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BiographiesCold WarCOLDWARBIO2 10/15/03 2:12 PM Page 1BiographiesSharon M. Hanesand Richard C. HanesLawrence W. Baker,Project EditorCold WarVolume 2: K-ZCOLDWARBIO2 10/15/03 2:12 PM Page 3Cold War: BiographiesSharon M. Hanes and Richard C. HanesProject EditorLawrence W. BakerEditorialMatthew May, Diane SawinskiPermissionsMargaret Chamberlain, ShaliceShah-CaldwellImaging and MultimediaLezlie Light, Mike Logusz, DaveOblender, Kelly A. QuinProduct DesignPamela A. E. Galbreath, Jennifer WahiCompositionEvi SeoudManufacturingRita Wimberley©2004 by U•X•L. U•X•L is an imprint ofThe Gale Group, Inc., a division ofThomson Learning, Inc.U•X•L®is a registered trademark usedherein under license. Thomson Learn-ing™ is a trademark used herein underlicense.For more information, contact:The Gale Group, Inc.27500 Drake Rd.Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535Or you can visit our Internet site athttp://www.gale.comALL RIGHTS RESERVEDNo part of this work covered by thecopyright hereon may be reproduced orused in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, in-cluding photocopying, recording, tap-ing, Web distribution or informationstorage retrieval systems—without thewritten permission of the publisher.For permission to use material from thisproduct, submit your request via theWeb at, or you may download our Per-missions Request form and submit yourrequest by fax or mail to:Permissions DepartmentThe Gale Group, Inc.27500 Drake Rd.Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535Permissions Hotline:248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253; ext. 8006Fax: 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058Cover photograph reproduced by per-mission of the Corbis Corporation.While every effort has been made toensure the reliability of the informationpresented in this publication, The GaleGroup, Inc. does not guarantee the ac-curacy of data contained herein. TheGale Group, Inc. accepts no payment forlisting; and inclusion in the publicationof any organization, agency, institution,publication, service or individual doesnot imply endorsement by the editorsor publisher. Errors brought to the at-tention of the publisher and verified tothe satisfaction of the publisher will becorrected in future editions.Printed in the United States of America10987654321LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATAHanes, Sharon M.Cold War : biographies / Sharon M. Hanes and Richard C. Hanes ; Lawrence W. Baker, editor.v. cm. — (UXL Cold War reference library)Includes bibliographical references and index.Contents: v. 1. A–J. Dean G. Acheson. Konrad Adenauer. Salvador Allende. Clement R. Attlee. Ernest Bevin. LeonidBrezhnev. George Bush. James F. Byrnes. Jimmy Carter. Fidel Castro. Chiang Kai-shek. Winston Churchill. Clark M. Clif-ford. Deng Xiaoping. John Foster Dulles. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Mikhail Gorbachev. Andrey Gromyko. W. Averell Har-riman. Ho Chi Minh. J. Edgar Hoover. Lyndon B. Johnson — v. 2. K–Z. George F. Kennan. John F. Kennedy. NikitaKhrushchev. Kim Il Sung. Jeane Kirkpatrick. Henry Kissinger. Helmut Kohl. Aleksey Kosygin. Igor Kurchatov. DouglasMacArthur. Harold Macmillan. Mao Zedong. George C. Marshall. Joseph R. McCarthy. Robert S. McNamara. VyacheslavMolotov. Richard M. Nixon. J. Robert Oppenheimer. Ayn Rand. Ronald Reagan. Condoleezza Rice. Andrey Sakharov.Eduard Shevardnadze. Joseph Stalin. Margaret Thatcher. Josip Broz Tito. Harry S. Truman. Zhou Enlai.ISBN 0-7876-7663-2 (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-7876-7664-0 (v. 1 : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-7876-7665-9 (v. 2 : alk. paper)1. Cold War—Biography—Juvenile literature. 2. History, Modern—1945–1989—Juvenile literature. 3. Biography—20th century —Juvenile literature. [1. Cold War—Biography. 2. History, Modern—1945–1989. 3. Biography—20thcentury.] I. Hanes, Richard Clay, 1946– . II. Baker, Lawrence W. III. Title. IV. Series.D839.5.H36 2003909.82'5'0922—dc22 2003018989Cold War Bio Vol. 2 FM 10/22/03 3:16 PM Page ivIntroduction viiReader’s Guide xiCold War Timeline xvVolume 1Dean G. Acheson 1Konrad Adenauer 9Salvador Allende 17Clement R. Attlee 25Ernest Bevin 33Leonid Brezhnev 41George Bush 53James F. Byrnes 62Jimmy Carter 70Fidel Castro 82Chiang Kai-shek 92Winston Churchill 100Clark M. Clifford 109Deng Xiaoping 116vContentsCold War Bio Vol. 2 FM 10/22/03 3:16 PM Page vJohn Foster Dulles 124Dwight D. Eisenhower 134Mikhail Gorbachev 146Andrey Gromyko 159W. Averell Harriman 168Ho Chi Minh 176J. Edgar Hoover 185Lyndon B. Johnson 194Volume 2George F. Kennan 207John F. Kennedy 218Nikita Khrushchev 230Kim Il Sung 241Jeane Kirkpatrick 249Henry Kissinger 255Helmut Kohl 268Aleksey Kosygin 277Igor Kurchatov 283Douglas MacArthur 293Harold Macmillan 303Mao Zedong 312George C. Marshall 321Joseph R. McCarthy 329Robert S. McNamara 337Vyacheslav Molotov 345Richard M. Nixon 354J. Robert Oppenheimer 366Ayn Rand 379Ronald Reagan 387Condoleezza Rice 401Andrey Sakharov 408Eduard Shevardnadze 416Joseph Stalin 425Margaret Thatcher 437Josip Broz Tito 444Harry S. Truman 452Zhou Enlai 463Where to Learn More xxxixIndex xliiiCold War: BiographiesviCold War Bio Vol. 2 FM 10/22/03 3:16 PM Page viSometimes single events alter the course of history; othertimes, a chain reaction of seemingly lesser occurrenceschanges the path of nations. The intense rivalry between theUnited States and the Soviet Union that emerged immediatelyafter World War II (1939–45) followed the second pattern.Known as the Cold War, the rivalry grew out of mutual distrustbetween two starkly different societies: communist SovietUnion and the democratic West, which was led by the UnitedStates and included Western Europe. Communism is a politicaland economic system in which the Communist Party controlsall aspects of citizens’ lives and private ownership of propertyis banned. It is not compatible with America’s democratic wayof life. Democracy is a political system consisting of several po-litical parties whose members are elected to various govern-ment offices by vote of the people. The rapidly growing rivalrybetween the two emerging post–World War II superpowers in1945 would dominate world politics until 1991. Throughoutmuch of the time, the Cold War was more a war of ideas thanone of battlefield combat. Yet for generations, the Cold War af-fected almost every aspect of American life and those wholived in numerous other countries around the world.viiIntroductionCold War Bio Vol. 2 FM 10/22/03 3:16 PM Page viiThe global rivalry was characterized by many things.Perhaps the most dramatic was the cost in lives and publicfunds. Millions of military personnel and civilians were killedin conflicts often set in Third World countries. This toll in-cludes tens of thousands of American soldiers in the KoreanWar (1950–53) and Vietnam War (1954–75) and thousands ofSoviet soldiers in Afghanistan. National budgets werestretched to support the nuclear arms races, military buildups,localized wars, and aid to friendly nations. On the interna-tional front, the United States often supported oppressive butstrongly anticommunist military dictatorships. On the otherhand, the Soviets frequently supported revolutionary move-ments seeking to overthrow established governments. Internalpolitical developments within nations around the world wereinterpreted by the two superpowers—the Soviet Union andthe United States—in terms of the Cold War rivalry. In manynations, including the Soviet-dominated Eastern Europeancountries, basic human freedoms were lost. New internationalmilitary and peacekeeping alliances were also formed, such asthe United Nations (UN), the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-tion (NATO), the Organization of American States (OAS), andthe Warsaw Pact.Effects of the Cold War were extensive on the homefront, too. The U.S. government became more responsive tonational security needs, including the sharpened efforts ofthe Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Created were theCentral Intelligence Agency (CIA), the National SecurityCouncil (NSC), and the Department of Defense. Suspicion ofcommunist influences within the United States built some in-dividual careers and destroyed others. The national educationpriorities of public schools were changed to emphasize sci-ence and engineering after the Soviets launched the satelliteSputnik, which itself launched the space race.What would cause such a situation to develop andlast for so long? One major factor was mistrust for each other.The communists were generally shunned by other nations,including the United States, since they gained power in Rus-sia in 1917 then organized that country into the SovietUnion. The Soviets’ insecurities loomed large. They feared an-other invasion from the West through Poland, as had hap-pened through the centuries. On the other hand, the Westwas highly suspicious of the harsh closed society of SovietCold War: BiographiesviiiCold War Bio Vol. 2 FM 10/22/03 3:16 PM Page viiicommunism. As a result, a move by one nation would bring aresponse by the other. Hard-liners on both sides believedlong-term coexistence was not feasible.A second major factor was that the U.S. and Soviet ide-ologies were dramatically at odds. The political, social, andeconomic systems of democratic United States and commu-nist Soviet Union were essentially incompatible. Before thecommunist (or Bolshevik) revolution in 1917, the UnitedStates and Russia competed as they both sought to expandinto the Pacific Northwest. In addition, Americans had astrong disdain for Russian oppression under their monarchyof the tsars. Otherwise, contact between the two growing pow-ers was almost nonexistent until thrown together as allies in acommon cause to defeat Germany and Japan in World War II.It was during the meetings of the allied leaders inYalta and Potsdam in 1945 when peaceful postwar coopera-tion was being sought that the collision course of the twonew superpowers started becoming more evident. The end ofWorld War II had brought the U.S. and Soviet armies face-to-face in central Europe in victory over the Germans. Yet theold mistrusts between communists and capitalists quicklydominated diplomatic relations. Capitalism is an economicsystem in which property and businesses are privately owned.Prices, production, and distribution of goods are determinedby competition in a market relatively free of government in-tervention. A peace treaty ending World War II in Europe wasblocked as the Soviets and the U.S led West carved outspheres of influence. Western Europe and Great Britainaligned with the United States and collectively was referred toas the “West”; Eastern Europe would be controlled by the So-viet Communist Party. The Soviet Union and its Eastern Eu-ropean satellite countries were collectively referred to as the“East.” The two powers tested the resolve of each other inGermany, Iran, Turkey, and Greece in the late 1940s.In 1949, the Soviets successfully tested an atomicbomb and Chinese communist forces overthrew the NationalChinese government, and U.S. officials and American citizensfeared a sweeping massive communist movement was over-taking the world. A “red scare” spread through America. Theterm “red” referred to communists, especially the Soviets. Thepublic began to suspect that communists or communist sym-pathizers lurked in every corner of the nation.Introduction ixCold War Bio Vol. 2 FM 10/22/03 3:16 PM Page ixMeanwhile, the superpower confrontations spreadfrom Europe to other global areas: Asia, Africa, the MiddleEast, and Latin America. Most dramatic were the Korean andVietnam wars, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the militarystandoffs in Berlin, Germany. However, bloody conflictserupted in many other areas as the United States and SovietUnion sought to expand their influence by supporting or op-posing various movements.In addition, a costly arms race lasted decades despitesporadic efforts at arms control agreements. The score card forthe Cold War was kept in terms of how many nuclear weaponsone country had aimed at the other. Finally, in the 1970s and1980s, the Soviet Union could no longer keep up with thechanging world economic trends. Its tightly controlled andhighly inefficient industrial and agricultural systems could notcompete in world markets while the government was still focus-ing its wealth on Cold War confrontations and the arms race.Developments in telecommunications also made it more diffi-cult to maintain a closed society. Ideas were increasingly beingexchanged despite longstanding political barriers. The door wasfinally cracked open in the communist European nations tomore freedoms in the late 1980s through efforts at economicand social reform. Seizing the moment, the long suppressedpopulations of communist Eastern European nations and fifteenSoviet republics demanded political and economic freedom.Through 1989, the various Eastern European nationsreplaced long-time communist leaders with noncommunistofficials. By the end of 1991, the Soviet Communist Party hadbeen banned from various Soviet republics, and the SovietUnion itself ceased to exist. After a decades-long rivalry, theend to the Cold War came swiftly and unexpectedly.A new world order dawned in 1992 with a single su-perpower, the United States, and a vastly changed politicallandscape around much of the globe. Communism remainedin China and Cuba, but Cold War legacies remained else-where. In the early 1990s, the United States was economical-ly burdened with a massive national debt, the former Sovietrepublics were attempting a very difficult economic transitionto a more capitalistic open market system, and Europe, stark-ly divided by the Cold War, was reunited once again andsought to establish a new union including both Eastern andWestern European nations.Cold War: BiographiesxCold War Bio Vol. 2 FM 10/22/03 3:16 PM Page xCold War: Biographies presents biographies of fifty men andwomen who participated in or were affected by the ColdWar, the period in history from 1945 until 1991 that was domi-nated by the rivalry between the world’s superpowers, the Unit-ed States and the Soviet Union. These two volumes profile a di-verse mix of personalities from the United States, the SovietUnion, China, Great Britain, and other regions touched by theCold War. Detailed biographies of major Cold War figures (suchas Fidel Castro, Winston Churchill, Mikhail Gorbachev, John F.Kennedy, Nikita Khrushchev, and Joseph R. McCarthy) are in-cluded. But Cold War: Biographies also provides biographical in-formation on lesser-known but nonetheless important and fas-cinating men and women of that era. Examples include nuclearphysicist Igor Kurchatov, the developer of the Soviet atomicbomb; U.S. secretary of state George C. Marshall, a former Armygeneral who unveiled the Marshall Plan, a major U.S. economicaid program for the war-torn countries of Western Europe; KimIl Sung, the communist dictator of North Korea throughout theCold War; and Condoleezza Rice, the top U.S. advisor on theSoviet Union when the Cold War ended in November 1990.xiReader’s GuideCold War Bio Vol. 2 FM 10/22/03 3:16 PM Page xi[...].. .Cold War: Biographies also features sidebars containing interesting facts about people and events related to the Cold War Within each full-length biography, boldfaced crossreferences direct readers to other individuals profiled in the two -volume set Finally, each volume includes photographs and illustrations, a Cold War Timeline” that lists significant dates and events of the Cold War era,... of the Cold War era, and a cumulative subject index U•X•L Cold War Reference Library Cold War: Biographies is only one component of the three-part U•X•L Cold War Reference Library The other two titles in this set are: • Cold War: Almanac (two volumes) presents a comprehensive overview of the period in American history from the end of World War II until the fall of communism in Eastern Europe and the... welcome your comments on Cold War: Biographies and suggestions for other topics to consider Please write: Editors, Cold War: Biographies, U•X•L, 27500 Drake Rd., Farmington Hills, Michigan 48331-3535; call toll free: 1-800-877-4253; fax to 248-699-8097; or send e-mail via Reader’s Guide xiii Cold War Timeline September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II June 30, 1941... addresses; and later reflections by key government leaders • A cumulative index of all three titles in the U•X•L Cold War Reference Library is also available Acknowledgments Kelly Rudd and Meghan O’Meara contributed importantly to Cold War: Biographies Special thanks to Catherine xii Cold War: Biographies Filip, who typed much of the manuscript Much appreciation also goes to copyeditors Christine Alexanian,... ceases to exist January 28, 1992 In his State of the Union Address, U.S president George Bush declares victory in the Cold War 1991 Clarence Thomas becomes a U.S Supreme Court justice 1991 1992 Hurricane Andrew causes $15 billion in damage in Florida 1992 Cold War Timeline xxxv Cold War Biographies George F Kennan Born February 16, 1904 Milwaukee, Wisconsin U.S diplomat, historian, and author G eorge... independence as the Russian Federation October 15, 1990 Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his reforms that ended the Cold War November 14, 1990 Various nations sign the Charter of Paris for a New Europe, ending the economic and military division of Europe created by the Cold War July 1, 1991 The Warsaw Pact disbands August 19, 1991 Soviet communist hardliners attempt an unsuccessful... term as U.S president 1944 1945 The United States drops two atomic bombs on Japan 1945 xvi Cold War: Biographies 1945 George Orwell’s Animal Farm is published 1945 many, to discuss postwar conditions On August 2, newly elected Clement R Attlee replaces Churchill August 14, 1945 Japan surrenders, ending World War II, after the United States drops two atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki... “Prague Spring.” 1964 The musical Fiddler on the Roof opens 1965 Demonstrations against the Vietnam War occur in forty U.S cities 1964 1965 xxvi Cold War: Biographies 1966 The National Organization for Women (NOW) is established 1966 1967 Rolling Stone magazine is first published 1967 August 27, 1968 Antiwar riots rage in Chicago’s streets outside the Democratic National Convention November 5, 1968 Richard... arranged chronologically and explore such topics as the origins of the Cold War, the beginning of the nuclear age, the arms race, espionage, anticommunist campaigns and political purges on the home fronts, détente, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Berlin Airlift and the Berlin Wall, the Korean and Vietnam wars, and the ending of the Cold War The Almanac also contains more than 140 blackand-white photographs... ending of the Cold War The Almanac also contains more than 140 blackand-white photographs and maps, “Words to Know” and “People to Know” boxes, a timeline, and an index • Cold War: Primary Sources (one volume) tells the story of the Cold War in the words of the people who lived and shaped it Thirty-one excerpted documents provide a wide range of perspectives on this period of history Included are excerpts . Biographies Cold War COLDWARBIO2 10/15/03 2:1 2 PM Page 1 Biographies Sharon M. Hanesand Richard C. HanesLawrence W. Baker,Project Editor Cold War Volume. HanesLawrence W. Baker,Project Editor Cold War Volume 2: K-Z COLDWARBIO2 10/15/03 2:1 2 PM Page 3 Cold War: Biographies Sharon M. Hanes and Richard C. HanesProject
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