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David Blockley Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering Today’s Engineers Turning Dreams into Reality Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering David Blockley Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering Today’s Engineers Turning Dreams into Reality 123 David Blockley University of Bristol Bristol, UK ISBN 978-3-030-38256-8 ISBN 978-3-030-38257-5 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38257-5 (eBook) © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland One of the great revelations of the space age has been the perspective it has given humanity on ourselves When we see the earth from space, we see ourselves as a whole We see the unity and not the divisions It is such a simple image with a compelling message— one planet—one human race We are here together, and we need to live together with tolerance and respect… Our only boundaries are the way we see ourselves The only borders, the way we see each other Let us fight for every woman and every man to have the opportunity to live healthy, secure lives, full of opportunity and love……… We are all time travellers, journeying together into the future But let us work together to make that future a place we want to visit Stephen Hawking World Economic Forum 2015 Transcribed from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/09/ stephen-hawking-we-are-all-time-travellers/ The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much it is whether we provide enough for those who have little Franklin D Roosevelt USA Presidential Inaugural Address, 20 January 1937 Preface Cave dwellers had a life expectancy at birth of around 19 years Today a baby is expected to live to well over 70 depending on the country of birth (World Health Organisation 2015) This book is about the engineering of that transformation—the way we humans have dreamed and ingeniously turned new ideas, and new ways of doing things, into reality Engineering is not only something-to-do-with-engines We engineer when we are inventive, resourceful and aesthetic The word engineer stems from the Latin ingeniator meaning someone who is ingenious The modern French word is ingénieur To engineer is to solve problems as only we humans can, mindful of our delight in our creativity In that sense, we are all engineers Before the Renaissance, the same person might be artist, artisan, architect, craftsman, mason or engineer depending on the job he was doing—the distinctions we make nowadays between aesthetics and function were small The things we engineered like wagons, ploughs, cannons and even cathedrals were relatively easy to grasp We still look in awe at the sheer size of the Egyptian pyramids and the beauty of the towering vaults of a gothic cathedral and we know individual masons, craftsmen and others developed particular ingenious skills But we can appreciate something as to how they did it without us having to have any scientific education —after all, they worked intuitively long before the science we have now Today circumstances are quite different Engineers have high levels of education and training and specialised knowledge and skills to make the buildings, roads and bridges, cars and trains, ships and aeroplanes, TVs, radios, computers and smartphones that we rely on They make the ‘systems’ of things such as airports and urban infrastructure Their professional duty of care for the safety and well-being of others requires them to examine the scope and dependability of all kinds of information, including science, as they make useful and often challenging and risky things Through the ages, the relentless, often dramatic, erratic and ever accelerating, unfolding of change has been impressive But now some of the things they make are so clever and complicated that most of us have little or no idea how they work so we hardly give them a thought until they fail How many of us know what vii viii Preface is going on inside the ‘black box’ of a computer or the jet engine of an aeroplane? They are totally opaque and yet we rely on them—we have little choice In the twenty-first century, we have become collectively much more aware of some big concerns All is not well on planet Earth We have been so successful that we have made ever-increasingly powerful ways of killing each other We have caused pollution and we are changing our climate We have created social media that helps us to talk and connect with others but also allow the unscrupulous to exploit the vulnerable As we contemplate an uncertain and, in many ways, disquieting future, we owe a duty to future generations to take stock of what has been and what might be forthcoming In Greek mythology, the god Zeus gave Pandora a box with strict instructions not to open it When curiosity got the better of her, all the evils and miseries of the world flew out Richard Sennett says in his book The Craftsman (2008), ‘The contents of Pandora’s Box can indeed be made less fearsome; we can achieve a more humane material life, if only we better understand the making of things’ Richard Sennett continues ‘Learning from things requires us to care about the qualities of cloth or the right way to poach fish’ Buckminster Fuller expresses it as an aesthetic ‘where the stresses and strains are at ease’ Steve Jobs is quoted as saying ‘aesthetic is the quality that has to be carried all the way through’ In this book, I aim to three things First to expand on these affirmations of aesthetics in practice by showing how engineers have made and still strive to make the quality of our lives better Second to identify and explore some of the unintended consequences of the past and the ‘grand’ challenges ahead Third I will suggest some ‘grounding’ principles that may help us to guide or steer our way through a risky future The book has been written primarily for non-technical readers who may or may not be makers but who not normally think of themselves in any way as engineers Technically trained engineers wishing to look beyond the detail of their primary discipline may find some congruity Likewise, there may be benefit for business leaders, lawyers, economists, politicians and all others who must make schemes and stratagems for making practical decisions As I have already hinted the perception of professional engineering by the wider world seems to be scant and patchy according to the little research that has been done An article by Nadya Anscombe in the New Scientist in 2005 is perhaps typical: ‘It can be hard to convince outsiders that engineering is a worthwhile profession Perhaps that’s because the name ‘engineer’ has come to be attached with men (rarely women) in overalls, fixing phones or mending bits of machinery……It’s a familiar story for engineers: you are at a dinner party or family gathering and someone asks you what you When you tell them, their eyes glaze over and they quickly change the subject’ Many people associate engineering with engines, mechanisms and machines Synonyms for the word ‘mechanical’ include the words cold, emotionless, impersonal, routine, monotonous, unfeeling, unthinking and lifeless Lists of creative occupations—from architects through industrial designers to writers—rarely mention science or engineering Design is often presumed to be individual creative Preface ix emotional expression through form, appearance and symbolism Function is regarded as prosaic and creatively inferior, and in any case delivered by the precision of science Few people appreciate that science is incomplete, and its use must be judged carefully Largely unappreciated is the idea that aesthetics is more than just beauty but concerns our emotional relationship with things through our creative artfulness, ingenuity and inventiveness Fewer people still associate engineering with sustainable, resilient quality of life and well-being—indeed many blame technology for the ills of society The voice of engineering has been weak Assessment of the work of engineers has been left to other disciplines They have tended to focus on technology as applied science without recognising what Aristotle called phronesis or practical wisdom—the intellectual virtue of practical reasoning Individual perception and knowledge of engineering seems to depend on whether people have family or friends who are engineers Research indicates that most non-engineers rightly associate engineering with construction, mechanics, building and fixing things but miss the aspects of design, innovation and creativity, problem solving and aesthetics They see engineering as the use of a preset body of knowledge onto a problem The media often compound the problem by rarely referring to professional engineering as creators of technology—still less as creative designers and problem solvers Nobel was an engineer and yet there is no Nobel Prize for engineering A USA survey showed that typically ‘in the American public mind, engineers don’t save lives…and are not involved in creating innovative materials’ The USA National Academy of Engineering launched a campaign in 2013 called Changing the Conversation Their four messages are: engineers make a world of difference; engineers are creative problem solvers; engineers help shape the future; and engineering is essential to our health, happiness and safety A key reason for writing this book is that the lack of public acquaintance of the role of engineering in modern life hinders the recruitment of the best of young talent —and most importantly women and black and minority ethnic groups Engineering is perceived by many to be male-dominated and yet more and more women engineers are enjoying inspirational careers Examples include Julia King, Baroness Brown of Cambridge, who held senior position in Rolls Royce and was Vice Chancellor of Aston University; Sarah Buck, the 88th, but first female, President of the Institution of Structural Engineers; and Dame Ann Dowling, the first female President of the Royal Academy of Engineering They perhaps appreciate that engineering is not only about mechanics and machines but is also a people profession I hope this book will inspire younger people to consider a career in engineering and to maintain that career after graduation I would like to thank a number of people to whom I owe a great deal First to Juliet Bailey of Dash+Miller, The Bristol Weaving Mill, Bristol who was so enthusiastically helpful in showing me her workshops and looms My thanks to Christopher Simpson and to James Crowden who have allowed me to tell their personal stories Thanks also to Tony Copping, Bob Baird, Ray Portman, Patrick Godfrey, Oksana Kasyutich and Sally Heslop, who all read parts of the drafts of the book and provided overall feedback and comments that have been enormously x Preface helpful Sally also helped particularly in ironing out gender issues, Tony with electrical and electronic matters, Bob with chemical engineering, Patrick with systems and Ray in reducing some of the overly complicated explanations in my early drafts Thank you to Michael Berry for useful exchanges on quantum theory Thank you to the Special Collections of the University of Bristol for allowing me to use Fig 4.10 Thanks to John Roberts and Brighton i360 Limited for permission to use images for Fig 9.1 Thanks to photographer John Charles Burrow (1852–1914) and the Steve Colwill Collection who own the copyright for Fig 9.2a I thank all my colleagues and friends, too numerous to mention, who have over the years discussed, debated and argued many of the points made in the book Of course, what is written here is entirely my responsibility I thank Brian Halm, Production Contact, Michael Luby, Responsible Editor at Springer who was very helpful in getting the book published Also, at Springer I thank Ms Shalini Monica, Project Coordinator, Mr Vishnu Muthuswamy, Project Manager and the production team Last and by no means least I thank my wife Karen Blockley for her unfailing love that sustains me Bristol, UK David Blockley Reference World Health Organisation (2015) http://www.who.int/gho/mortality_burden_disease/life_tables/ situation_trends/en/ Last accessed February 2019 Praise for Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering “What a terrific book It’s also beautifully written and beautifully illustrated Reading it makes me proud to be an engineer And Dr Blockley explains engineering and the remarkable achievements of engineers in a way that is easily understandable to all.” —Dr Robert Langer, Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; Winner of the 2013 Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering “We need philosophical engineers David Blockley is one of very few He is a civil engineer who thinks deeply and widely about aspects of his profession that are usually ignored in the popular stereotype: how the practical and the scientific are inevitably embedded in the needs of society and have been for millennia The innovative organization of the book is by activities: dreaming, making, dwelling, moving, fighting … An abundance of detailed examples, presented in their historical contexts, illustrates what engineers do, and how their work is central to our culture This book is wise, subtle, and above all deeply human.” —Prof Sir Michael Berry, FRS, Melville Wills Professor of Physics (Emeritus), University of Bristol, UK “This book is a tour de force distilling the scholarship, deep thought, open mindedness and practice of a lifetime in a relevant and fascinating manner In my opinion, as a doctor, the author demonstrates convincingly that, like medicine, engineering “is undertaken by people, and for people, to improve the human condition” Given my deep and long interest in Medical Ethics, I applaud the author’s desire to connect engineering and medicine emphasising the importance of values and ethics in both disciplines Each has much to learn from the other and this book is a wonderful primer to enable to us to so It deserves a wide readership.” —Gordon M Stirrat MA, MD, FRCOG, Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Bristol; Honorable Vice-President, The Institute of Medical Ethics xi 210 Flourishing perspective on engineering by non-technically trained people could give greater value to the contribution that engineers make The media should either appoint engineering correspondents or change their technology and their science correspondents to report on engineering as a whole (rather than their current tendency to focus on digital systems) Any form of triumphalism and hype is unhealthy—but it can only be countered by the better understanding of non-specialists At root the message is that despite all the advances in science, we know less actually than we think we know Contingency planning that expects surprises must be the new norm Learn anew how to learn together is the new wisdom Use the golden rule ‘do not to others that you would not have them to you’, whatever you are told to believe is the tenet we should always hold foremost in our thoughts Behaviour is more important than belief—imperfect doing is better than uncertain knowing But to all of this collectively requires leadership that we can trust—perhaps the biggest challenge of all? All this because engineering is really about people and their aspirations and not simply things and their functions End Notes Report of the Royal Commission into the failure of the West Gate Bridge, (1971), Victoria, Australia Feldman, DB., Kravetz, LD (2014) Supersurvivors: The surprising link between suffering and success, Harper Wave, London Armstrong K (2009) A metaphysical mistake, https://www.theguardian.com/ commentisfree/belief/2009/jul/12/religion-christianity-belief-science A man engine was a mechanism of reciprocating ladders and platforms for miners to travel up and down between working levels during the nineteenth century It was invented in Germany but used in the tin and copper mines in Cornwall until the beginning of the twentieth century The Cornish Man Engine puppet is a 10-metre-high giant mechanism built in 2016 to mark the 10th anniversary of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape becoming a World Heritage site It toured from Tavistock to Geevor Tin Mine in July and August 2016 Blockley D I (2020) Building Bridges between theory & practice, World Scientific Publishing, London The events at West Gate Bridge and failures in social services and criminal justice systems seem, at first sight, to have little in common Closer examination reveals that lack of communication across organisational silos is common to all The murder of Victoria Climbié shocked the nation in 2000 Harold Shipman was a family doctor who was found guilty in 2000 of murdering many of his patients In 2002, Ian Huntley was found guilty of the Soham murders A policy briefing by the UK Local Government Information Unit in 2003 said ‘Despite all the initiatives for joint working and local partnerships, a silo mentality still appears to persist in government departments’ In all of these cases, a lack in the joining-up of agencies led to disastrous consequences Pieces of evidence, Engineering Is a People Profession 211 considered in isolation, were pieces of a jigsaw Had the pieces been put together, then a very different picture would have emerged Acker, F (2005) Autism and Engineers—is there a connection? Ingenia, Issue 25, December 2005 See http://www.ingenia.org.uk/Ingenia/Articles/343 (Last accessed February 2019) Blockley, DI., Godfrey, PS (2017), Doing it Differently (2nd Ed), ICE Publications, London See also http://myengineeringsystems.co.uk/ (Last accessed February 2019) Koestler, A (1967) The ghost in the machine Picador, London 10 See https://blog.oup.com/2014/07/practical-wisdom-vsi/ (last accessed February 2019) However, we should remember that Aristotle lived in very different times and we cannot simply apply his ideas directly—but there are observations that are worth considering in their own right as well as helping us to understand how present-day attitudes have arisen 11 In 2000, world leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration and committed their nations to a new global partnership They set targets as follows: Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty Achieve Universal Primary Education 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women 4: Reduce Child Mortality 5: Improve Maternal Health 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development 12 The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were agreed in 2015 following on from the UN Millennium Goals with a deadline of 2030 They are End poverty in all its forms everywhere End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and foster innovation 10 Reduce inequality within and among countries 11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable 12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts 14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development 15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss 16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels 17 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development 212 Flourishing 13 National Academy of Engineering Grand challenges for engineering See http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/ (Last accessed February 2019) 14 Bronson W Griscom, Justin Adams, Peter W Ellis, Richard A Houghton, Guy Lomax, Daniela A Miteva, William H Schlesinger, David Shoch, Juha V Siikamäki, Pete Smith, Peter Woodbury, Chris Zganjar, Allen Blackman, João Campari, Richard T Conant, Christopher Delgado, Patricia Elias, Trisha Gopalakrishna, Marisa R Hamsik, Mario Herrero, Joseph Kiesecker, Emily Landis, Lars Laestadius, Sara M Leavitt, Susan Minnemeyer, Stephen Polasky, Peter Potapov, Francis E Putz, Jonathan Sanderman, Marcel Silvius, Eva Wollenberg, Joseph Fargione (2017) Natural climate solutions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Oct 2017, 114 (44) 11645–11650 See https:// www.pnas.org/content/pnas/114/44/11645.full.pdf (last accessed April 2019) 15 Figure 9.5 was inspired by an illustration by David Somerville based on an original by Hugh McLeod—see https://random-blather.com/2014/04/28/ information-isnt-power/ (Last accessed February 2019) 16 Mitcham, C (2014) The true grand challenge for engineering: self-knowledge, Issues in Science and Technology, Volume XXXI Issue See http://issues.org/ 31-1/perspectives-the-true-grand-challenge-for-engineering-self-knowledge (Last accessed February 2019) 17 Howarth, D (2013), Law as Engineering, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK 18 Duarte, P., Giraud, Y (2019) HOPE 2019: Economics and Engineering: Institutions, Practices, and Cultures, April, The Center for the History of Political Economy, Duke University, USA 19 Browne, J., Nuttall, R., Stadien T (2015) Connect: How companies succeed by engaging radically with society W H Allen, London 20 Young G (2016), Women, naturally better leaders for the 21st century, Transpersonal leadership series: White Paper 2, LeaderShape, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group See https://www.crcpress.com/rsc/downloads/WP-TL2-2016_ Transpersonal_Leadership_WP2_FINAL.pdf (Last accessed February 2019) 21 The UN Secretary-General António Guterres continued ‘The world reached several dire milestones in 2017 The economic costs of climate-related disasters hit a record: $320 billion Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions rose 1.4 per cent, to 32.5 gigatonnes—a historic high… And I am beginning to wonder how many more alarm bells must go off before the world rises to the challenge See https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/press-encounter/2018-03-29/ secretary-generals-press-encounter-climate-change-qa (Last accessed February 2019) Glossary AC Alternating current in which the direction of the current varies usually as a sine curve AM Amplitude modulation where radio signals are transmitted by carrier waves whose amplitude (size) is modulated (change or modified) by an input signal c.f FM Architect Architects design the form of a building to fulfil the needs of people and how it will look aesthetically Architectural design is about the sense of space, occupancy by people, symbolism and relationship to its setting Art Something of special or more than ordinary significance Art comes with many different forms and structures of matter such as paint on canvas, carving of wood or stone or even a large structure As-is distinction The difference between a contextual theory or model being used as if it is true and whether a theory actually is true Atrial fibrillation Irregular contractions of the heart muscle Bandwidth The smallest range of frequencies within which a particular signal can be transmitted without distortion, or the speed or capacity of data transfer of an electronic system Binary Consisting of two Binary counting is based on units (0, 1) whereas decimal counting is based on 10 units (0 to 9) Calories Units of energy Small calories (cals) are about 4.2 joules Large calories (Cals) are 1,000 cals Capacitance The property of being able to store potential Civil engineer First used in contrast to military engineer Now it applies to construction and infrastructure work Complexity Complex systems are difficult to describe and predict because they have many interconnected parts They are not just complicated but may be incomplete with emergent properties from interdependencies that are unknown and unforeseen They often cannot be ‘solved’ rather they have to be managed to desirable outcomes through collaboration Craft Art, trade, occupation or hobby that requires special skills Damping A mechanism through which energy is dissipated © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 D Blockley, Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38257-5 213 214 Glossary DC Direct current in which the direction and magnitude vary only slightly Design To form or conceive Determinate structure A structure in which we can find all of the internal forces using equilibrium Duty of care A legal obligation not to be negligent Electrocardiogram A record of the changes in electrical potential in the heart Emergence A situation where an attribute of an object as a whole emerges from the interactions of its parts It is the reason why a whole is more than the sum of its parts For example, you have an emergent property of being able to talk and walk whereas none of your individual parts can that on their own Energy A capacity to work—potential or kinetic Engine cycle Engines have to provide continuous power—so they work through a series of thermodynamic processes that cycle round and round—a thermodynamic cycle that repeats itself Engineering Turning dreams into reality—done by people for people to improve the human condition Engineers use science to create technology Evolution The process by which different kinds of systems are believed to have developed from earlier forms Evolution by natural selection is the cornerstone of Darwinian evolution The evolution of engineering products is through intelligent development from earlier forms where the selections are made by us—‘human selection’ Field theory A theory about a region of space in which any object at any point is influenced by a force—gravitational, electrical or magnetic Finite element method A method in which a system such as a structure is divided (in a theoretical model—not in reality) into discrete finite elements or pieces in order to find internal attributes such as forces The elements may be any size but are usually either a whole (for example, a structural member such as a beam) or imaginary divisions (for example, of a plate, wall or floor) into simple shapes such as triangles and rectangles Flexibility The amount by which a bar or material may stretch or squash under a force Flow Movement as in a stream Fluid A liquid or gas that flows and changes shape when acted upon by a force Flutter A form of inductance and a kind of self-reinforcing dynamic oscillation FM Frequency modulated where radio signals are transmitted by carrier waves whose frequency (rate) is modulated (change or modified) by an input signal c.f AM Force An object that changes the velocity of a physical body Form The external shape of an object Frequency The number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time, for example, the number of oscillations or cycles occurring in a unit of time Function The purpose for which an object is designed to perform or the role of a person Grand challenge A big issue that requires a significant effort to resolve Glossary 215 Heat Energy transmitted from an object at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature Holistic The idea that the whole is more than the sum of its parts Holon An object considered, at the same time, to be both a part and a whole It has emergent properties that derive from the cooperation of the parts Imagineering A term coined by Alcoa Aluminium in the 1940s to capture the idea of letting your imagination soar and then engineering it down to earth to make it practical It later became the registered trademark of the Walt Disney Company and the research and development arm responsible for the creation design and construction of their theme parks Impedance The opposition to a flow—capacitance, inductance and resistance Incompleteness The idea that something, known or unknown, is lacking Indeterminate structure A structure in which we cannot find all of the internal forces using equilibrium—we have to use a theorem that states that a structure in equilibrium has a minimum of internal potential (strain) energy Inductance The storage of flow Induction The process by which flow produces potential without contact Estimating the validity of a whole from observations of parts Inertia The property of mass by which it retains its velocity when not acted on by a force Ingeniarius The Latin root of the word engineer meaning someone who is ingenious in solving practical problems Integrated circuit A complete electronic circuit manufactured as a single unit Joule A unit of energy equal to the work done by Newton moving metre in the line of application of the force It is watt second Material Having substance or matter that occupies space and has mass Metal fatigue A deterioration of the mechanical properties of a material when subjected to a very large number of small repeated forces Model A representation of an object It may be physical, e.g a three-dimensional (3D) representation of specific aspects of something such as an architectural model of a building It may also be theoretical, e.g a mathematical equation representing some physical process It may be computational, e.g computer representation of forces and displacements in a structure such as a finite element model or may be graphical such as a ‘walk through’ 3D pictorial representation of the interior of a building or an oil rig Note that as models are representations of a reality, they are by definition incomplete and so describe the world only from a specific point of view Newtonian physics Alternatively known as classical mechanics and based on the laws of motion formulated by Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1726) Newton One Newton is the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared in direction of that force Object Anything we can think or talk about It might be a material living thing such as an animal, plant or human being It might be a material inanimate thing like a car or a bridge or it might be an immaterial and abstract idea like the number three or a belief in the afterlife or a fear of dogs 216 Glossary Object-oriented programming Programming a computer by creating ‘computer objects’ that interact with each other These computer objects contain data as attributes and methods to process data Phronesis Aristotle’s notion of practical wisdom and prudence Potential Capable of becoming, voltage in electricity and velocity in mechanics Power The capability of influencing, energy expended over time and measured in Watts Practical wisdom A quality of discerning and judging—a way of looking at things with an ability to see the world in a coherent picture It is the way a person constructs the world in which they operate, which in engineering is to with having appropriate models to fit the situation Progressive collapse A series of failures in a chain reaction such that the consequences are large compared to the initiating damage Purpose An end, aim or goal or reason for why something is done or exists Quantum computing Computers that use of quantum-mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data They use quantum bits rather than binary digits Radiation The process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves Reading an object Observing, understanding and interpreting an object to give it meaning Reductionism The philosophy that a complex system can be understood by splitting it down into its component parts and understanding them individually without reference to other parts or interactions between those parts Relativity theory First developed by Albert Einstein (1879–1955) as a theory of physics based on two ideas First that the laws of physics are the same for observers in uniform motion relative to each other and second that the velocity of light is the same regardless of that relative motion Resilience The ability of a system to withstand or recover quickly from challenging conditions; to respond by detecting, preventing and, if necessary, handling disruptive challenges It requires planning, learning, resources, watchfulness, coordination and cooperation Resistance Opposition to flow through the dissipation of energy Risk A combination of the chance of occurrence of an event in a context in the future Router Software or hardware that transfers data between computers SA Node The sinoatrial stimulus which depolarises heart muscle cells Depolarisation is a change from the negative charge inside a cell (compared to the outside of the cell) to a positive one that allows electrical pulses to flow Scalar A quantity that has magnitude only c.f vector Science That branch of knowledge that seeks to find truth Semiconductor A material like silicon that conducts electricity but not as well as a good conductor like copper Structure The difference between a random pile of component objects and a functioning object For example, a building may have a structure of beams, columns, walls, etc Glossary 217 Sustainability Able to keep going over time The ability to meet the needs of the time without compromising future needs System An overused word with many meanings and uses Used loosely it just refers to any group of connected objects Systems thinking Systems thinking is a way of tackling problems with three important features—holons, connectivity and process Technology There are four different uses of the word To describe objects (such as a computer), as knowledge (we have the technology), as activity (crafting, inventing) and as an expression of human will (to make) Telegraph Long distance transmission of messages without the exchange of the physical object bearing the message Transistor A semiconductor device that is a valve or an amplifier Trebuchet A medieval war machine with a sling to hurl missiles Truth The commonplace idea that there is a correspondence between a statement and the facts But facts are true statements so there is a circular argument that can only be resolved by recognising that truth depends on context Turbine A rotary engine where a flow of a fluid turns a shaft to drive a machine Valve A switch or controller of flow Vector A quantity that has both magnitude and direction c.f scalar VHF Very high frequency Watts A unit of power equal to one joule per second Work Exertion or effort and equal to one Newton being moved one metre or one Joule Index A Academic versus vocational, 28, 29, 209 AC and DC, 111 Accidents-incubating, 45, 135, 187, 188, 203 Aerodynamics, 58, 83, 85, 86, 92 Aeroplanes -comet, 65 -solar impulse, 93, 94, 194 Aesthetics -in practice, 52 -relation with emotions, Agricultural making, 156 Agriculture, 3, 111, 131, 153, 157, 160, 162, 197, 211 A learning odyssey, 32 All is not well on planet Earth, Aristotle, 29, 34, 38, 182, 191 Architectural and structural form, 53 Architecture, 33, 46, 47, 51, 53, 57 Armstrong, William, 138, 139, 161, 207 Art -fine art, 3, 33, 47, 208 -functional art, 16, 24 -validation, 15 Artificial intelligence, 71, 102, 105, 106, 121, 123, 130, 195 Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), 124 Art making, 15 As-if distinction, 19, 21, 24, 213 B Babbage, Charles, 105 Bardeen, John, 118 Bazalgette, Joseph, 3, 153, 168, 207 Ben’s story, Bicycles -dandy horse, 74, 76 -penny-farthing, 69, 70, 74, 85 -safety, 69, 70, 79, 80, 85 Big data, 123, 124, 128–130, 178, 199 Big data becomes active, 123 Bioengineering, 6, 153, 198, 208 Blame, 3, 21, 22, 28, 43, 149, 208 Bramah, Joseph, 139, 166 Brattain, Walter, 118 Bridges -Menai, 21 -Morandi, Genoa, -Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, 73 -Second Severn, 22 -Storebaelt, 59 -Tacoma Narrows, 59 -Tsing Ma, 59 -West Gate, 181, 182, 184–186, 188 Buildings, 3–5, 8, 15, 19, 31, 32, 38, 42–48, 51–53, 57–62, 64, 67, 101, 132, 133, 138, 146, 162, 164, 200, 204, 208 -Alfred P Murrah Federal, 60 -cathedrals, 5, 17, 31, 47, 182 -Grenfell Towers, 41–45, 52, 66, 204 -John Hancock, 62 -Ronan Point, 21, 41–44, 58, 60–62, 64, 66 -Sears (Willis) Tower, 59 -Shanghai World Financial Center, 62 -skyscrapers, 5, 50, 58, 60–62, 193 -WTC, New York, 4, 62, 64 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 D Blockley, Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38257-5 219 220 C Canals, 5, 16, 72, 73, 89, 96, 164 Cannon, 134, 136–138, 140, 145, 148 Capacitance, 164 Carnot, Sadi, 90 Cars, 1, 4, 6, 8, 13, 17, 20, 31, 33, 54, 58, 71, 74, 80, 85–88, 91–94, 99, 101, 115, 124, 127, 135, 140, 145, 148, 161, 199, 202, 203 Cathedrals, 5, 17, 31, 47, 182 Cave dwellers, 71 Cholera, 155, 163, 169, 170 Clerk Maxwell, James, 105, 112, 113 Climate change, 3, 9, 22, 27, 35, 93, 142, 149, 181, 184, 195, 209, 211 Collaboration, 31, 32, 35, 47, 53, 99, 142, 144, 156, 164, 178, 189–191, 201, 202, 206 Colt, Samuel, 138 Colt ‘peacemaker’ handgun, 138 Common enemy/common purpose, 7, 149, 183, 206 Complexity, 14, 15, 28, 30, 31, 37, 53, 64, 129, 178, 188, 208, 213 Complexity versus complicated, 31 Compressor, 98, 99, 100 Computers, 3–5, 8, 13, 16, 20, 22, 38, 56, 105–107, 117–125, 127–129, 136, 148, 164, 189, 190, 195–197, 200, 208, 215–217 Computing, 117 Concrete, 23, 42, 44–46, 50, 51, 53, 57, 58, 60–62, 67, 73, 146, 185, 190, 202 Context, 4, 7, 10, 19, 20, 21, 24, 31, 35, 37, 190, 192, 199, 201, 202, 203, 208 Cornish Man Engine, 182, 183, 210 Craft, 3, 10, 13–16, 19, 23, 24, 33, 34, 47, 135, 208, 213 Craft making, 14 Creativity, 5, 29, 33, 193, 199, 206 Creativity, problem solving and aesthetics -turning dreams into reality, 206 Crowden, James, 131, 149, 201 Cyber-attacks, 3, 135, 208 Cycling, 69, 70, 86 D Defence, 147 -policy, 138 Damping, 58 Decision making, 31, 35, 123, 148, 190, 201, 204, 205 Index Degrees of freedom, 56 Dependability, 19, 133, 148 Designing, 33, 52, 56, 90, 111, 133, 168, 182, 201 Disasters, 3, 21, 28, 30, 42, 43, 68, 135, 140, 149, 160, 181, 187 Disegno, 47 Dreaming, Drinking water, 153, 162–164, 166, 197 Duty of care, 38, 52, 54, 127, 133, 134, 149, 192, 193, 208, 214 Dwelling, 10, 48, 67 Dynamo, 111, 113 E Early land transport, 71 Earthquakes, 30, 31, 54, 59, 60, 66, 67 Earth – the planet, 10, 58, 60, 144, 192, 209 Ecology, 9, 204 Economics, 4, 13, 38, 49, 138, 145, 147, 155, 160, 194, 202, 204, 205, 207, 209, 211, 212 Edison, Thomas, 111, 114, 207 Edith’s story, 69 Einthoven, Willem, 172–174 Electric motors, 74, 93 Electrocardiogram, 1, 172, 214 Electromagnetism, 102, 109 Electro-therapy, 171 Energy -conservation of, 88, 90 -electromagnetic, 105, 109 -flow, 18, 38, 70, 71, 100 -kinetic, 86, 95, 97, 100 -potential, 18, 55, 86, 88, 95, 96, 164 -strain, 55, 86, 88, 215 Engineering and technology, 23 Engineering as a general education, 22, 29, 33, 132, 154, 187, 201, 209 Engineering myths, 3, 28, 208 Engineering versus technology, 4, 23, 24, 129, 154, 198, 209, 210, 217 Engineers & engineering -as a people profession, 150 -definitions of, 5, -fragmentation of, 51 -importance of, 7, -in a bunker, 10, 207 -Italian artist, 33, 51 -making with science, 3, 19 -scope & responsibility, -self-knowledge, 201, 212 Index -taken for granted, 53, 207 -types of, Engineers at the heart of society, 201 Engines -electrical, 105 -heat, 86, 88, 90, 91, 94, 97, 112 -internal combustion, 33, 70, 74, 86, 91, 93, 100, 140, 161 -steam, 5, 9, 33, 67, 70, 86, 89–91, 100, 101, 159, 161 -turbine, 98, 208 Entropy, 90, 91 Equilibrium -dynamic, 87 -static, 55 -statically determinate, 55 -statically indeterminate, 55 Evolution, 130, 214 Extreme weather events, 9, 66, 149 F Failure, 3, 19, 21, 22, 30, 43, 60, 66, 156, 176, 181, 187–189, 197, 204, 208, 210, 216 Faraday, Michael, 3, 105, 109, 110, 112, 207 Fatigue -metal, 65, 68, 215 Feedback -positive, 58 Fessenden, Reginald, 115, 116 Fibres -glass, 120 -optical, 120 -plastic, 120 Field -gravitational, 112, 214 -magnetic, 109, 112, 129 -theory, 31, 112, 214 Fighting, 10, 129, 131 Fine art, 3, 33, 47, 208 Finite element method, 56, 214 Five principles, 28 Flourishing -human, 209 -personal, 182 Flourishing as achieving potential, 182 Fluids, 3, 49, 70, 86–88, 94–96, 101, 112, 161, 214, 217 -incompressible, 87, 95 -non-Newtonian, 87 Fluids and solids, 86 Flushing toilets, 153, 207 221 Flutter, 58, 59, 68, 214 Force -compression, 55 -of nature, -shear, 55, 88 -tension, 50, 55 Form & function, 15, 17, 208 Foundations, 23, 24, 46, 48, 67, 73, 105, 190 Fragmentation, 51, 204 -of professions, 9, 51, 53, 181 Francis turbine, 88, 96, 97 Fuels -fossil, 89, 101, 195, 209 -renewable, 101 Fuel cells, 93, 194 Functional art, 16, 24 Functional art making, 16 G Generator, 18, 94, 95, 109, 111, 112, 164, 175, 176 Geometry, 19, 48, 87, 112, 192 Getting smaller, 129 Golden rule, 183, 210 Grand challenges, 3, 129, 160, 178, 181, 193, 194, 199, 202, 208, 212 Greatbtach, Wilson, 176 Grenfell Towers, 41–45, 52, 66, 204 Grounding Principles (PUPIL), 4, 28, 29, 207–209 Guiding mind, 45, 52 Gunpowder, 89, 134, 136–138, 148 Guns, 18, 134, 136, 138–140, 148 H Harbours -Mulberry, 146, 147 Hard versus soft systems, 190 Health -mental, 7, 196 Heart pacemaker, 1–3, 5, 6, 8, 153, 156, 171, 188, 197, 208 -evolution of, 171 Heat, 10, 70, 86, 88–91, 94, 97, 98, 100, 112, 129, 165, 215 Heat engines, 88 Holons, 189, 190, 198, 205, 217 Housing, 5, 43, 44, 57, 100 Human factors, 66 222 I Impedance, 215 Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD), 2, Incompleteness, 215 Incubating accidents model, 188 Independence, 23 Induction, 109, 215 Information -active, 122, 129 -passive, 122, 129 Ingenuity, 5, 22, 28, 29, 32, 33, 37, 44, 67, 74, 86, 88, 112, 135, 136, 149, 153, 157, 170, 171, 178, 182, 184, 189, 191, 193, 199, 200, 202, 205, 207–209 Instability, 59, 135, 147 Integrated circuit, 105, 116, 118, 129, 171, 215 Internal combustion engine, 33, 70, 74, 86, 91, 93, 100, 140 Internet, 8, 31, 34, 38, 119, 123, 128, 189, 208 Invention, 3, 13, 18, 24, 74, 105, 129, 165, 166, 177, 208 J Jacquard’s weaving loom, 107, 108 Jet engine, 31, 33, 98–101, 143 ‘Just war’, The, 134, 145, 149 K Kelpies, The, 15, 16 Kelvin, Lord – Thomson, William, 65, 112 L Land transport, 74 Langer, Robert, 153–155, 197 Law and economics as engineering, 209 Layers or levels of working, 210 Leadership, 22, 32, 128, 157, 205, 206, 210, 212 Learning, 1, 22, 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 37, 43, 44, 53, 60, 66, 120, 124–127, 150, 182, 188, 193, 195, 198, 199, 201, 205, 208, 211, 216 Learning together requires leadership, 205 Life expectancy, 155 Literary engineering, 131 Index M Machines, 2, 6, 8, 29, 30, 33, 59, 69, 70, 72, 74, 76, 92, 95, 100, 105, 110–112, 117, 119, 120, 123, 124, 128, 136, 139, 140, 161, 177, 196, 197, 211, 217 Magnetism, 48, 102, 111, 112 Making, 3–10, 13–15, 21, 27, 31, 33–35, 42, 48, 49, 51, 69, 92, 95, 96, 101, 118, 123, 128, 136, 137, 148, 156, 160, 182, 190, 194, 196, 197, 199, 201, 204, 205, 207–209 Marconi, Guglielmo, 114, 115, 133 Medical engineering, 2, 9, 38, 56, 153, 156, 171, 178, 197, 198 Michelangelo, 33, 34, 47 Micro-electronics, 118 Military, 9, 22, 51, 90, 133, 134, 136, 138, 140, 145–148, 160, 184, 197, 213 Military targets, 145 Missiles, 3, 36, 132, 134, 136, 141, 142, 148, 208 Models, 16, 20, 21, 24, 66, 113, 124, 127, 128, 154, 176, 192, 199, 205, 206, 215, 216 Modulation -Amplitude (AM), 117, 213, 214 -Frequency (FM), 117, 213, 214 Moving, 10, 29, 32, 52, 65, 67, 70, 71, 78, 87–89, 92, 94, 98, 100, 118, 123, 129, 171, 172, 215 Moving on, 100 Mythos, 3, 20, 28, 30, 34, 39, 121, 163, 208 N National Grid, 111, 112, 164 Nature -laws of, 30, 31, 33 Needs and wants, 32 Negligence, 21, 38, 43, 188, 208 Neural nets, 124 Newton, Isaac, 19, 30, 48, 215 9/11, 4, 54, 61, 193, 203, 204 Nobel prize, 114, 118, 153, 154, 174 Nuclear weapons, 3, 9, 134–136, 141, 142, 148, 196, 208 O Objective, 15, 120, 121, 189, 190, 192, 208 Objects, 6, 7, 15–19, 31, 55, 70, 71, 119, 124, 129, 141, 164, 171, 200, 202, 214–217 Index Operating, 1, 111, 119, 144, 175 Opportunities, 27, 28, 32, 34, 48, 89, 128, 144, 189, 195, 199, 203, 209, 211 Otto cycle, 91 P Pacemaking, 171 Pantheon, Rome, 45, 46 Parsons, Charles, 97 Parts and wholes, 22, 28, 31, 71, 189, 209, 215 Part, Unintended, Preparedness, Ingenuity and Learning (PUPIL), 28, 29, 182, 208, 209 Passive and active information, 122 Pattern recognition, 105, 126 Patterns, 105 Patterns of electromagnetic energy, 105 Pelton wheel, 96 Perspectives, 122 Phronesis, 29, 191, 216 Plough -evolution of, 158 Pollution, 22, 35, 71, 89, 93, 101, 156, 165, 178, 194, 197 Polythene, 141 Popper, Karl, 35–37, 120, 121, 190 PQRST waves, 173, 174 Practical rigour, 192, 193 Practical wisdom, 28, 29, 33, 34, 67, 191, 193, 202, 209, 210, 216 Practical wisdom and rigour, 191 Prediction, 29, 31, 32, 36, 126, 203, 209 Preparedness, 28, 29, 32, 37, 43, 44, 52, 57, 64, 66, 149, 182, 189, 190, 193, 197, 205 Principles of practice, 27 Problem solving, 6, 14, 34, 36–38, 128, 132, 193, 206 Problem solving processes, 37 Problem solving with practical wisdom, 34 Professional silos, 208 Progressive collapse, 41–44, 60, 62, 66, 216 Progressive collapse and terrorism, 60 Properties -emergent, 43, 71, 188, 213–215 Public health, 3, 153, 155, 156, 166–168 Pugsley, Alfred, 42, 58, 59, 64–66 Punched cards, 117 PUPIL—see Grounding Principles, 4, 28, 29, 207–209 Purpose, 2, 4, 7, 15, 16, 19–21, 24, 35, 38, 56, 106, 125, 133, 146, 149, 159, 178, 223 183, 188–190, 195, 205, 206, 209, 214, 216 Q Quality, 2, 4, 7, 8, 14, 15, 17, 20, 24, 29, 34, 49, 57, 66, 117, 124, 155, 157, 164, 185, 187, 194, 199, 206, 211, 216 Quantum mechanics, Quantum computing, 30, 31, 39, 112, 129, 216 Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering, 154 R Radar, 44, 57, 117, 136, 140, 141, 147, 148 Radio, 18, 33, 105, 114, 115, 117, 140, 141, 207, 213, 214 ‘Reading’ a structure, 43, 53 Regulations -building, 41, 42, 44, 45, 67 Renaissance, 5, 14, 30, 32, 33, 46, 48, 62, 93, 207 Resilience, 29, 32, 193–195, 197, 198, 202– 205, 208, 210, 216 Resistance, 20, 51, 54, 78, 84, 101, 103, 115, 150, 164, 215, 216 Revisiting patterns, 188 Rigour -mathematical, 192 -practical, 192, 193 Risk, 2, 9, 10, 22, 34, 42, 45, 57, 67, 69, 88, 120, 123, 129, 130, 135, 136, 162, 165, 188, 190, 194, 198, 200, 202, 203, 208, 216 Robots, 9, 53, 102, 127, 128, 133, 148, 199 Robustness, 29, 204 Rockets, 101, 134, 143, 144, 148, 149, 207 Rockets and missiles, 143 Ronan point, 21, 41–44, 58, 60–62, 64, 66 Ronan point and Grenfell towers, 41 Royal Academy of Engineers, 5, 34, 154 S Safety, 9, 21, 44, 45, 52, 54, 62–70, 79, 80, 85, 97, 109, 127, 134, 144, 159, 161, 187, 196, 203, 209 Salginatobel bridge, 17 Scanners, 8, 31, 106, 156, 207 Science, 3, 5–7, 9, 10, 14, 19–21, 23, 24, 27– 31, 33–35, 48, 58, 67, 68, 90, 112, 113, 121, 128, 130, 133, 134, 136, 141, 143, 144, 192, 198, 201, 202, 207, 208, 210, 212, 214, 216 224 -incompleteness, 28 Semantics and pragmatics, 106, 120 Sewers, 165, 166, 168–171 Shelter, 45 Shockley, William, 118 Signalling, 109, 123 Simpson, Christopher, 181, 186 Social media, 3, 9, 22, 31, 122, 123, 129, 135, 193, 195 Solar cells, 31, 93, 194, 199 Solar Impulse aeroplane, 93, 94, 194 Solids & fluids, 3, 70, 86–88, 101 Space, 21, 22, 24, 53, 57, 70, 87, 101, 106, 107, 112, 126, 134, 143, 144, 149, 174, 182, 196, 200, 207, 213–215 Spark gap transmitter, 115, 140 Steam engine, 5, 9, 33, 67, 70, 86, 89–91, 100, 101, 161 STEMM, 24, 25 Structural safety, 62, 64–66, 68 Subjective, 120, 121, 189 Sustainability, 29, 57, 149, 160, 193, 194, 197, 198, 204, 211, 217 Sustainability versus war, 149 Sustainable development goals, 194, 211 Syntax, 105–107, 115, 120, 121, 195, 199 Systems -biology, 31, 39 -engineering, 31, 140, 148, 178, 188 -thinking, 189, 190, 197, 198, 206, 208, 209, 217 T Targets, 145 Technology triumphalism, 34, 136 Telecommunications, 8, 105, 120, 128, 145 Telegraph, 33, 109, 114, 115, 217 Terrorists, 3, 4, 54, 60, 62, 134, 148, 196, 208 Thermodynamics, 33, 67, 90, 91 -first law of, 90, 91 -second law of, 91 Things, 2–9, 13–15, 21, 24, 28, 31, 34, 35, 58, 64, 66, 67, 70, 71, 89, 113, 120, 121, 123, 133, 170, 188–190, 193, 198, 199, 203, 206–210, 215, 216 Tractors, 161 Transistor, 105, 118, 129, 171, 176, 199, 217 Transmitter -radio, 105, 115, 141 -spark, 115, 140 -telegraph, 115, 217 Index Transmitting the human voice, 115 Transport -air, 71 -land, 71, 74 -water, 72 Trebuchet, 134, 136, 137, 148, 217 -early ingenuity, 136 Trust, 127, 149, 165, 193, 202, 204, 206, 210 Turbine, 67, 86, 94–100, 112, 164, 208, 217 -Francis, 88, 96, 97 -gas, 95, 97–100, 208 -impulse, 95, 96 -jet, 86 -Kaplan, 97 -Parsons, 97 -Pelton wheel, 96 -reaction, 95, 97 -waterwheel, 94, 95 -windmill, 94, 95, 97 Turner, Barry, 43, 45, 135, 187, 188, 203, 209 U Uncertainty -fuzzy, 32 -incompleteness, 24, 198 -known unknowns, 135 -randomness, 30 -unknown unknowns, 148, 182, 198 Unintended consequences, 22, 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 37, 42–44, 71, 102, 123, 129, 136, 148, 149, 178, 182, 190, 193, 195, 196, 206, 208, 209 United Nations (UN), 27, 38, 150, 194, 209 Universe -clockwork, 29, 30, 34 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), 147, 148 V Vacuum tube, 115, 116, 118 Valves, 89, 118, 129, 139, 164, 175 Vehicles -electric, 70, 93, 101 -hybrid, 93 Venturi effect, 87, 88 Vibration, 43, 59, 115 Virtual reality, 196 Vitruvius, 15, 47, 208 Volts, 70, 106, 118 Vulnerability, 45, 59, 60, 134, 147, 188, 204 Index W Wagons, 5, 10, 71, 74 War, 132, 134 -Crimean, 109 -just–bellum justum, 134, 149 Warfare, 3, 10, 32, 36, 38, 72, 133, 134, 135, 136, 140, 141, 148, 196 Waste, 22, 73, 89, 141, 153, 155, 156, 163, 165, 168, 177, 197, 200, 207 Waste disposal, 165, 168 Water transport, 72 Waterworks, 163, 164 Waves -gamma, 114 -light, 112, 114, 115, 129, 216 -radio, 114, 141 -ultraviolet, 114 -X ray, 114 Weapons, 135 225 -drones, 3, 134–136, 147, 148, 196, 197, 208 -nuclear, 3, 9, 134–136, 141, 142, 148, 196, 208 -missiles, 3, 134, 136, 141, 142, 148, 208 Weaving, 105, 107, 108 Well-being, 155 West Gate Bridge, 181, 184, 186, 210 Wheel, 15, 69, 71, 74, 85, 86, 91, 94–96, 138, 139, 157, 161, 203 Whittle, Frank, 3, 98, 207 Why, how, who, what, where, when, 190 Why war, 134 Will this happen again, 187, 188, 208 Wind, 16, 18, 36, 42–44, 54, 58, 59, 66, 68, 72, 88, 94, 95, 97, 101, 157 Wind and vibrations, 58 Women in AI, 128 .. .Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering David Blockley Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering Today’s Engineers Turning Dreams into Reality 123 David. .. Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering David Blockley has produced a timely book, interesting to engineers and the general reader alike, dealing with engineering and engineers... parts of London and Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Essex Crossrail is © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 D Blockley, Creativity, Problem Solving, and Aesthetics in Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38257-5_2
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