American Revolution Biographies.Volume 2: K–Z pdf

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BiographiesAmericanRevolution AmRev-Bio.V2tpgs 9/29/03 3:45 PM Page 1BiographiesLinda Schmittrothand Mary Kay RosteckStacy A. McConnell, EditorAmericanRevolutionVolume 2: K–ZAmRev-Bio.V2tpgs 9/29/03 3:45 PM Page 3Linda Schmittroth and Mary Kay RosteckStaffStacy McConnell, U•X•L EditorJudy Galens, U•X•L Contributing EditorCarol DeKane Nagel, U•X•L Managing EditorThomas L. Romig, U•X•L PublisherMargaret Chamberlain, Permissions Specialist (Pictures)Rita Wimberley, Senior BuyerEvi Seoud, Assistant Production ManagerDorothy Maki, Manufacturing ManagerTracey Rowens, Senior Art DirectorLM Design, TypesettingLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataSchmittroth, LindaAmerican Revolution : biographies / Linda Schmittroth and Mary KayRosteck ; edited by Stacy McConnell.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.Summary: Profiles sixty men and women who were key players on theBritish or American side of the American Revolution.ISBN 0-7876-3792-0 (set) — ISBN 0-7876-3793-9 (v. 1). — ISBN 0-7876-3794-7 (v. 2)1. United States—History—Revolution, 1775-1783—Biography—Juvenileliterature. [1. United States—History—Revolution, 1775-1783—Biography.] I. Rosteck, Mary Kay. II. McConnell, Stacy A. III. Title.E206 .S36 2000973.3’092’2—dc21 99-046941CIPThis publication is a creative work fully protected by all applicable copy-right laws, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair competition,and other applicable laws. The authors and editors of this work have addedvalue to the underlying factual material herein through one or more of thefollowing: unique and original selection, coordination, expression,arrangement, and classification of the information. All rights to this pub-lication will be vigorously defended.Copyright © 2000 U•X•L, an imprint of The Gale GroupAll rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in partin any form.Front cover photographs (top to bottom): Crispus Attucks reproducedcourtesy of the Library of Congress; Patrick Henry reproduced courtesy ofthe Library of Congress.Back cover photograph: Mount Vernon reproduced by permission of theDetroit Photographic Company.Printed in the United States of America10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1American Revolution: Biographies AmRevBioFM.qxp 7/29/03 3:00 PM Page ivAdvisory Board ixReader’s Guide xiTimeline xiiiWords to Know xxiiiVolume 1: A-JAbigail Adams 1John Adams 9Samuel Adams 20Ethan Allen 31Benedict Arnold 38Black Freedom Fighters 46Joseph Brant 54Mary “Molly” Brant 63John Burgoyne 71Edmund Burke 81Margaret Cochran Corbin 90vContentsAmRevBioFM.qxp 7/29/03 3:00 PM Page vHector St. John de Crèvecoeur 97John Dickinson 105Benjamin Franklin 114Deborah Read Franklin 125Elizabeth Freeman 131Thomas Gage 138Bernardo de Gálvez 147George III 155Simon Girty 164Mary Katherine Goddard 173Nathan Hale 178Alexander Hamilton 187John Hancock 198Nancy Morgan Hart 210Patrick Henry 218William Howe 228John Jay 237Thomas Jefferson 246Index xxxiiiVolume 2: K-ZThaddeus Kosciuszko 257Marquis de Lafayette 264Pierre Charles L’Enfant 275Louis XVI 284Flora Macdonald 294James Madison 302George Mason 312Mary McCauley (“Molly Pitcher”) 321Jane McCrea 328Judith Sargent Murray 338Jonathan Odell 345Thomas Paine 353William Pitt 361Casimir Pulaski 370David Ramsay 379Esther De Berdt Reed 385Paul Revere 391Frederika von Riedesel 399James Rivington 408vi American Revolution: BiographiesAmRevBioFM.qxp 7/29/03 3:00 PM Page viBetsy Ross 417Benjamin Rush 426Deborah Sampson 434Daniel Shays 443Charles Townshend 451Horace Walpole 459Mercy Otis Warren 468George Washington 478Phillis Wheatley 489John Wilkes 499Index xxxiiiContents viiAmRevBioFM.qxp 7/29/03 3:00 PM Page viiSpecial thanks are due for the invaluable comments and sug-gestions provided by U•X•L’s American Revolution Refer-ence Library advisors:• Mary Alice Anderson, Media Specialist, Winona MiddleSchool, Winona, Minnesota.• Jonathan Betz-Zall, Children’s Librarian, Sno-Isle RegionalLibrary System, Edmonds, Washington.• Frances Bryant Bradburn, Section Chief, Information Tech-nology Evaluation Services, Public Schools of North Car-olina, Raleigh, North Carolina.• Sara K. Brooke, Director of Libraries, Ellis School, Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania.• Peter Butts, Media Specialist, East Middle School, Holland,Michigan.ixAdvisory BoardAmRevBioFM.qxp 7/29/03 3:01 PM Page ixAmerican Revolution: Biographies presents biographies of sixty men and women who took part in, influenced, orwere in some way affected by the American Revolution. Amongthe people profiled in each of the two volumes are Americanpatriots and presidents; colonists who remained loyal to Eng-land; Native Americans, royalty, politicians, scoundrels, andmilitary officers from foreign nations who helped or hinderedthe American fight for freedom; writers, poets, and publishers;and heroic colonial women who wrote, took up arms, acted asspies, or raised funds for American independence. American Revolution: Biographies not only includes thebiographies of such famous patriots as George Washington,Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Samuel Adams, ThomasPaine, and Thomas Jefferson, it also features the life stories ofless celebrated people such as Phillis Wheatley, renowned poetand former slave; Frenchman Pierre Charles L’Enfant, whodesigned the city of Washington, D.C.; Deborah Sampson, awoman who donned a military uniform and served as an armysoldier; and Frederika von Riedesel, a German who chronicledthe Revolution while traveling throughout the colonies withher young family as her husband fought for the British. xiReader’s GuideAmRevBioFM.qxp 7/29/03 3:01 PM Page xiOther featuresAmerican Revolution: Biographies also highlights interest-ing people with ties to the main biography subjects, and addsdetails that help round out events of the Revolutionary period.Each entry contains cross-references to other individuals pro-filed in the two-volume set, and each offers a list of sources—including web sites—for further information about the indi-vidual profiled. A timeline and glossary introduce each volumeand a cumulative subject index concludes each volume. American Revolution: Biographies has two companionvolumes: American Revolution: Almanac, which describes innarrative form the events leading up to the war and the majorevents of the war; and American Revolution: Primary Sources,which contains excerpts from more than thirty Revolutionary-era documents. AcknowledgmentsThe authors wish to thank Mary Reilly McCall, whocontributed encouragement, enthusiasm, and several biogra-phies to this set.Comments and suggestionsWe welcome your comments on this work as well asyour suggestions for topics to be featured in future editions ofAmerican Revolution: Biographies. Please write: Editors, AmericanRevolution: Biographies, U•X•L, 27500 Drake Rd., FarmingtonHills, MI 48331-3535; call toll-free: 1-800-877-4253; fax: 248-414-5043; or send e-mail via www.galegroup.com.xii American Revolution: BiographiesAmRevBioFM.qxp 7/29/03 3:01 PM Page xiixiii1754 Start of the French and Indian War, pitting the Frenchand their Indian allies against the British for control ofNorth America.1760 George III becomes King of England.1762 James Otis Jr., brother of Mercy Otis Warren, pub-lishes a pamphlet arguing for a limitation on Parlia-ment’s right to interfere with colonial affairs.1763 French and Indian War ends with a British victory. Toappease Native Americans, King George III forbids colo-nial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.1765 In March, King George III approves the Stamp Act,which taxes the American colonies to pay for the Frenchand Indian War. Horace Walpole, British Member ofParliament, opposes the Stamp Act before Parliamentand speaks out for the rights of American colonists.In July, Boston patriots (“Sons of Liberty”) unite inopposition to the Stamp Act. In August, a mob destroysthe house of Massachusetts Lieutenant GovernorThomas Hutchinson to protest the act.Timeline of Events inRevolutionary AmericaAmRevBioFM.qxp 7/29/03 3:01 PM Page xiii[...]... institutions Continental army: An army of American colonists formed during the American Revolution Continental Congress: An assembly of delegates from the American colonies (later states) The delegates governed before and during the Revolutionary War and under the Articles of Confederation The Continental Congress first met in 1774 The Crisis: Also known as The American Crisis, a series of pamphlets written... frontier and in Canada between 1754 and 1763 French Revolution: An event lasting from 1789 to 1799 that ended the thousand-year rule of kings in France and established France as a republic The American Revolution and the American experiment with democracy was an inspiration to many French people, but while the American experiment thrived, the French Revolution ended in chaos G Great Britain: The island... to openly aid the American cause 1780 xviii In May, Charleston, South Carolina, falls to British troops American Revolution: Biographies In June, Massachusetts’s constitution asserts that “all men are born free and equal”; this includes black slaves In Sentiments of an American Woman, Esther De Berdt Reed calls on colonial women to sacrifice luxuries and instead give money to the American army In September,... is named the temporary seat of the new U.S government 1789 David Ramsay’s History of the Revolution is published In April, George Washington is sworn in as the first U.S president xx American Revolution: Biographies In July, the French Revolution begins in Paris King Louis XVI will be beheaded in 1792 during this revolution In September, the U.S Army is established by Congress 1791 The Bill of Rights,... share assigned to a group During the American Revolution, when too few men volunteered to be soldiers in the Continental army, Congress assigned a quota to each colony, representing the number of men the colony was expected to round up and send to serve in the army R Radical: A person who favors revolutionary changes in a nation’s political structure xxviii American Revolution: Biographies Rebel: A person... Abodaher, David J Warrior on Two Continents: Thaddeus Kosciuszko New York: Julian Messner, 1968 262 American Revolution: Biographies “Kosciuszko, Tadeusz.” Webster’s American Military Biographies Springfield, MA: G & C Merriam Co Publishers, 1978, pp 221-22 “Kosciuszko, Thaddeus.” Who Was Who During the American Revolution Compiled by the editors of Who’s Who in America Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc.,... Hessians: Citizens of Hesse-Cassel, once a part of Germany German soldiers (mercenaries) were hired by King George III to fight for the British in the American Revolution Many came from Hesse-Cassel; as a result, all German soldiers were called Hessians xxvi American Revolution: Biographies I Intolerable Acts: Four laws passed by the British government in 1774 to punish Boston for the Boston Tea Party Iroquois... winning the Revolutionary War 1782 Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay, and Henry Laurens go to France to draw up a peace treaty Deborah Sampson, disguised as a man, enlists in the Fourth Massachusetts Regiment and fights against the Tories and Native Americans 1783 Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant and the Iroquois Confederacy begin blocking American westward expansion In April, Congress declares the Revolutionary... collected to pay for the expenses of government Revolution: A sudden political overthrow; a forcible substitution of rulers Revolutionary War: The war for American independence from Great Britain The fighting began with the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775 and lasted through the Battle of Yorktown in 1781 S Saratoga, Battle of: A major battle of the Revolutionary War, fought in northern New York... an officer’s commission from the Continental Congress, the governing body during the American Revolution (1775–83) American Charles Henry Lee, who had served in the Polish army for five years and later held a military position in America, helped Kosciuszko obtain a commission with the Continental army, the army of the American rebels Kosciuszko got involved in America’s fight for independence out of . introduce each volume and a cumulative subject index concludes each volume. American Revolution: Biographies has two companionvolumes: American Revolution: . to be featured in future editions of American Revolution: Biographies. Please write: Editors, American Revolution: Biographies, U•X•L, 27500 Drake Rd.,
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