9 Sex and gender 10Learning to be gendered 15Keeping gender: the gender order32Masculinities and femininities 4 7Gender practice
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