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A HISTORY OFELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISMBurndy LibraryPublication No. 27A HISTORY OFELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISMHerbert W. MeyerForeword by Bern DibnerDÉVELOPPEMENT ÉCONOMIQUEET ÉTUDE DES MARCHÉS CENTRE DE DOCUMENTATIONBURNDY LIBRARYNorwalk, Connecticut1972This book was designedby The MIT Press Design Department.It was set in IBM Composer Bodoniby Science Pressprinted on Mohawk Neotext Offsetby The Colonial Press Inc.and bound by The Colonial Press Inc.in the United States of America.All rights reserved.No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,or by any information storage and retrieval system,without permission in writing from the publisher.ISBN 0 262 13070 X (hardcover)Library of Congress catalog card number:70-137473FOREWORD BY BERN DIBNER xiPREFACE xv1EARLY DISCOVERIES 1Archeology and Paleontology; Magnetite and the Lodestone; Thalesof Miletus; Ancient and Medieval Records, The Magnetic Compas;William Gilbert.2ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND EXPERIMENTSWITH STATIC ELECTRICITY 11Otto von Guericke; Other Expçriments With Static Electricity;Stephen Gray and the Transmission of Electricity; Du Fay’s Experi-ments and His Discovery of Two Kinds of Electricity; Improvementsin Electrical Machines; The Leyden Jar; The Speed of Electricity; SirWilliam Watson’s ‘Theories; Miscellaneous Discoveries; BenjaminFranklin’s Experiments; Atmospheric Electricity; Experiments inEurope with Atmospheric Electricity; Electrical Induction, Electro-scopes; Other Discoveries in the Eighteenth Century3VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY, ELECTROCHEMISTRY,AND ELECTROMAGNETISM 34Galvani's Frog Experiments; Volta and the Voltaic Pile; Evolutionof the Battery and Discoveries with Electric Currents; Electromag-netism; Ampère; Arago, Biot and Savart; Faraday's Rotating Con-ductor and Magnet and Barlow's Wheel; Sturgeon's Electromagnet,Galvanometers; Ampère's and Ohm's Laws.4FARADAY AND HENRY 52Faraday's Formative Years; Faraday Appointed to the Royal Insti-tution; Electromagnetic Induction; Other Contributions by Faraday;Joseph Henry; Henry's First Excursions into Science; Henry Pro-poses tbe Electromagnetic Telegraph; Electromagnetic Induction;Self-Induction; Marriage and Professorship at Princeton; ElectricalOscillations and Electromagnetic Waves; Other Researches; TheSmithsonian Institution.vi Contents5DIRECT-CURRENT DYNAMOS AND MOTORS 71Pixii’s Machine; Nollet’s Machines; Dynamos; Electric Motors.6IMPROVEMENTS IN BATTERIESAND ELECTROSTATIC MACHINES 77The Daniel1 Cell; The Grove Cell; the Leclanché Cell; Other Bat-teries; Storage Batteries; Electrostatic Induction Machines.7ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, LAWS, ANDDEFINITIONS OF UNITS 85Tangent Galvanometer; D'Arsonval Galvanometer; WheatstoneBridge; Electrical and Magnetic Laws; Electrical and Magnetic Units.8THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH 95Early Electromagnetic Telegraphs; Samuel F. B. Morse; Demonstra-tion of the First Morse Telegraph; Partnership with Alfred Vail; U.S.Government Interested in Telegraph; Demonstrations of the Im-proved Morse Telegraph; Patent Applications; Submarine Cable;Congress Appropriates $30,000 for an Experimental Line; Construc-tion of the Line; “What Hath God Wrought!“; Commercial Opera-tion of the Telegraph; Construction of New Telegraph Lines; West-ern Union; Printing Telegraphs; Relays; Duplex and MultiplexSystems; Railway Telegraphs; The First Transcontinental TelegraphLine; Electrical Manufacturing.9THE ATLANTIC CABLE115Early Submarine Cables; Newfoundland Cable; The Atlantic Cable;Cable Company Is Organized; Contracts for the Manufacture ofCable; The Cable Fleet; Loading and Testing the Cable; Laying theCable; Project Postponed until the Following Year; Second Attempt;Cable Is Spliced in Mid-Ocean; Insulation Breaks Down; The SecondCable; Most of the Cable Is Laid Successfully Before It Breaks; TheThird Cable; The Siphon Recorder.Contents vii10THE TELEPHONE131Bourseul and Reis; Alexander Graham Bell; The Bell Family Movesto Canada; Classes in Boston; The Harmonie Telegraph; Boston Uni-versity and George Sanders; Thomas A. Watson; The Phonautographand thc Reis Tclcphone; Meeting with Joseph Henry; Agreementwith Sanders and Hubbard; Bell's Great Discovery; Despair: NewQuarters; Tclcphone Patent Granted; Thc Telephone at thc Centen-nial Exposition; Tcsting thc Telephone; Western Union Refuses toBuy thc Telephone; Bell Is Married; Organization of TelephoneCompanies; Infringement by the Western Union Telegraph Com-pany; Bell Patent Upheld; Transmitters; Theodore N. Vail; Evolu-tion of the Bell Companies; The Dial Telephone; Bell Laboratoriesand Western Electric Company; Othcr Telephone Systems.11ELECTRIC LIGHTING152Arc Lampa; Arc Lamp Mechanisms; Carbons; Manufacturers; StreetLiihting; Enclosed Are Lamps; Flaming Arcs; Incandescent ElcctricLights; Edison's Incandescent Lamp; Edison Electric Light Com-pany; Menlo Park; The Search for Better Filament Materials; Im-provements in Lamp Seals and in Dynamos; First Commercial Instal-lations; Pearl Street, the First Central Station for IncandescentLigbting; Schencctady Works; Foreign Incandescent Liiht Installa-tions; Improved Lamps; Othcr Types of Lamps; Metal FilamentLamps; Tube Lighting; Fluorescent Lamps; Lamp Efficiencies;Special-Purpose Lamps.12ALTERNATING CURRENTS177The Transformer; Induction Coils; Gaulard and Gibbs; WestinghouseAlternating-Current System; Alternating-Current Generators; Fre-quencies; AC-DC Conversion; Alternating-Current Motors; NiagaraFalls Development; Transmission Lines; Frequency and VoltageStandards.13ELECTRIC TRACTION190Public Transportation; Rails and Railways; Street Railways; ElectricPropulsion; Electrification of Street Railways; Thc Carbon Brush;viii ContentsRapid Conversion from Horsecars to Electric Propulsion; Suburbanand Main Line Electrification; The Decline of Electric Street Rail-ways.14ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, RADIO,FACSIMILE, AND TELEVISION198A Century of Progress; Hertz Discovers Electromagnetic Waves; Sig-naling without Wires; Guglielmo Marconi; First Radio Patent;Tuned Circuits; Continuous Waves; Detectors; The Edison Effect;The Fleming Valve; De Forest Audion; Amplification; Armstrong’sOscillator Tube; The Alexanderson High-Frequency Generator;Amateur Radio and Radio Broadcasting; Regulation of Radio; Fed-eral Communications Commission; Frequency Allocations; RadioReceivers; Facsimile Transmission; Commercial Facsimile; Photo-electric Devices; Pictures by Cable; Television; The Scanning Diskand Mechanical Television; The Iconoscope; Improvements on theIconoscope; Transmission by Radio Waves; Regulation of Televisionand Channel Allocations.15THE CROOKES TUBE, XRAYS,RADIOACTIVITY, STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM,ACCELERATORS AND ATOMIC RESEARCH 224The Crookes Tube; Vacuum Tubes before Crookes; Sir WilliamCrookes and His Experiments; Later Developments in CathodeRays; X Rays; Radioactivity; Scattering of Electrons; PhotoelectricEffect; Planck’s Constant; Photoelectrons and Einstein’s Equation;Hydrogen Spectra; Structure of the Atom; Heavier Atoms, EllipticalOrbits, and Spin; Theoretical and Experimental Physics of the1920s; Other Subatomic Particles; The Electron Microscope; Radia-tion Detectors; Accelerators and Atomic Research.16MICROWAVES, RADAR, RADIO RELAY,COAXIAL CABLE, COMPUTERS253Microwaves; Radar; Early British Developments and Installations;American Wartime Research and Development; New Oscillators andOther Tubes; Types of Radar; Other Uses of Radar; TelephoneRadio Relay; Frequency Band Allocations; Coaxial Cable; Com-Contents ixputers; Computer Development; Digital and Analog Computer~;Electronic Computers; Memory Systems; Input and Output Sys-tems; Numeration.17PLASMAS, MASERS,LASERS, FUEL CELLS,PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS, TRANSISTORS275Plasmas; Masers and Lasers; Gas Lasers; Applications; Electrolyticand Electrochemical Phenomena; Piezoelectricity; Solid State De-vices; Semiconductors; Transistors; The Transistor Industry.18ATOMIC ENERGY, GOVERNMENT RESEARCH,NUCLEAR FUSION289Atomic Energy; Nuclear Research for the United States Govern-ment; Los Alamos Laboratory and the Atomic Bomb; AtomicEnergy Commission; Nuclear Power Plants; Nuclear Fusion; Whither.BIBLIOGRAPHY299INDEX307[...]... changes of short duration IJndoubtedly the voyages of Columbus and Vasço da Gama were greatly aided by its use 8 Chapter One With the invention or rediscovery of the compass came a greatly increased interest in magnetism Many believed that magnetism was a cure for various diseases, and others claimed to be able to use compass needles, separated by great distances, as a means of telegraphic communication... The bal1 was rotated by means of a crank at the end of the shaft In later models the shaft was driven at higher speed by means of a belt that passed over a larger driving wheel and over a smaller pulley on the shaft carrying the sulfur bah The rotating bal1 was excited by friction through the application of the dry hands or a cloth This machine produced far greater quantities of electricity than had... Lucretius, the poet and author of De Rerum Natura, noted the ability of the lodestone to attract several iron rings, onc adhering to the other, and marveled at the peculiar behavior of iron filings in a brass bowl when a magnet was moved ahout heneath,it As the gxat Roman Empire declined, the culture of Greece and Rome gradually vanished; Learning almost disappeared and for centuries was confined largely to...FOREWORD Of the many ages of man—the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age, etc.-that preceded the 1800s, and that led one into the other, none was as rewarding to mankind as the electrical age We now stand in awe of the space age, andin fear we face the nuclear age From electricity, however, has b e e n drawn a n ever growing abundance o f light, power, warmth, intelligence, and medical aid-all beneficent,... work of such men as Ampère, Coulomb, Biot and Savart, Gauss, Weber, and Ohm Maxwell, an ardent admirer of Faraday’s great genius, interpreted Faraday’s discoveries mathematically and contributed his own mathematical findings, but credit for some of Maxwell’s discoveries must be shared with Helmholtz, whose versatility in science has rarely been equaled After Maxwell and Helmholtz followed a period of. .. been available and made possible new and interesting experiments Von Guericke noted the attraction and repulsion of feathers, the crackling noises and sparks, and the odor that pernreated the air when the machine was excited He found also that the electrification of the bal1 produced a tingling sensation when any part of the body approached it There is reason to believe that van Guericke noted that electricity. .. widespread and fairly abundant minerals of the earth is a very useful ore of iron called magnetite, which has the composition Fe3O4 It is a crystalline minera& very dark in color, having a metallic luster, and a specific gravity equal to about fivesevenths of that of iron Unlike any of the other iron ores it is magnetic, and this property gives it its name There are occasional pieces of magnetite, as found... they finally reached a distance of 765 feet In still other experiments they discovered that hair, rosin, and glass made suitable supports for their packthread line On the same day, which was July 2, 1729, Gray and Wheeler electrified larger surfaces such as a map and a tablecloth In August of the same year, Gray found that he could produce charges at the end of an insulated packthread line merely by... planted on tbe shores of the Mediterranean a Aegean seas, amorrg whicb was Ionia in Asia Minor Miletus was a thriving seaport in lonia, in and out of which sailed ships from all of the ports of the Mediterranean Its inhabitants, through their trade with other coun- tries, became well-to-do and acquired much of the culture basin Philoso f other civilizations o f the Mediterranean ophy, astronomy, mathcmatics,... such a difficult mission Admittedly, the acquisition of electricity as an instrument of power and control in the inventory of man's abilities was no small addition One can therefore stop and inquire about the circumstances that brought this acquisition about and review the events and personalities whose labors revealed the characteristics of a force unknown throughout the earlier millenia of work and . Electromag-netism; Ampère; Arago, Biot and Savart; Faraday's Rotating Con-ductor and Magnet and Barlow's Wheel; Sturgeon's Electromagnet,Galvanometers;. Electromagnet,Galvanometers; Ampère's and Ohm's Laws.4FARADAY AND HENRY 52Faraday's Formative Years; Faraday Appointed to the Royal Insti-tution; Electromagnetic
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