trade and the transition towards circular economy a research on current global practices and recommendations for vietnam

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOREIGN TRADE UNIVERSITY MASTER THESIS TRADE AND THE TRANSITION TOWARDS CIRCULAR ECONOMY: A RESEARCH ON CURRENT GLOBAL PRACTICES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VIETNAM Specialization: International Trade Policy and Law NGUYEN THI HANG Hanoi – 2020 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOREIGN TRADE UNIVERSITY MASTER THESIS TRADE AND THE TRANSITION TOWARDS CIRCULAR ECONOMY: A RESEARCH ON CURRENT GLOBAL PRACTICES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VIETNAM Specialization: International Trade Policy and Law Code: 8310106 Student: Nguyen Thi Hang Supervisor: Dr Vu Kim Ngan Hanoi – 2020 i STATEMENT OF ORIGINAL AUTHORSHIP I, Nguyen Thi Hang, hereby declare that this Master's Thesis has been written solely by the undersigned under the guidance of my supervisor, Dr Vu Kim Ngan, Foreign Trade University, Hanoi, Vietnam The contents and results of this research are completely honest The information, data and documents which are collected from various sources for analysis and evaluation have been fully cited in the main content and in the references list of this master thesis as well I also state that said Master's Thesis has not been submitted elsewhere for the fulfilment of any other qualification I make this statement in full knowledge of and understanding that, should it be found to be false, I will not receive a grade and may face disciplinary proceedings Student Nguyen Thi Hang ii ACKOWLEDGEMENT In order to complete this master thesis, I have been received enthusiastic guidance and support from my lectures, family, my friends and experts in the field From the bottom of my heart, I would like to express my thanks to them Firstly, I would like to express the sincerest thanks to my supervisor, Dr Vu Kim Ngan who has supported, guided and encouraged me during the completion of this master thesis from choosing the topic, outlining the main ideas, turning those ideas into this thesis to editing this paper Without her enthusiastic and excellent guidance and support, I could not have completed this master thesis Also, I would like to express my special thanks to all lecturers of the Master of International Policy and Law program, Foreign Trade University as well as World Trade Institute who gave me the chance to broaden my humble horizon in the field of trade policy and law, especially Professor Claudio Dordi, who was also my former supervisor at the European Trade Policy and Investment Support Project (EU – MUTRAP), for the valuable knowledge and experiences that he’s shared with me Last but not least, I would like to express my warm thanks to my precious family, my colleagues and my dear friends who never stop supporting, encouraging and giving me the favorable conditions for my master journey Especially, I would like to dedicate this Master thesis to my beloved Grandfather, who was once a brave soldier on the Dien Bien Phu battlefield, who raised me and was my role model of hardworking spirit, positive attitude and morality I might not become who I am today without him I am typing these lines in tears of grief right after his funeral I regret that I could not manage to let him see his grandchild graduate before he left for the other side Now my grandfather has long gone, I truly hope he is still there beside me and knows that I miss him so much I love you, Grandpa! iii TABLE OF CONTENTS STATEMENT OF ORIGINAL AUTHORSHIP i ACKOWLEDGEMENT ii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS v LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES vii ABSTRACT viii INTRODUCTION .1 CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CIRCULAR ECONOMY .9 1.1 The need to promote circular economy 1.1.1 Linear economy: the issue of resources efficiency & environmental pollution .9 1.1.2 The promotion of Circular Economy .13 1.2 The impact of circular economy on trade flows 19 CHAPTER 2: OVERVIEW OF GLOBAL CIRCULAR ECONOMY PRACTICES AND TRADE 25 2.1 Overview of global circular economy practices 25 2.1.1 WTO rules, domestic trade policies and circular economy 25 2.1.2 Restrictive trade measures and circular economy 28 2.1.3 Circular economy initiatives in some countries 30 2.2 Circular economy practices in China .33 2.3 Circular economy practices in the EU 37 2.3.1 Circular economy policy 38 2.3.2 The EU’s trade policies in relation to circular economy 40 2.3.3 The EU’s implementation of CE Action Plan .46 2.4 Implications for Vietnam as a trade partner of the EU 47 2.4.1 The EU – Vietnam Trade Relation 47 2.4.2 The EU’s transition towards circular economy and implications for Vietnam .48 CHAPTER 3: TRADE AND CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN VIETNAM: LAWS, REGULATIONS AND PRACTICES 51 iv 3.1 Legal framework for the circular economy .51 3.1.1 International commitments related to circular economy 51 3.1.2 Domestic legal framework as a platform for circular economy development .53 3.2 Circular economy-based practices in Vietnam 55 3.3 Vietnam in the supply chain of the global circular economy 59 3.3.1 Global recycling industry 59 3.3.2 Vietnam’s trade in the transition towards circular economy 63 CHAPTER 4: RECOMMENDATIONS TO DEVELOP CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN VIETNAM 73 4.1 Future prospect and the need to develop circular economy in Vietnam 73 4.2 Evaluation of the feasibility to develop circular economy in Vietnam 74 4.2.1 Advantages of Vietnam in developing circular economy 74 4.2.2 Challenges for Vietnam’s transition towards circular economy 75 4.3 Recommendations for Vietnam to develop circular economy 78 4.3.1 Development of a legal framework for circular economy .78 4.3.2 Initiatives for enterprises 80 4.3.3 International cooperation for circular economy 81 CONCLUSION 87 LIST OF REFERENCES .88 ANNEX 1: LIST OF SCRAPS ALLOWED TO BE IMPORTED FOR PRODUCTION MATERIALS i ANNEX 2: LIST OF WASTES SUBJECT TO TEMPORARY SUSPENSION FROM TEMPORARY IMPORT, RE-EXPORT OR MERCHANTING BUSINESS iv ANNEX 3: SUMMARY OF KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES RELATED TO CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN VIETNAM vii ANNEX 4: ALL 54 ACTIONS PLANS INCLUDED IN THE EU CIRCULAR ECONOMY ACTION PLAN (2015) ix v LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviation Full version AEC ASEAN Economic Community AfDB African Development Bank ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations CE Circular economy CIEM Central Institute of Economic Management COP Conference of the Parties CPTPP Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership CTE Committee on Trade and Environment EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development EEU Eurasian Economic Union EGS Environment Goods and Services EIB European Investment Bank EPR Extended Producer Responsibility EU European Union EVFTA EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement FTA Free Trade Agreement G7 Group of Seven GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDP Gross Domestic Product GFN Global Footprint Network HS Harmonized System IEEP Institute for European Environmental Policy MFN Most Favored Nation NDCs Nationally Determined Contributions NT National Treatment OECD The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development vi RCEP The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership SCM Agreement The Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures SDGs Sustainable Development Goals SIA Sustainability Impact Assessment SMEs Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises SPS Agreement The Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures TBT Agreement The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade TTIP Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership UK The United Kingdom UN United Nations UNCTAD The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNIDO The United Nations Industrial Development Organization VBCSD Vietnam Business Council for Sustainable Development VCCE Vietnam Centre for Circular Economy VCCI Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry VRP Vietnam Recycling Platform WCO World Customs Organization WSR Waste Shipment Regulation WTO World Trade Organization vii LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURES Figure 1.1: Linear economy model 10 Figure 1.2: Principle of circular economy: Making things last 11 Figure 1.3: Circular Economy to tackle the overlooked emissions 12 Figure 1.4: The circular economy – an industrial system that is restorative by design 15 Figure 1.5: Opportunities for trade in waste and secondary materials .24 Figure 2.1.The evolution of circular economy policy in China 35 Figure 2.2 Circular Economy development in China .37 Figure 3.1: Global waste traded internationally, by value and weight .59 Figure 3.2: Major exporters of plastics waste to China in 2016 .60 Figure 3.3: Imports of plastic scraps coming to Vietnam (in tons) showing the top 10 export partners 65 TABLES Table 1.1: Impact of circular economy on trade flows .20 Table 2.1: Resource Efficiency & Circular Economy National Policy/Strategy 32 Table 2.2 Circular Economy Package 2015: Proposed amendments to four waste management legal acts of the EU 38 Table 2.3: The EU’s Circular Economy Actions and their trade implications 49 Table 3.1 Non-profit alliances/initiatives with the concept of circular economy 57 Table 3.2: List of Vietnam’s regulatory documents for trade in waste and scraps as recyclable materials for production 67 Table 3.3: Used goods, waste and scrap banned from import to Vietnam .69 Table 3.4: List of scrap temporarily suspended from import into Vietnam 70 viii ABSTRACT As a new approach in the way resources are treated, circular economy is gaining attention worldwide for being the solution for the conflict between economic development and environment protection Research has shown that the transition towards circular economy at both domestic and global level has close linkage to international trade, i.e the trade in second-hand goods, end-of-life products, secondary materials and waste The trade flows of such circular goods and relevant services should be facilitated for the world to reach a global circular economy This study aims to determine whether that ideal circular trade is facing any restrictions and the research results indicate that these trade flows are indeed being blocked by some barriers namely import bans (e.g China’s National Sword Policy & Basel Convention) by “waste” importing countries including Vietnam Based on a review of the literature on theories of circular economy and trade policy, it is revealed that such barriers are resulted from the lack of international cooperation for agreed common standards and regulations Legal review also presents with Vietnam’s existing laws regulating trade in waste and scrap and the restrictions in place On that basis, it is recommended that Vietnam should promote its domestic circular economy, then engage in collaboration through dialogues, trade agreements, and missions to lift unnecessary trade barriers to circular goods & services, and participate in the development of a harmonized system of standards Further research is needed to identify how circular economy could be integrated into trade policy and trade agreements 91 40 European Environment Agency (2019), the plastic waste trade in the circular economy Published on 28 Oct, 2019 41 Dröge, Susanne; Schenuit, Felix (2018): Mobilising EU trade policy for raising environmental standards: the example of climate action; IEEP Working Paper; Brussels 2018 42 Valles G (2016), The circular economy in international trade Published on 05 December 2016 on 43 European Commision (2019), Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the implementation of the Circular Economy Action Plan 44 Dinh, Thao Hoa and H L Nguyen (2018), ‘An Assessment of Vietnamese Firms’ Readiness to Adopt a Circular Economy ’, in Anbumozhi, Venkatachalam and F Kimura (eds.), Industry 4.0: Empowering ASEAN for the Circular Economy, Jakarta: ERIA, pp.161-202 45 Huynh Trung Hai (2012), International trade in recyclable materials: Lost or Opportunity 46 Opening remarks at a workshop on the circular economy and climate change organized by the governments of Costa Rica and Finland on 25 November at the WTO, Deputy Director-General Alan Wolff 47 The EU – Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA) 48 Law on Foreign Trade Management No.05/2017/QH14 (2017)( 49 Circular No 09/2018/TT-BTNMT on promulgation of National Technical Regulations on Environment Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste 50 Commission Regulation (EC) No 1418/2007 of 29 November 2007 concerning the export for recovery of certain waste listed in Annex III or IIIA to Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council to certain countries to which the OECD Decision on the control of transboundary movements of wastes does not apply 92 51 Decision of the Council C(2001)107/FINAL concerning the control of transboundary movements of wastes destined for recovery operations, as amended by C(2004)20 i ANNEX 1: LIST OF SCRAPS ALLOWED TO BE IMPORTED FOR PRODUCTION MATERIALS (Enclosed together with the Prime Minister’s Decision No 73/2014/QD-TTg dated December 19, 2014) No 10 Name of scrap Gypsum Granulated slag (slag sand) from the manufacture of iron or steel Chemical elements doped for use in electronics, in the form of discs, wafers, or similar forms Waste, parings and scrap, of plastics of polyethylene (PE): spongy, un-solid Waste, parings and scrap, of plastics of polyethylene (PE): Other Waste, parings and scrap, of plastics of polystyrene (PS): spongy, un-solid Waste, parings and scrap, of plastics of polystyrene (PS): Other Waste, parings and scrap, of plastics polyvinyl chloride (PVC): Spongy, un-solid Waste, parings and scrap, of plastics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC): Other Waste, parings and scrap, of other plastics Code number 2520 10 00 2618 00 00 3818 00 00 3915 10 10 3915 10 90 3915 20 10 3915 20 90 3915 30 10 3915 30 90 3915 90 00 4707 10 00 4707 20 00 Recovered (waste and scrap) paper or paperboard: 11 Unbleached kraft paper or paperboard or corrugated paper or paperboard 12 Recovered (waste and scrap) paper or paperboard: Other paper or paperboard made mainly from bleached chemical ii pulp, not colored in the mass Recovered (waste and scrap) paper or paperboard: Paper or 13 paperboard made mainly from mechanical pulp (e.g, 4707 30 00 4707 90 00 5003 00 00 16 Cullet and other waste and scrap of glass; glass in the mass 7001 00 00 17 Waste and scrap of cast iron 7204 10 00 18 Waste and scrap of alloy steel: Stainless steel 7204 21 00 7204 29 00 7204 30 00 7204 41 00 newspapers, journals and similar printed matter) 14 15 19 20 Recovered (waste and scrap) paper or paperboard: Other, including unsorted waste and scrap Waste silk (including cocoons unsuitable for reeling, yarn fiber scrap and garnetted stock) Waste and scrap of alloy steel: Other (other than stainless steel) Waste and scrap of tinned iron or steel Other waste and scrap of iron or steel: Turnings, shavings, 21 chips, milling waste, sawdust, filings, trimmings and stampings, whether or not in bundles 22 Other waste and scrap of iron or steel: Other 7204 49 00 23 Remelting scrap ingots (iron, steel, cast iron) 7204 50 00 24 Copper waste and scrap 7404 00 00 25 Nickel waste and scrap 7503 00 00 26 Aluminium waste and scrap 7602 00 00 27 Zinc waste and scrap 7902 00 00 28 Tin waste and scrap 8002 00 00 29 Tungsten (wolfram) waste and scrap 8101 97 00 30 Molypdenum waste and scrap 8102 97 00 iii 31 Magnesium waste and scrap 8104 20 00 32 Titanium waste and scrap 8108 30 00 33 Zirconium waste and scrap 8109 30 00 34 Antimony waste and scrap 8110 20 00 35 Manganese waste and scrap 8111 00 00 36 Chrome waste and scrap 8112 22 00 Notes: HS codes and name of scraps in the abovementioned list are used according to the Circular No 164/2013/TT-BTC dated November 15, 2013 of the Ministry of Finance promulgating export tax schedule, preferential import tariff according to the list of articles subject to tax./ iv ANNEX 2: LIST OF WASTES SUBJECT TO TEMPORARY SUSPENSION FROM TEMPORARY IMPORT, RE-EXPORT OR MERCHANTING BUSINESS (To the Circular No 27/2019/TT-BCT dated November 15, 2019 of the Minister of Industry and Trade) This List is compiled on the basis of the list of exported and imported goods of Vietnam annexed to the Circular No 65/2017/TT-BTC dated June 27, 2017 This List is used according to the following rules: If a Chapter includes goods with 2-digit codes only, all goods with 8-digit codes in this Chapter will be covered If a Chapter includes goods with 4-digit codes only, all goods with 8-digit codes in this Chapter will be covered If goods carry codes 3919, 3920, 3921, 3923.21 and 3923.29 in the List, only used ones will be covered No Code Description Gypsum; anhydrite; plasters (consisting of calcined Chapter 25 2520 gypsum or calcium sulphate) whether or not coloured, with or without small quantities of accelerators or retarders Chapter 26 2618 2619 Granulated slag (slag sand) from the manufacture of iron or steel Slag, dross (other than granulated slag), scalings and other waste from the manufacture of iron or steel Slag, ash and residues (other than from the 2620 manufacture of iron or steel), containing metals, arsenic or their compounds Chemical elements doped for use in electronics, in Chapter 38 3818 the form of discs, wafers or similar forms; chemical compounds doped for use in electronics v Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape, strip Chapter 39 3919 and other flat shapes, of plastics, whether or not in rolls Other plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, 3920 non-cellular and not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials 3921 3923 21 - - Of polymers of ethylene: 10 3923 29 - - Of other plastics: 11 Chapter 47 4707 12 Chapter 50 5003 13 Chapter 51 5103 14 5104 15 Chapter 52 5202 16 Chapter 55 5505 Other plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics Recovered (waste and scrap) paper or paperboard Silk waste (including cocoons unsuitable for reeling, yarn waste and garnetted stock) Waste of wool or of fine or coarse animal hair, including yarn waste but excluding garnetted stock Garnetted stock of wool or of fine or coarse animal hair Cotton waste (including yarn waste and garnetted stock) Waste (including noils, yarn waste and garnetted stock) of man-made fibres Used or new rags, scrap twine, cordage, rope and 17 Chapter 63 6310 cables and worn out articles of twine, cordage, rope or cables, of textile materials 18 Chapter 70 7001 19 Chapter 72 7204 Cullet and other waste and scrap of glass; glass in the mass Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel vi 20 Chapter 74 7404 Copper waste and scrap 21 Chapter 75 7503 Nickel waste and scrap 22 Chapter 76 7602 Aluminium waste and scrap 23 Chapter 79 7902 Zinc waste and scrap 24 Chapter 80 8002 Tin waste and scrap 25 Chapter 81 8101 Tungsten (Wolfram) waste and scrap 26 8102 Molybdenum waste and scrap 27 8104 Magnesium waste and scrap 28 8108 Titanium waste and scrap 29 8109 Zirconium waste and scrap 30 8110 Antimony waste and scrap 31 8111 Manganese waste and scrap 32 8112 Chromium waste and scrap vii ANNEX 3: SUMMARY OF KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES RELATED TO CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN VIETNAM Life cycle Key legislation and policies All stages - Law on Environmental Protection in 2014 stated to encourage the development of clean energy, renewable energy, environmentally friendly products and reduce, reuse, recycle - National Strategy on Environment Protection by 2020, with a vision toward 2030 detailed plenty of measures to enhance to reduce, reuse and recycle (3R) and cleaner production - National Green Growth Strategy addressed the task of promoting 3R, improving energy efficiency, sustainable production, sustainable consumption and lifestyle - National Action Plan on Sustainable Production and Consumption up to 2020, with a vision to 2030 set six comprehensive tasks and detailed goals for the period of 2016 – 2020 and 2021 – 2030 - Decision No.1469/QD-TTg approved the Master Plan on development of Vietnam’s construction material industry through 2020, with a vision toward 2030 and set the tasks of improving resource and energy efficiency, reuse and recycle of construction material Resource - extraction and Mineral Law in 2010, Law on Water Resources in 2020 and Lan Law in 2013 - production Strategy on Cleaner Production in Industry to 2020 set tasks and measures to develop the model of cleaner production in industry - Decision 403/GD-TTg approved adjusted master plan for Vietnam’s coal to improve the effectiveness and thriftiness of exploitation, processing and use of coal Distribution - Circular No 128/2016/TT-BTC clarified the export duty exemption and and reduction for environment-friendly products and products made from consumption recycling and waste treatment - Decision 16/2015/QD-TTg regulated recollection and treatment of discarded products (including e-wastes, some hazardous waste, and end- viii of-life vehicles) - Resolution No 579/2018/UBTVQH14 (on environmental tax) set a tax of VND 50.000 per kilogram of plastic bag Waste All waste management: collection - and management included a task to build a system of integrated solid waste management - (i.e., MSW, Decree 38/2015/ND-CP regulated management of wastes and discarded materials (including municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, e-waste, biochemical wastes, some hazardous wastes, and imported plastic plastic wastes, Sustainable Development Strategy of Vietnam period 2011 – 2020 wastes/scraps) - hazardous Decree 19/2015/ND-CP provided a list of environmental production activities (including waste management) that would be supported and wastes) prioritized by the government; and Circular No 212/2015/TT-BTC provided detailed guidelines for the tax incentives for environmental protection activities (including waste management) MSW management: - National Strategy for General Management of Solid Waste to 2025, with a vision toward 2050 addressed plenty of measures to improve the classification, collection, reduce, reuse, and recycle of MSW - Decision 44/2018/GE-UBND of Ho Chi Minh City People’s Committee in 2018 regulated the MSW classification in the city Hazardous waste management: - Circular 36/TT-BTNMT provided a list of hazardous wastes and regulated the hazardous waste management - Circular 58/2015/TTLT-BYT-BTNMT detailed regulations on medical waste management for recycling purposes - Circular 08/2017/TT-BXD detailed regulations on reusing and recycling of construction solid waste Source: Huynh Trung Hai et al (2019), Circular Economy in Vietnam Available at: ix ANNEX 4: ALL 54 ACTIONS PLANS INCLUDED IN THE EU CIRCULAR ECONOMY ACTION PLAN (2015) Actions in Stage Actions delivered Production Emphasis on circular economy aspects in future product stages of requirements under the Eco-design directive product Ecodesign Working Plan 2016-2019 and request to European life cycle standardisation organisations to develop standards on material efficiency for setting future Ecodesign requirements on durability, reparability and recyclability of products Proposal for an implementing regulation on televisions and displays Examine options and actions for a more coherent policy framework of the different strands of work of EU product policy in their contribution to the circular economy Include guidance on circular economy into Best Available Techniques reference documents (BREFs) for several industrial sectors Guidance and promotion of best practices in the mining waste management plans Establishing an open, pan-European network of technological infrastructures for SMEs to integrate advanced manufacturing technologies into their production processes Examine how to improve the efficiency and uptake of the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) and the pilot programme on environmental technology verification (ETV) Develop an improved knowledge base and support to SMEs for the substitution of hazardous substances of very high concern Consumption Better enforcement of existing guarantees on tangible x products, accompanied by a reflection on improvements (upcoming Commission proposal for online sales of goods, and Fitness Check of consumer legislation) Action on false green claims, including updated guidance on unfair commercial practices Analysis of the possibility to propose horizontal requirements on repair information provision in the context of Ecodesign Fitness check of Ecolabel, to be followed by actions to enhance its effectiveness Assessment of the possibility of an independent testing programme on premature obsolescence Subject to evaluation of the current ongoing pilots, explore the possible uses of the Product Environmental Footprint to measure and communicate environmental information Action on Green Public Procurement: enhanced integration of circular economy requirements, support to higher uptake including through training schemes, reinforcing its use in Commission procurement and EU funds Waste management Revised legislative proposal on waste Improved cooperation with Member States for better implementation of EU waste legislation, and combat illicit shipment of end of life vehicles (ELV) Stepping up enforcement of revised Waste Shipment regulation Promotion of industry-led voluntary certification of treatment facilities for key waste/recyclate streams Initiative on waste to energy in the framework of the Energy Union Identification and dissemination of good practices in waste xi collection systems Market for Development of quality standards for secondary raw materials secondary (in particular for plastics) raw materials Proposal for a revised fertilisers regulation Proposed legislation setting minimum requirements for reused water for irrigation and groundwater recharge Promotion of safe and cost-effective water reuse, including guidance on the integration of water reuse in water planning and management, inclusion of best practices in relevant BREFs, and support to innovation (through the European Innovation Partnership and Horizon 2020) and investments Analysis and policy options to address the interface between chemicals, products and waste legislation, including how to reduce the presence and improve the tracking of chemicals of concern in products Measures to facilitate waste shipment across the EU, including electronic data exchange Further development of the EU raw materials information system Sectorial Plastics action Strategy on plastics in the circular economy Specific action to reduce marine litter implementing the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals Food waste Development of a common methodology and indicators to measure food waste Stakeholders platform to examine how to achieve SDGs goals on food waste, share best practice and evaluate progress Clarify relevant EU legislation related to waste, food and feed in order to facilitate food donation and utilisation of former foodstuffs for animal feed xii Explore options for more effective use and understanding of date marking on food Critical raw materials Report on critical raw materials and the circular economy Improve exchange of information between manufacturers and recyclers on electronic products European standards for material-efficient recycling of electronic waste, waste batteries and other relevant complex end-of-life products Sharing of best practice for the recovery of critical raw materials from mining waste and landfills Construction and demolition Pre-demolition assessment guidelines for the construction sector Voluntary industry-wide recycling protocol for construction and demolition waste Core indicators for the assessment of the lifecycle environmental performance of a building, and incentives for their use Biomas and Guidance and dissemination of best practice on the cascading bio-based use of biomass and support to innovation in this domain materials through Horizon 2020 Ensuring coherence and synergies with the circular economy when examining the sustainability of bioenergy under the Energy Union Assessment of the contribution of the 2012 Bio-economy Strategy to the circular economy and possible review Innovation and Investments Initiative "Industry 2020 and the circular economy" under Horizon 2020 Pilot project for "innovation deals" to address possible regulatory obstacles for innovators xiii Targeted outreach to encourage applications for funding under EFSI, and support the development of projects and investment platforms relevant to the circular economy Targeted outreach and communication activities to assist Member States and regions for the uptake of Cohesion Policy funds for the circular economy Support to Member States and regions to strengthen innovation for the circular economy through smart specialisation Assessment of the possibility of launching a platform together with the EIB and national banks to support the financing of the circular economy Engagement with stakeholders in the implementation of this action plan through existing fora in key sectors Support to a range of stakeholders through actions on publicprivate partnerships, cooperation platforms, support to voluntary business approaches, and exchanges of best practices Monitoring Development of a monitoring framework for the circular economy Source: European Commission (2019), Report on the implementation of the Circular Economy Action Plan Further details at: ... EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOREIGN TRADE UNIVERSITY MASTER THESIS TRADE AND THE TRANSITION TOWARDS CIRCULAR ECONOMY: A RESEARCH ON CURRENT GLOBAL PRACTICES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VIETNAM Specialization:... governments can encourage and incentivize the transition towards circular economy The EU is one of the pioneers in the transition towards Circular Economy The block has even formulated a Circular Economy. .. digital and materials innovation aimed at sustainable production and consumption patterns The so-far transition towards Circular Economy Being potentially beneficial, the transition towards
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