Đảng Xã hội dân chủ Đức - lược trình 135 năm từ truyền thống đến hiện đại (1875-2010)

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Ngoai viec khang dinh lai nhung gia tri CO ban la Tu do, Cdng bang, Doan ket, Cuong ITnh mdi neu rd SPD tu coi minh la dang nhan dan canh ta, cd ngudn gdc tir Do Thai giao va Thien C[r] (1)DANG XA HOI DAN CHU DLTC - Ll/QC TRINH 135 NAM TCrTRUviN THONG DEN HIEN D A I ( - ) PGS TS Nguyen Hoang Giap PGS.TS Nguyen Thj Que Vien Quan he quoc te Hoc vien Chinh tri - Hanh chinh quoc gia Ho Chi Minh Dang Xa hdi dan chu Diic (Soziademokratische Partei Deutschland -SPD) ddi nam 1875, trd chinh dang ddc lap dau tien ciia giai cap cdng nhan va lao ddng tren the gidi Sir kien ddng thdi ciing md cdt mdc cho su hinh trao luu xa hgi dan chii qudc te Trong lich sir 135 nam qua, SPD mac dii da trai qua nhirng giai doan hoat dgng thang tram, phiie tap, nhung van la mdt chinh dang ldn, cd anh hudng sau rdng ddi sdng chinh tri xa hgi nudc Diic ciing nhu d chau Au va tren the gidi Vdi 23 nam tren vi tri dang cam quyen 61 nam ke tir Cdng hda Lien bang Dire dugc lap (1949), SPD cd nhiing ddng gdp xiing dang ddi vdi sir phat trien cua nudc Dire duang dai Mat khac, SPD cdn la mdt nhiing dang xa hdi dan chii ndng cdt ciia Qudc te Xa hdi (Socialits International-SI), td chirc qudc te cd sir tham gia ciia han 160 dang va td chiic vien tir tat ca cac chau luc tren hanh tinh hien Dang Xa hgi dan chu Diic ddi la ca mdt qua trinh, gan bd mat thiet vdi cugc diu tranh cua phong trao cdng nhan, lao ddng d Dire va chau Au tir giira the ky XIX Trudc sir phat trien manh ciia phong trao cdng nhan, nam 1863, F Latxan (Ferdirrad Lassalle) - mdt nha lanh dao cua giai cap cdng nhan Diic- da lap Tdng hdi Cdng nhan Diic (ADAV) Sir kien cd y nghTa quan trgng, thiic day sir trudng y thiic giai cap va tang cudng doan ket thdng nhat giai cap edng nhan Latxan chii truang dau tranh chdng chu nghTa tu ban bang dudng cai luong nghi trudng Ong cho rang, de gianh thang lgi thi giai cap cdng nhan phai lap mdt chinh dang rieng ciia minh va phai lay viec bau cir phd thdng dau phieu cdng bang va true tiep lam khau hieu va nggn cd tap hgp lire lugng, coi day la nguyen ly boat ddng ciia dang Latxan khang dinh, ehi cd dai dien ciia giai cap cdng nhan cac ca quan lap hien ciia Diic mdi bao dam nhirng lgi ich chinh dang ciia hg ve mat chinh tri, dd viec tiin hanh nhiing hoat dgng hoa binh, hgp phap phai la cuong ITnh ciia dang cdng nhan KI thira tu tudng cua Latxan, sau Becxtanh (E Bernstein) va Cauxky (K Kautsky) -nhiing thu ITnh ciia Dang Xa hdi dan chii Dire- da phat trien chii nghTa ca hgi cai (2)Nam 1869, nhiing ngudi theo tu tudng maexit d Dire, dimg dau la A Bebel (August Bebel) va W Lipnech (Wilhelm Liebknecht), thanh lap Dang Cdng nhan Xa hdi dan chii Dire (SDAP), thdng qua Cuong ITnh Aixonac (ten dia diem dien dai hdi lap Dang) Cuong ITnh xac dinh muc tieu dau tranh xda bd chii nghTa tu ban, xay dung nha nudc nhan dan tu do, coi tu chinh tri la tien de de giai phdng giai cap cdng nhan ve kinh te va cudc dau tranh giai phdng lao ddng mang tinh qudc te Den thang 9-1875, Dang Cdng nhan Xa hdi dan chu Diic hgp nhat vdi Tdng hdi Cdng nhan Diic Dang Cdng nhan xa hdi chii nghTa Dire (SAPD), thdng qua Cuong ITnh Gdta, dd chiia dung nhiing tu tudng cai luong ciia phai Latxan Do dd, C.Mac da phe phan gay gat ban cuong ITnh tac pham ''Phe phdn Cuang linh Goto" Den nam 1891, SAPD chinh thirc khang dinh ten ggi ciia Dang la Dang Xa hoi dan chu Diic (SPD) va ten ggi dd tdn tai cho den Nhu vay Dang Xa hdi dan chii Diic la dang xa hdi dan chii dau tien tren the gidi Tir cai ndi giau tiem nang ly luan tu tudng va truyen thdng each mang la nudc Diic, trao luu xa hdi dan chil lan tda chau Au va the gidi, chinh thiic trd mgt trao luu qudc te vao nhung nam 70-80 cua thi ky XIX Trong thdi ky khdi dau, SPD the hien kha rd net khuynh hudng each mang, cd mdi quan he gan bd vdi chii nghTa Mac Mat khae, Dang bit dau tham gia cang tich cue vao nhieu cudc tuyen cir phd thdng dau phieu, ty le phieu iing hd cho Dang tang len dang ke va cac dai bieu ciia Dang da cd mat tai Nghi vien Dire Viec sir dung tuong ddi thanh cdng phd thdng dau phieu de tang cudng anh hudng da tao mdt phuang thirc dau tranh mdi ciia nhirng ngudi xa hdi dan chil Diic Day dugc coi la mdt sang tao phuong phap dau tranh cua phong trao cdng nhan qudc te, lan dau tien dugc giai cap cdng nhan Diic va nhirng ngudi xa hdi dan chu Due tien hanh Tuy nhien, cang ve nhiing nam cudi the ky XIX trd di, nhat la sau Ph Angghen qua ddi, cac thii ITnh cai luong, co hdi va xet lai SPD, dung dau la Becxtanh cang gia tang liing doan Dang va phong trao xa hdi dan chu qudc te Dang bi chia re sau sac, lam vao cudc dau tranh ndi bd trien mien giiia cac phe phai, nhat la giira hai khuynh hudng each mang va cai luong co hdi Sir thang the ciia khuynh hudng ca hdi, xet lai lam cho SPD cang xa rdi nhiing nguyen ly each mang maexit, tham chi sa vao lap trudng chdng chii nghTa xa hdi khoa hge Ve chinh tri Dang chuyen manh sang thoa hiep giai cap, tir bd dau tranh each mang vi sir nghiep xda bd ap biic bdc lot ciia chil nghTa tu ban Becxtanh khing dinh nhiem vy ea ban ciia phong trao cdng nhan la dau tranh cho nhiing cai each nham cai thien hoan canh kinh te ciia giai cap cdng nhan dudi che tu ban chii nghTa Tir day, con dudng dau tranh nghi trudng dugc tuyet ddi hda nhu la eon dudng nhat cd thi (3)26 NGHIEN COU CHAU AU - EUROPEAN STUDIES REVIEW N°7 ni8).2010 xa hdi Phuang cham mang tinh ca hdi cai luang ndi bat nhat ma Becxtanh neu la: "Phong trdo la tdt cd, muc dich cudi cung chi la so 0" va "Chi cdn 50% dgi bieu cong nhdn nghi vien tu sdn thi cdeh mgng vo sdn nhdt dinh thdnh cong" Ve thuc chat, day la nhiing luan diem phii nhan Sli menh lich sir ciia giai cap cdng nhan theo quan diem chu nghTa xa hdi khoa hge Khi Chien tranh the gidi thir Nhit no ra, phai ca hdi xet lai SPD diing tren lap trudng chil nghTa xa hdi dan tdc sd vanh, img hd khau hieu "Bao ve Td qudc" ciia giai cip tu san SPD bi phan liet hai dang: SPD ddc lap (USPD) va SPD da sd (MSPD; mau thuan vdi gay gat va mai den nam 1922 mdi thdng nhat lai Trong nhirng nam 20-30 ciia the ky XX, ndi bd SPD van khdng thdng nhat, dd khdng dua dugc dudng ldi cuong ITnh rd rang, nhat la bdi canh chil nghTa phat xit d Diic cang phat trien Nam 1933, Hitler vdi Dang Qudc xa len nam chinh quyin, SPD rai vao tinh thi khd khan va den nam 1934 bi phat xit giai tan, phai riit vao hoat ddng bi mat Sau Chien tranh thi gidi thii Hai, SPD chinh thiic hoat ddng cdng khai trd lai vao thang 5-1946 Mac du cd rit nhilu cd ging trong hoat ddng ly luan va thuc tien, nhung qua nhieu ky bau cir Qudc hgi Lien bang sau chien tranh, SPD van la dang ddi lap Nam 1951, SPD tham gia lap Qudc tl Xa hdi (SI) tai phd Phranphude ciia nudc Diic va cd nhung ddng gdp quan trgng nhit trong viec soan thao ban Tuyen ngdn ciia td chiic qudc te - Tuyen ngon Phranphude Ndi dung Tuyen ngdn the hien rd lap trudng cua SPD, dd dua quan diem trung lap ve the gidi quan, phi y thiic he va de xuit con duong thic ba - khong phdi Id dudng chit nghTa tic bdn, khong phdi dudng chii nghTa xd hoi md Id duang tien toi mot xd hoi cdng bdng, mot doi song tot hon, tu vd hod binh tren the gioi Tu tudng mdi ve "phi y thirc he" danh dau viec trao luu xa hgi dan chil ndi ehung va SPD ndi rieng dd hoan toan doan tuyet vdi nhirng tu tudng cua chii nghTa xa hdi khoa hge Hoc thuyit Mac chi cdn la di san van hoa - lich sir, dua xudng ngang hang vdi cac trao luu chinh tri - tu tudng khac ma nhiing ngudi xa hgi dan chii cd the sir dung de dat tdi mdt xa hdi cdng bang Nhiing ngudi xa hdi dan chu phe phan chil nghTa tu ban, chii nghTa thuc dan, nhung lai tuyen bd y dinh khic phuc chii nghTa tu ban bang mdt che xa hdi mdi vdi su md rdng tu ca nhan tren ca sd sung tiic vl kinh te, ddng thdi kich liet cdng kich chu nghTa xa hdi hien thuc la khdng cd dan chu va tdn thd sir ddc quyin thdng tri cua Dang va Nha nudc Nhiing ndi dung ca ban neu tren ciia Tuyen ngdn Phranphude dugc tiip tuc khing dinh lai Cuang ITnh Godexbec cua SPD nam 1959 Ciing vdi viec bac bd thi gidi quan va he tu tudng ndi chung, Cuang ITnh Godexbec loai bd chu nghTa Mac nin tang tu tudng ly luan cua minh, dong thdi viit bd khai niem giai cip va diu tranh giai (4)nghTa xa hdi dan chu bat ngudn tir giao ly Thien chiia, tir chu nghTa nhan dao va nhieu quan diem cua triet hge cd dien Tren ITnh vuc kinh te, Cuong ITnh Gddexbec nhan manh y nghTa va vai trd ciia canh tranh, xda bd chil truang xa hdi hiia, nhung van danh mdt phan ndi ve sd hiru cdng, coi dd nhu la hinh thirc hgp phap ciia sir kiem soat eiia nha nudc Lan dau tien cuang ITnh, SPD neu va khang dinh nhirng gia tri ca ban ciia minh la: Tu do, Cdng bang va Doan ket Cuong ITnh Gddexbec danh dau sir chuyen bien co ban cua SPD nham thich iing vdi nhiing dieu kien xa hdi da thay ddi, dae biet la the hien y chi gianh lay quyen lire chinh tri nha nude SPD da gat sang mdt ben "rao can" giai cap nham thu hut manh hon cac tang ldp dan cu xa hdi Tir mdt dang vdn ciia giai cap cdng nhan va lao ddng, gid day SPD da trd mdt dang nhan dan Cuong ITnh Gddexbec trd kim chi nam cho SPD qua trinh dau tranh dat tdi muc tieu gianh quyen lire ehinh tri Tren phuong dien ddi ngoai, Cuong ITnh Gddexbec cho rang, bdi canh Chien tranh Lanh dang cang trd nen gay gat, nhiem vu ldn nhat va cap bach nhat la giii gin hda binh va bao dam quyen tu thdng qua hgp tae, doan ket qudc te va giai trir quan bi Mat khac, mdt the gidi ma tat ca eac lgi ich va cac mdi quan he dan xen vdi nhau thi khdng mdt dan tdc nao cd kha nang tu minh giai quyet dugc cac van de chinh tri, kinh te - xa hgi ciia minh neu khdng cd sir hgp tac vdi cac dan tgc khac Do vay, SPD chil truang xay dung quan he ngoai giao va quan he thuang mai binh thudng, da dang hda vdi tat ea cac nudc khdng phan biet che do chinh tri va ca cau xa hdi Sau nhiing thay ddi va dieu chinh dudng ldi chinh tri nhu da ndi, SPD tap trung ciing ed ve td chiic tir trung uong den cac dia phuong, ddi ngii dang vien SPD da tang len kha nhanh chdng dat xap xi trieu ngudi Trong bdi canh lien minh cam quyen ciia Dang Lien minh Dan chu Co ddc giao (CDU) vdi Dang Lien minh Xa hdi Co ddc giao (CSU) va Dang Dan chii tu diing trudc nhiing khd khan to ldn ca ve ddi ngi lan ddi ngoai, nhat la tren ITnh vuc kinh te va viec lam, SPD da nhanh chdng, cd cac cude thuong lugng cdng de tien tdi lap chinh phii dai lien minh giira SPD vdi CDU-CSU vao cudi nam 1966 Lan dau tien sau Chien tranh the gidi thii Hai, SPD budc vao vi tri cam quyen Sau ba nam (1966-1969) dai lien minh cam quyen, tai cudc bau cir thang 9-1969, SPD gianh thing lgi ldn bau cir Qudc hdi va lien minh vdi Dang Dan chii tu (FDP) lap chinh phii do W Brandt lam Thii tudng, md giai doan nhiem ky lien tuc cam quyen ciia SPD-FDP tir 1969 din 1982 Trong 16 nam cam quyen (1966-1982), SPD da chiing td vai trd va vi the ciia minh trong xa hdi Dire Dac biet, giai doan 1969-1982, chinh phii lien minh giiia SPD vdi FDP da dem lai cho nudc Due nhiing qua to ldn: day nhanh cac cudc cai each, tang (5)28 NGHIEN COU CHAU AU - EUROPEAN STUDIES REVIEW N°7 11181.2010 tinh cdng khai, phat huy tinh tu quyet va su tham gia dan chii cua cdng dan vao cac hoat ddng xa hdi Ve ddi ngoai, dudng ldi chinh sach ciia SPD da gdp phan tich cue thiic day giai trir quan bi, xiic tien quan he cua CHLB Diic vdi Lien Xd va cac nudc xa hdi chii nghTa, khdi ddng tien trinh Hdi nghi ve Hoa binh va An ninh chau Au tai Henxinky (19731975), lam giam ddi dau Ddng -Tay Vai trd cua SPD phong trao xa hdi dan chii qudc te, dac biet la ciia Chii tich SPD, ddng thdi la Chii tich Qudc te Xa hgi W Brandt dugc danh gia cao Trong viec giai quyet nhirng van de qudc te ciing nhu nhieu van de mang tinh toan cau khac, Qudc te Xa hdi chiu anh hudng khdng nhd tir quan diem cua SPD Dudi sir lanh dao ciia W Brandt, td chiic qudc te tuyen bd iing hd ddi thoai Bac - Nam, iing hd cudc dau tranh thiet lap trat tu kinh te qude te mdi, de xuat cae bien phap chuyen giao sang the gidi thic ba nhung cdng nghe phu hgp, ddng thdi de xuat hgp tac vdi eac nudc dang phat trien ve kinh te, bao ve mdi trudng, khai thac cd hieu qua ngudn tai nguyen san cd ciia nhirng nudc Dang chii y la nhung kien nghi Clia Qude te Xa hdi xung quanh van de giam cang thang qudc te, giai trir quan bi, chdng chay dua vii trang, bao ve mdi trudng thi gidi dugc cdng ddng qudc te, nhit la cac dang cdng san va cac nudc xa hdi chii nghia ddn nhan tich cue, gdp phan cai thien rit dang ke quan he giiia nhiing ngudi cdng san va nhiing ngudd xa hgi dan chu nhiing thap nien 1970- 1980^" Vdi nhung kit qua dat dugc 16 nam cam quyen neu tren, SPD da gdp phan nang cao vi the kinh te va chinh tri cua nudc Diic tren trudng qudc te Tuy nhien, ddi ngi, can nguyen cua nhiing khd khan kinh te khdng dugc giai quyet triet nen nen kinh te Dire van an chiia nhieu bat dn va tiep tuc bi day tdi trudc nhirng nan giai mdi, keo theo nhiing van de xa hdi nhu that nghiep, khoang each giau ngheo, mdi trudng xudng cap Tinh hinh lam gia tang su ran nirt cac quan diem xay dung chinh sach giira SPD va FDP ciing vdi cudc dau tranh ndi bg SPD dan den sir sup dd giiia chimg chinh phu lien minh SPD-FDP vao thang 9-1982, chim diit mdt "ky nguyen xa hdi dan chii" SPD budc vao thdi ky 16 nam lien tue tren vi tri dang ddi lap (1982-1998) Trudc nhiing van de mdi dat dieu kien eua mgt dang ddi lap, SPD nhan thay can phai xay dung cho minh mdt dien mao mdi, ddng thdi chii truang tang cudng sire manh ciia Dang thdng qua ddi thoai va lien he mat thiet vdi nhan dan, coi viec phin dau ve cac gia tri ca ban: Tu do, Cdng bing, Doan kit thuc tiin la nhiem vu thudng xuyen nhim thu hiit cir tri dl gianh lai quyen luc chinh tri Cuang ITnh Berlin dugc SPD thdng qua nam 1989 la nhim hudng tdi muc tieu dd Ngoai viee tiip tuc nhin manh cac gia tri ca ban, lin diu tien mgt cuong ITnh chinh tri cua SPD da dl cap din (6)con ngudi, quyen ngudi mdt each kha toan dien, den van de mdi trudng - sinh thai va tinh ben vung ciia su phat trien Dang chil truang nen dan chu nghi vien vdi sir phan cdng trach nhiem phai cang cu the, rd rang han giira Qudc hdi va Chinh phu, giura Nha nudc Lien bang vdi bang va dia phuang, giira Nha nudc va edng dan SPD nhan manh viec tang cudng sir tham quyet va tu chiu trach nhiem ciia dia phuang va cdng dan Di theo hudng nay, tir giira thap nien 90 the ky XX, SPD cimg vdi Cdng dang Anh va mdt sd dang xa hdi dan chil d Tay Au dua dudng ldi trung dung mdi - "Con duang thic ba moi'' nhu la cau tra ldi cho nhiing van de kinh te - xa hdi dang dat liic dd ddi vdi cae dang xa hdi dan chu Day la sir ehuyen hudng tu tudng de thich nghi vdi nhung thay ddi cua the gidi sau Chien tranh Lanh va sir phat trien ciia xu the toan cau hda, la nd luc tim kiem giai phap thay the cho phuang an dudng thii ba truyen thdng ciia trao luu xa hdi dan chu vdn da trd nen khdng hieu qua, tham chi be tae ganh nang chi tieu cho phiic lgi xa hdi cang ldn Con duong thic ba mai duac coi Id duong trung dung giiia duong thic ba truyin thing (mo hinh nhd nuoc phiic loi) ciia cdc ddng xd hoi ddn chii vdi chii nghTa tu moi cua chii nghTa tu bdn Day thuc chat la vira dua vao nha nudc, vira dua vao kinh te thi trudng va chii nghTa tu mdi ve kinh tl Con dudng thii ba mdi chii truang tao mdt nen kinh te hdn hgp cac hinh thiic sd hiiu nhung khdng gidng vdi nen kinh te hdn hgp phai ta cii neu ra, khdng phai la tim kiem sir can bang giiia qudc hiiu vdi tu hiiu, ma la tao sir can bang giiia quan ly va xoa bd quan ly, la sir ket hgp giiia chiic nang can thiep eiia chinh phii vdi tinh tich cue cua thi trudng xa hdi Ndi mdt each khac, nd chii trgng sir can bang quan ly kinh te bang each cat giam quyen han ciia chinh phii va tang quyen han, trach nhiem cua ca nhan, ciia doanh nghiep, quan tam den quy luat cua kinh te thi trudng Day la ehii truong phan giai quyen lire nha nudc xudng dudi cho cac dia phuong va chuyen them quyen luc cho eac doanh nghiep, nhat la cac cdng ty da qudc gia Dudng ldi trung dung mdi ma SPD theo dudi nhan manh rang, eudc dau tranh giira kinh te thi trudng va kinh te cdng hiiu da ket thiic, cho nen can chuyen sang thiie day mdi quan he hgp tae giiia chinh phii vdi gidi cdng nghiep, giira cac hinh thiic sd hiiu vdi nham giam bdi mau thuan, tao nen sir tang trudng lau dai va ca hdi tao nhieu viee lam nham giai quyet mdt sd nhiing van de kinh te - xa hdi rat biic xiic, gay gat la nan that nghiep cao trudc xu the thay ddi nhanh chdng eiia ca cau san xuat hien dai bdi canh toan cau hoa va phat trien kinh tl tri thiic Ve ITnh vue xa hdi, SPD ehii truong thay ddi chinh sach phiic lgi nha nudc nham giam ganh nang ngan sach, chii trgng tao nhieu viec lam chii khdng qua tap trung vao (7)30 NGHIEN COU CHAU AU - EUROPEAN STUDIES REVIEW N°7 (118).2010 den cdng tac dao tao de mdi cdng dan cd ca hdi tim kiem viee lam, thich ling nhanh vdi xu the toan cau hoa^ ' Nhiing cd gang cua SPD tren ca phuong dien hoat ddng ly luan va thuc tien da dua lai ket qua vdi su thang lgi cua Dang cudc bau cir Qudc hdi lien bang thang 9-1998 va ciing vdi Dang Xanh lap chinh phii lien minh cam quyen Bdn nam sau, tai cudc bau cir Qudc hdi Lien bang nam 2002, lien minh Dd-Xanh (giiia SPD va Dang Xanh) lai tiip tuc gianh thang lgi nhiem ky thir hai lien tiep Thanh cdng ldn nhat viec thuc hien dudng ldi trung dung mdi cua SPD hai nhiem ky lien minh cam quyen theo danh gia eua cac chuyen gia, la da dua nudc Due thoat khdi tinh trang "ddng bang" ve cai each Chinh phii da tiin hanh cai each manh me tren nhieu ITnh vuc: phat trien kinh te, cdng bang xa hdi, an sinh xa hdi, thi trudng lao ddng Mdi quan he cdng dan - nha nudc - xa hdi ciing bien ddi nhanh chdng Qua trinh ca the hda tang len, ngudi tu chiu trach nhiem ddi vdi ban than nhieu hon, sir tu quan cua cdng dan manh hon; ngudi dan hieu va yeu cau nha nudc phai dan chu, cdng khai, minh bach hon, nhat la dan chu tnong kinh te va rd rang, minh bach thu chi ngan sach va ddi dugc quyen tham quyet manh me hon Ngugc lai, nha nudc ciing phan quyen manh hon, chia se trach nhiem vai dia phuong va Nhdn dien "Con duang thic ba mai" ciia cdc ddng ddn chil xdhdi, T/c Sinh hoat ly luan, 1/2005, tr cdng dan nhieu han Quyen va nghTa vu ciia dia phuong, ciia ngudi dan dugc phan dinh rd rang hon Chinh phii da xuc tien cat giam kha manh cac miic thue ap dung ddi vdi hoat ddng kinh doanh Trong Hch sir CHLB Dire, chua cd chinh phii nao timg cat giam thul nhieu nhu chinh phu cua Thu tudng G Schroder Tuy nhien, tren thue te SPD da khdng tao dugc budc ngoat thuc sir chinh sach; nen kinh te, thi trudng lao ddng trai qua nhieu cai each nhung nhiing cai each ve ca ban lai deu mang tinh nira vdi, nen ngay cang rai vao khiing hoang tram trgng Chinh phu SPD khdng nhirng khdng thuc hien dugc lai hiia giam that nghiep, ma cdn phai danh mdt khoan tien ldn hon cho viec chi tra bao hiem va trg cip xa hdi Ty le thit nghiep cao gin 10% (han trieu ngudi), diu tu giam Slit, cau ve hang hda va dich vu suy giam, du ng nha nudc tang Nhin chung, kinh tl Diic tang trudng kem hon cac nudc khu vuc, ngan sach tiip tuc tham hut (vugt qua ngudng 3% ciia Lien minh Tiin te Chau Au - EMU), phiic lgi xa hgi bi giam siit nghiem trgng, ddi sdng ngudi lao ddng cang them khd khan, sir chenh lech thu nhap va mirc sdng giira cac nhdm dan cu cang tang khiin cho cdng bing xa hoi van chi la mdt udc ma xa vdi Tit ca dilu lam cho uy tin ciia chinh phu sut giam nghiem trgng, SPD lien tiip bi mit dilm tai cac cudc biu cir dia phuang Trudc tinh thi dd, lien minh cam quyin quyit dinh biu cir (8)trudc thdi ban vao thang 9/2005, SPD da khdng gianh dugc da sd, budc phai tham gia dai lien minh vdi CDU-CSU va mat quyin lap chinh phu G Schroder phai nhudng vi tri thu tudng cho ba Anggela Merkel Trong lich sir Diic, day la lan thii hai CDU-CSU va SPD lien minh vdi lap chinh phii dieu hanh dat nudc (lan thir nhat vao nam 1966) Sau that bai bau cir Qude hdi Lien bang nam 2005, SPD dang tieh cue chuan bi de cd the quay trd lai cam quyen Mdt nhiing nd lire dd la viec soan thao va thdng qua cuong ITnh mdi - Cuang ITnh Hambuoe (10-2007) Day dugc coi la Cuong ITnh hanh dgng ciia SPD thi ky XXI - "thi ky dau tien thuc sir toan cau hda", the ky ma "tir trudc den chua bao gid mgi ngudi tren khap the gidi lai phu thuge vao den nhu vay" Ngoai viec khang dinh lai nhung gia tri CO ban la Tu do, Cdng bang, Doan ket, Cuong ITnh mdi neu rd SPD tu coi minh la dang nhan dan canh ta, cd ngudn gdc tir Do Thai giao va Thien Chiia giao, tir phong trao Nhan van va Khai sang, tir nhung phan tich xa hdi maexit va nhirng kinh nghiem dau tranh cua phong trao cdng nhan Diem mdi dang chii y d day la sir de cap den "nhirng phan tich xa hdi maexit" ngudn gdc ciia SPD Cuong ITnh xac dinh muc tieu va chinh sach ciia SPD, dd la*^': 1) Mdt thi gidi hda binh va cdng bing; 2) Mdt chau Au dan chil va xa hdi; 3) Mdt xa hdi cdng dan doan ket va mdt nha nudc dan chii; 4) Binh dang gidi; 5) Tien bd mang tinh ben virng va tang trudng cd chat lugng; 6) Viec lam tir te cho tat ca mgi ngudi; 7) Mdt nha nudc xa hdi lo xa; 8) Mdt he thdng dao tao tdt hon, mdt xa hdi than thien vdi tre em va nhiing gia dinh virng chac Danh gia ve chii nghTa tu ban dieu kien toan cau hda hien nay, SPD cho rang nd song hanh vdi tinh trang thieu dan chii va bat cdng Chil nghia tu ban toan cau di ngugc lai muc tieu ve mdt the gidi tu va doan ket, lam sau sac hon nhiing bat cdng vdn cd va tao nhiing bat edng mdi Chinh vi vay, nhiing ngudi xa hdi dan chii Dire phai tien hanh dau tranh d nudc, d chau Au va tren the gidi cho mdt cau tra ldi mang tinh xa hdi ddi vdi chii nghTa tu ban toan cau Tir nhan thiic nay, SPD xac dinh: "Nhiem vu ldn cua the ky XXI la kien thiet qua trinh toan cau hda bang nhung bien phap chinh tri dan chu"(^\ Hoat ddng cua SPD cho thay, dilu kien da nguyen chinh tri, da dang ddi lap d mdt nudc tu ban phat trien Dang phai khdng ngimg dieu chinh mdt each thich hgp ve mgi mat tir dudng ldi cuong ITnh den phuang thiic lanh dao va hoat ddng thuc tien, niu khdng se phai ddi mat vdi viee bi day khdi vi tri cam quyen Ve phuong thiic hoat dgng va lanh dao, kinh nghiem cua SPD da chi rang phai dua tren ba chii the Dang, dd la eac hoat dgng ciia: toan Dang, dang doan Qudc hdi, lanh tu va cd van ciia Dang '^' Dang Xa hpi dan chii Diic, Cuang Unh Hamburg ndm 2007, Tai lieu djch ciia Hpc vien Chinh trj -Hanh chinh qu6c gia H6 Chi Minh, tr 63 (9)32 NGHIEN COU CHAU AU - EUROPEAN STUDIES REVIEW N°7 (118).2010 SPD dac biet quan tam hoat ddng cua dang doan Qudc hdi vi nd gay dugc anh hucmg rat ldn Nhiing bien phap chinh sach cu the ciia nha nudc dugc thao luan va thdng qua tai Qudc hdi, chii khdng phai cac nghi quyet Dang d cac cap Hon niia, SPD thudng cam quyen mdt chinh phii lien minh (it nhat mdt ddi tac), cho nen trudc ban hanh cac chii truong, chinh sach, quyet dinh Dang phai thdng nhat vdi ddi tac lien minh cua minh Day la sir hgp tac cua da sd cac nhdm cir tri khac xa hdi va mdi ben deu ed quan niem rieng ve eac chinh sach Tir cuong ITnh ciia cac dang khac lien minh, SPD phai lam the nao de dua dugc chinh sach trung hiru, cd tinh chat thda hiep vdi cac ben ddi tac Ngoai ra, d Diic, hiep hdi gidi chii va cac cdng doan deu rat manh Hiep hdi gidi chil bao gdm hang nghin giam ddc cac doanh nghiep va cd anh hudng ldn den chinh sach kinh te, cdn cae cdng doan d Diic cd khoang trieu doan vien la mdt luc lugng xa hdi ddng dao Tren thuc te, SPD bao gid ciing phai lien minh vdi mdt dang canh hiiu nao dd ve mat chinh sach xa hdi Khi tranh gianh cir tri bao gid ciing phai tranh gianh vdi nhung dang canh hiru, mudn dua dao luat nao va thuc thi nd ciing deu phai tinh den su phan img ciia cac dang canh hiru Qudc hdi Trong bat cii van de nao ciing phai tham dd y kien ciia gidi chu va cdng doan vi hg la nhiing nhdm xa hgi cd anh hudng ldn manh De gay anh hudng va uy tin, SPD ludn coi trgng vai trd tien phong guong mau ciia ddi ngii dang vien hoat ddng cac co quan nha nudc, cac td chiic ehinh tri xa hgi Qua dd Dang van ddng va thu hiit dugc tat ca cac lire lugng xa hdi, nhat la nhimg ngudi lao ddng cd trinh cao, de hg img hg cuang ITnh cua Dang, quan tam den hoat ddng cua Dang Nha vay, nhieu nam qua ea sd giai cap xa hdi ciia Dang cd sir thay ddi ldn vdi sir thu hep edng nhan cdng nghiep nhung lai md rdng sang cac tang ldp cdng chiic, tri thiic, trung luu, nhiing ngudi lam dich vu va ky thuat cao Ca cau tudi dang vien SPD cd xu hudng tre hda Mat khac, de phuang thiic hoat ddng va lanh dao cd chat lugng va hieu qua, SPD ludn quan tam den ddi mdi ve hinh thiic, ca cau, ve cdng tac dang SPD phuang thirc boat ddng va lanh dao chu trgng boat ddng kiem tra Uy ban Kiem tra Dai hdi bau ra, iiy vien Ban chap hanh Trung uong khdng dugc phep nam Uy ban Kiem tra IJy ban hoat ddng ddc lap, cd quyen kiem tra bat ky mdt td chirc hoac mdt dang vien nao cho dii hg d mdt cuong vi nao
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