Information system ralph CH03

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Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition Chapter Database Systems and Business Intelligence Principles and Learning Objectives • Data management and modeling are key aspects of organizing data and information – Define general data management concepts and terms, highlighting the advantages of the database approach to data management – Describe the relational database model and outline its basic features Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • A well-designed and well-managed database is an extremely valuable tool in supporting decision making – Identify the common functions performed by all database management systems, and identify popular database management systems Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • The number and types of database applications will continue to evolve and yield real business benefits – Identify and briefly discuss current database applications Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition Data Management • Without data and the ability to process it – An organization could not successfully complete most business activities • For data to be transformed into useful information, it must first be organized in a meaningful way Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition The Hierarchy of Data • Bit – Circuit that is either on or off – Eight bits = one byte • Character – Basic building block of information • Field – Name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition The Hierarchy of Data (continued) • Record – Collection of related data fields • File – Collection of related records • Database – Collection of integrated and related files • Hierarchy of data – Bits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys • Entity – Generalized class of people, places, or things for which data is collected, stored, and maintained • Attribute – Characteristic of an entity • Data item – Value of an attribute Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys (continued) • Key – Field or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record • Primary key – Field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 10 Using Databases with Other Software • Database management systems are often used with other software packages or the Internet • Front-end application – Directly interacts with users • Back-end application – Interacts with applications Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 39 Database Applications • Manipulate content of a database to produce useful information • Common manipulations – Searching, filtering, synthesizing, and assimilating data Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 40 Linking Databases to the Internet • Semantic Web – Developing a seamless integration of traditional databases with the Internet – Allows people to access and manipulate a number of traditional databases at the same time through the Internet Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 41 Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining • Data warehouse – Holds business information from many sources in the enterprise • Data mart – Subset of a data warehouse • Data mining – Information-analysis tool for discovering patterns and relationships in a data warehouse – Predictive analysis: combines historical data with assumptions about future conditions Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 42 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 43 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 44 Business Intelligence • Gathering the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on business • Competitive intelligence – Limited to information about competitors and the ways that knowledge affects strategy, tactics, and operations • Counterintelligence – Steps an organization takes to protect information sought by “hostile” intelligence gatherers Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 45 Distributed Databases • Data may be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices • Give corporations and other organizations more flexibility in how databases are organized and used • Replicated database – Holds a duplicate set of frequently used data Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 46 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 47 Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) • Software that allows users to explore data from a number of perspectives • Provides top-down, query-driven data analysis • Requires repetitive testing of user originated theories Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 48 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 49 Object-Relational Database Management Systems • Object-oriented database – Database that stores both data and its processing instructions • Object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) – Programs that manipulate an object-oriented database and provide a user interface and connections to other application programs • Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) – Capable of manipulating audio, video, and graphical data Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 50 Visual, Audio, and Other Database Systems • Virtual database systems – Allow different databases to work together as a unified database system • Spatial data technology – Use of a database to store and access data according to the locations it describes Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 51 Summary • Data – Organized into a hierarchy that builds from the smallest element to the largest • Traditional file-oriented applications – Often characterized by program-data dependence • Data model – Map or diagram of entities and their relationships • DBMS – Group of programs used as an interface between a database and its users and other applications Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 52 Summary (continued) • After a DBMS has been installed – It can be accessed, modified, and queried via a data manipulation language • Data warehouse – Relational database management systems specifically designed to support management decision making • Business intelligence – Getting enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 53 ... Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 12 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 13 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 14 Fundamentals of Information Systems,... Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 22 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 23 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 24 Database Management Systems (DBMS)... Information Systems, Fifth Edition 42 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 43 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 44 Business Intelligence • Gathering the right information
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