Creativity in music education, 1st ed , yukiko tsubonou, ai girl tan, mayumi oie, 2019 2524

280 2 0
  • Loading ...
1/280 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 08/05/2020, 07:00

Creativity in the Twenty First Century Yukiko Tsubonou Ai-Girl Tan Mayumi Oie Editors Creativity in Music Education Creativity in the Twenty First Century Series editor Ai-Girl Tan, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore Aims and Scope “Creativity in the Twenty-First Century Book Series” repositions “creativity” as a boundary-crossing discipline that is essential to learning and teaching, socialeconomic dialogues, academic discourses and cultural practices, as well as technological and digital communications The series serves as a timely platform, bringing together like-minded scientists and researchers around the world to share their diverse perspectives on creativity and to engage in open and productive inquiries into promoting creativity for a more peaceful and harmonious world Researchers and practitioners from all continents are invited to share their discipline-specific insights, research orientations and cultural practices, as well as to pose new questions on what creativity is, how to promote it, which directions to pursue, who should participate, and so on The book series is led by emerging eminent and senior scientists, researchers, and educators in the fields of creativity, psychology, the cultural sciences and education studies They create networks of sharing and spread innovative publishing opportunities within the communities of practice They invest considerable time and effort in deepening creativity expertise, structuring creativity programs, and organizing creativity activities for the communities of interest The book series aims not only to “glue together” like-minded scientists (community of practice) to share benefits of creativity theorizing, research and practice, but also to encourage nonexperts (community of interest) in all societies to become supporters and spokespersons of positive engagement in creative learning, teaching and dialogues More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/13859 Yukiko Tsubonou Ai-Girl Tan Mayumi Oie • Editors Creativity in Music Education 123 Editors Yukiko Tsubonou Kaichi International University Kawashi, Chiba, Japan Mayumi Oie Tokyo Woman’s Christian University Tokyo, Japan Ai-Girl Tan National Institute of Education Nanyang Technological University Singapore, Singapore ISSN 2364-6675 ISSN 2364-6683 (electronic) Creativity in the Twenty First Century ISBN 978-981-13-2747-6 ISBN 978-981-13-2749-0 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2749-0 Library of Congress Control Number: 2018956273 © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2019 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore This volume is dedicated to Fumishige Yamamoto (1938–), the pioneer of music educator in Japan Contents Part I Everyday Creativity in Music Education Creativity and Music Education: A State of Art Reflection Ai-Girl Tan, Yukiko Tsubonou, Mayumi Oie and Hiromichi Mito Learner Agency in Musical Creative Process and Learning Shinko Kondo and Jackie Wiggins 17 Soundscape, Sound Education, and the Grain of the Music: Experiencing the Luminousness of Music Being What It Is Tadahiko Imada 35 Exploring Children’s Creative Musical Conversations Using the Tambourine Kumiko Koma 47 Discovering Young Children’s Musical Creativity in Their Everyday Life Schu-Fang Lin 59 Part II Ideas of Creative Music Education Toward Ecological Music Education: Thinking from the Batesonian–Deleuzian Views Yu Wakao 75 Creativity and Embodiment in Pre-modern Japan and Twenty-First Century (North) America Koji Matsunobu 85 Creativity in Music Education from 1890s to 1930s in Japan Eiko Konoma 97 vii viii Contents Rethinking Takemitsu Through Creative Music Activities: Application of the Materials in His Piano Music 111 Noriko Ohtake 10 The Clues of Understanding and Creating Music 127 Yukiko Tsubonou 11 Facilitation-Based Distributed Creativity: The Inari Chorus Performance at the Itoshima International Art Festival 137 Mia Nakamura and Hazuki Kosaka 12 Creativity, Change in Music Culture, and What Children’s Song Should Be 151 Atsuko Gondo Part III Reviews of Practice and Research in Music Education 13 The Challenge of Teaching Creativity in School Music Education in Mainland China 167 Wai-Chung Ho 14 Do You like Music as the Subject at School? Creativity in Self-regulated Learning and Motivation in Music Education 187 Mayumi Oie, Yasuhiko Fujie, Yu Okugawa, Shinichiro Kakihana, Shoko Itaka and Hisashi Uebuchi 15 Teaching Strategies, Knowledge, Higher-Order Thinking Skills and Creative Musical Product in Music Improvisation 201 Ku Wing Cheong 16 Creativity in the Japanese National Curriculum for Music 217 Hajime Takasu and Akemi Takasu 17 Developing Creativity in Musical Performance: An Analysis of Famous Musicians’ Autobiographies 231 Hiromichi Mito 18 Teaching Music in the Early Childhood Classroom for Convergent Creativity: Views from a Meta-synthesis 245 Fadzlianie Binte Yusof and Ai-Girl Tan 19 Creativity in Music Education: Moving Forward 267 Ai-Girl Tan Author Index 273 Subject Index 275 Editors and Contributors About the Editors Yukiko Tsubonou is Professor at Japan Women’s University Since commencing her study of children’s creative music activity in the 1970s, she has given many types of workshops and concerts, as well as shared creative music with children, teachers, elderly people, and professional musicians From 1991 to 1997, she worked as the Music Director of the “Dou-gaku” series, in which she held concerts and workshops with musicians and music educators from abroad In 2001, she worked as the Music Director for “Children’s Future” festival which was a part of “International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM), World Music Days in YOKOHAMA 2001” From 2005 to 2008, she was the President of the Japanese Music Education Society From 2005 to 2007, she worked as a member of the Education Committee of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Now, she is the Director of the Institute of Creative Activity for Children (ICMAC), as well as the editor of the Journal of Creative Activity for Children (JCMAC) In addition, she has written papers/books and translated English books about creative music activity Ai-Girl Tan is a faculty of the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore She was a Visiting Professor at the Department of Psychology, University of Munich, Germany sponsored by the German Academic Exchange Service, and at the Department of Asian Studies, Kaisai Gaidai University, Osaka, Japan Currently, she is the program leaders of higher degree (Master’s and Ph.D.) department of early childhood and special education She supervised Master’s level projects (critical inquiry term papers), theses, and dissertations at the Master’s and Ph.D levels Her research projects include critical making and creativity, play, and strength-based education ix x Editors and Contributors Mayumi Oie is Professor and Head of Teacher Education Programme at Tokyo Woman’s Christian University, Japan Her main research interests are in the relationship between motivation and creativity in transition from elementary school to junior high school Her English publications include “Self-Regulated Learning and Creativity as Related to Age and Gender in the transition from Elementary to Junior High School” In A G Tan (Ed., Creativity, Talent and Excellence.(Springer Verlag, 2013, “The Intersection of Psychology and Leisure Studies After March 11, 2011 in Japan” Creativity and Leisure: An Intercultural and Cross disciplinary Journal, (2012), “What makes collegial reflection creative? A longitudinal case study on Wiki in Physics in higher education” Creativity and Leisure: An Intercultural and Cross disciplinary Journal, Special Issue: Reframing Creativity, 3, (2014) Contributors Ku Wing Cheong University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Yasuhiko Fujie The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Atsuko Gondo Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Japan Wai-Chung Ho Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China Tadahiko Imada University of Hirosaki, Hirosaki, Japan Shoko Itaka Kyoritsu Women’s University, Tokyo, Japan Shinichiro Kakihana Meiji Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan Kumiko Koma Chiba University, Chiba, Japan Shinko Kondo Oakland University, Rochester, USA Eiko Konoma Showa Women’s University, Tokyo, Japan Hazuki Kosaka Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan Schu-Fang Lin Department of Child Care and Education, Yu Da University, Miaoli, Taiwan Koji Matsunobu The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Hiromichi Mito Meiji Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan; Tamagawa University, Machida, Japan Mia Nakamura Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan Noriko Ohtake Sagami Women’s University, Sagamihara, Japan Mayumi Oie Tokyo Woman’s Christian University, Suginami-ku, Tokyo, Japan 264 F B Yusof and A.-G Tan Table 18.4 Teaching music in early-year classroom for convergent creativity Convergence Divergence Emergence Intersystemic interaction in the classroom Children and teacher in the classroom The stakeholder Working environment Local community Teaching music in the preschool classroom Musicosphere Skills, competence, and confidence Irregularity Fusion Border and boundaries toward creativity and instability (Noeth, 2006) The role of the cultural and economic contexts of which the school, teachers, and children were a part did not receive much attention in the qualitative research Comparative case studies such as (Bond, 2015a) evidently showed that cultural differences such as in the materials used in the learning environment and in how the children responded to music The socioeconomic differences tie greatly with the social–cultural differences and practices between the lower class population and middle/upper class population (see Bond’s [2015a, 2015b] studies, for the difference between the urban and suburban populations) Boundary as a frontier of inner and outer space separates the culture of one’s own good and harmonious from that of its bad and chaotic The center of the musicosphere has the tendency to conserve stability but its periphery has the tendency to irregularity and creativity (Noeth, 2006) Teaching music in the preschool classroom with reference to the musicosphere for convergent creativity and for good life shall consider the power of the conservative power from the authority and experts with a tendency to stability Teachers shall maintain their openness to the periphery of musicosphere that is with a tendency to creativity As Noeth (2015) noted the possibilities of the word of web users, who are producers of knowledge and creativity, the cyberspace can become a musicosphere with the potential of self-organization, self-description, and self-regulation The cyber-musicosphere also remains in constant exchange with other cyber-musicospheres, in a permanent process of self-transformation resulting in an ongoing growth of signs and culture of music The musicosphere as the space of music culture seethes like the sun; centers of activity boil up in different places, in the depth and on the surface, irradiating relatively peaceful areas with its immense energy (Lotman, 2005) The twenty-first century of discourse on convergent creativity from the practice of teaching music in the preschool classroom shall take into consideration qualitative leaps of boundary crossing and appreciation of irregularities in behavior and expression of music of young children and teachers In the search for the creative pedagogies to nurture creativity for life, teachers shall be open to all possibilities in life, and to sounds made by the children when they attempt to cross the boundaries of what they know and how they regulate themselves naturally and culturally 18 Teaching Music in the Early Childhood Classroom for Convergent … 265 References Barroso, J., Gollop, C., Sandelowski, M., Meynell, J., Pearce, P., & Collins, L (2003) The challenge of searching for and retrieving qualitative studies Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25(2), 153–178 Bohr, N (1950) On the notions of causality and complementarity Science, 111(2873), 51–54 *Bond, V L (2015a) Created in context: A comparative case study of the use of music in two reggio emilia-Inspired schools Early Childhood Education Journal, 43(2), 199–126 *Bond, V L (2015b) Sounds to share: The state of music education in three Reggio Emilia–inspired North American preschools Journal of Research in Music Education, 62(4), 462–484 Bronfenbrenner, U (1979) The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Bronfenbrenner, U (1986) Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives Developmental Psychology, 22, 723–742 Bronfenbrenner, U (1995) Developmental ecology through space and time: A future perspective In P Moen, G H Elder, & K Luscher (Eds.), Examining lives in context: Perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp 619–647) Washington, DC: APA Books Brotherson, J M., Erwin, J E., & Summers, A J (2011) Understanding qualitative meta-synthesis: Issues and opportunities in early childhood intervention research Journal of Early Intervention, 33(3), 186–200 https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815111425493 Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (2017) CASP Qualitative Checklist Retrieved March 7, 2017, from Critical Appraisal Skills Programme http://www.casp-uk.net/checklists Csikszentmihalyi, M (1988) Society, culture, and person: A system view of creativity In R J Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity (pp 325–339) New York: Cambridge University Press Dewey, J (1937/1997) Experience and education New York: Touchstone Ehrlin, A (2014) Swedish preschool leadership–supportive of music or not? British Journal of Music Education, 2, 163–175 *Ehrlin, A (2015) Swedish preschool leadership–supportive of music or not? British Journal of Music Education, 32(2), 163–175 *Ehrlin, A., & Wallerstedt, C (2014) Preschool teachers’ skills in teaching music: Two steps forward one-step back Early Child Development and Care, 184(12), 1800–1811 *Gruenhagen, L M (2012) Learning in practice: A first-year early childhood music teacher navigates the complexities of teaching Research Studies in Music Education, 1, 29–44 *Harris, M (2009) Music and the young mind: Enhancing brain development and engaging Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education *Harris, D J (2011) Shake, rattle and roll–can music be used by parents and practitioners to support communication, language and literacy within a pre-school setting Education 3–13, 39(2), 139–151 *Lau, W C., & Grieshaber, S (2010) Musical free play: A case for invented musical notation in *a Hong Kong kindergarten British Journal of Music Education, 27(2), 127–140 Lee, S (2012) Tracing the transformation of early childhood music education in young children from 1985 to 2010 Visions of Research in Music Education, 22, 1–27 *Lee, A (2016) Implementing character education program through music and integrated activities in early childhood settings in Taiwan International Journal of Music Education, 34(3), 340–351 Lotman, J (2005) On the semiosphere (1984, translated by Wilma Clark) Sign Systems Studies, 33(1), 205–229 Matthews, D R., Ubbes, V A., & Freysinger, V J (2016) A qualitative investigation of early childhood teachers’ experiences of rhythm as pedagogy Journal of Early Childhood Research, 14(1), 3–17 *Miranda, M L (2004) The implications of developmentally appropriate practice for the kindergarten general music classroom Journal of Research in Music Education, 52(1), 43–63 *Niland, A (2015) ‘Row, row, row your boat’: Singing, identity and belonging in a nursery International Journal of Early Years Education, 23(1), 4–16 266 F B Yusof and A.-G Tan Noblit, G W., & Hare, R D (1988) Meta-ethnography: Synthesizing qualitative studies Newbury Park: Sage Noeth, W (2006) Yuri Lotman on metaphors and culture as self-referential semiospheres Semiotica, 161(1/4), 249–263 Noeth, W (2015) The topography of Yuri Lotman’s semiosphere International Journal of Cultural Studies, 18(1), 11–26 *St John, P A (2006) Finding and making meaning: Young children as musical collaborators Psychology of Music, 34(2), 238–261 Tan, A G (2014) Creativity in cross-disciplinary research In E Shiu (Ed.), Creativity research: An interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research handbook (pp 68–85) London: Routledge Tan, A G (2015) Convergent creativity: from Arthur Cropley (1935–) onwards Creativity Research Journal, 27, 271–280 Vygotsky, L (1978) Mind in the society: The development of higher psychological processes Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Vygotsky, L (2004) Imagination and creativity in childhood Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 42(1), 7–97 Walsh, D., & Downe, S (2005) Meta-synthesis method for qualitative research: a literature review Journal of Advanced Nursing, 50(2), 204–211 Legend * articles selected for metasynthesis Fadzlianie binte Yusof was a graduate student of the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Tan Ai-Girl is a faculty of the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore She was a visiting professor at the Department of Psychology, University of Munich, Germany sponsored by the German Academic Exchange Service, and a visiting scholar at the Department of Asian Studies, Kansai Gaidai University, Osaka, Japan Currently, she is the program leaders of higher degree research (Master and Ph.D.) for the department of early childhood and special education She supervised Master level meta-synthesis study projects (human development, integrative project, and critical inquiry term papers), theses, and dissertations at the Master and Ph.D levels Her research projects include critical making and creativity, and play- and strength-based education Chapter 19 Creativity in Music Education: Moving Forward Ai-Girl Tan Introduction In finding out the state of art of creativity in music education, the editors of the volume invited international music educators, scholars, and researchers to share their views, ideas, practices, and research findings After reading the contents of the chapters presented in this volume, we are pleased to report some positive observation on the contemporary understanding of creativity in music education First, music educators and authors of our volume share a converging view that everyday creativity is essential for learning music and learning to be creative in music that is mediated social–culturally The authors are convinced that creativity is within every individual child or learner; and it emerges in open, supportive, and nurturing environments A socially mediated explanation to an individualistic explanation is preferred for the practice of creativity in the field of music and in teaching and learning music The above is in line with comments of Humphreys (2006) that: “New theories of music cognition also reject assumptions about individualism upon which constructivism rests, such as the notion that individuals ‘construct meaning’ largely, or perhaps solely, from their own experiences” (p 354) To Humphreys (2006), scholars today opt for socially mediated explanations for creativity in music: “Creativity as a social construct, together with intelligence and music ability/talents” (p 358) The creative approaches to encountering and making and encountering creativity in music in everyday life in socially supported learning and teaching environment are narrated in multiple chapters in this volume (see Chaps 2, 3, 4, 5, and under part one: Everyday creativity in music education) In group compositions processes, music making involves simultaneous performing of music ideas (Humphreys, 2006) Experiencing intuitive and effortful creativity is socially mediated For instance, the A.-G Tan (B) National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore e-mail: aigirl.tan@nie.edu.sg © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2019 Y Tsubonou et al (eds.), Creativity in Music Education, Creativity in the Twenty First Century, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2749-0_19 267 268 A.-G Tan child and learner guided by the teacher encounters music pieces, move with the sounds created by the instrument or played by the teacher, appraise their movement with the music, appreciate creativity of the music and musician, and make their own music In this manner, the teacher who understands the relations between agency and creative learning, teach creatively by playing a piece of the song with a piano, and by guiding the child to sense the music, appraise their experience with music, and create their own music The child engages in intuitive, multisensory learning, imaginary and possibility learning, and creative making Acquiring, appraising, transforming, evaluating, imagining, composing, and so on are emergent encounters of the learner Second, the volume with its rich collection of creative music education ideas can help join the dots of a missing link of creativity in music education The contents of chapters in part two can be built by interpreting and translating the key concepts, metaphors, and interpretations of the authors in the chapters New ideas music education in multiple chapters (see part two: Ideas of creative music education, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12) can be synthesized into a framework of creative music pedagogies The ecological perspective in Chap based on views of Batesonian-Deleuzian and the eminent scholar Takamitsu’s creativity in Chap can complement the contemporary and historical perspectives of creative music education spelled out in Chaps (embodiment), (history of music), 10 (combination of cultural and traditional music), 11 (distributed creativity showed in festivals), and 12 (creation of songs from without and from the culture) Third, creativity in music education in the systems requires “checked and balanced” processes for policies implementation through continuous reviews and research practices In Chap 18, the authors conducted a qualitative literature review adopting steps (S) of a metasynthesis methodology (Noblit & Hare, 1988) With the steps, the authors examine if the outcomes of a scientific inquiry converge with their intuition on an issue of concern The steps of metasynthesis are framing a question around an issue of concern (S1: What is the state of art of understanding creativity in music education among international music educators?), searching for the relevant resources that are available to review (S2), reading repeatedly to identify key concepts and metaphors (S3) We can outline the main contents of the chapters with the same headings (S4) The views of the authors are interpreted from descriptions, language use, and conceptual understanding (S5) The multiple interpretations from the authors and the researcher who synthesize the literature are compared and contrasted to reach a coherent understanding Codes are identified and categories or themes are grouped from the codes (S6) The relations of the themes are represented in a diagram and in a coherent story or line of argument (S7) Music educators employ both quantitative and qualitative research orientations The authors of the volume adopted qualitative methodologies to study creativity in music education (Chaps 4, 5, and 17) and qualitative methodologies to discover relationships among factors that influence creativity in music education (Chaps 14 and 15) 19 Creativity in Music Education: Moving Forward 269 What Can Be Done More? Creativity in music education engages music educators to make efforts in understanding the “whats” of creativity, creativity in music, and creativity in music education What is creativity? What is creativity in music? What is then creativity in music education? It also awaken awareness of music educators to generate and implement ideas of creative music education to nurture creativity of the learners The “hows” to creativity in music education are asked alongside with the “whats” are In teaching creatively, Brinkman (2010) suggests the learners to focus on everyday, little c, or “ordinary” creativity that they can envision being creative He recommends music education to include a structure that can sustain the learners’ interest and motivation to acquire expertise and skills relevant to music making and composing, and to master creativity relevant skills in taking risk, brainstorming, problem solving, and being humorous and witty (Amabile, 1983) A structure of teaching music shall include allowing the learners to have sufficient time to let their creative idea in music develops Music educators shall understand that creativity takes time Incubation can be a part of the creative process that the learners experience in developing their creative music ideas to creative music products In preparing for teaching creatively, music teachers sustain their own motivation in modeling how to create music and how to bring music idea to music pieces They master expertise in music, pedagogies of music, and pedagogical content knowledge of music as well as creativity relevant skills in music, music pedagogies, and pedagogical contents knowledge of music (Shulman, 1986) Questions that we can pose for teaching creatively can be the following: “Where teacher explanations come from? How teachers decide what to teach, how to represent it, how to question students about it and how to deal with problems of misunderstanding? What are the sources of teacher knowledge? What does a teacher know and when did he or she come to know it? How is new knowledge acquired, old knowledge retrieved, and both combined to form a new knowledge base?” (Shulman, 1986, p 8) To teach music creatively, music teachers need to subject matter content knowledge of music which includes understanding the “what” and the “why” of certain contents or phenomena and their importance of the discipline of music Music teachers need to master pedagogical content knowledge of music such as an understanding of what makes the learning of specific topics (e.g., composing, music listening and improvisation) easy or challenging They are aware that learners will bring conceptions and preconceptions according to their ages and backgrounds to the class when they teach some topics and lessons Music teachers need to master curricular knowledge of music, which is represented by music programs designed for the teaching of music at a given level with a variety of instructional materials in relation to the programs, and the set of characteristics that serve as indications and contraindications of music curriculum, program materials (Shulman, 1986, p 10) 270 A.-G Tan Fourth, creativity of the person in the society interacts with the supporting systems in the social institution and culture The policies of creative music education (Chap 13) and curriculum of creativity in music education (Chap 16) interact dynamically with intelligences and creative talents of the learners in the community of practice The authors of the chapters describe changes in curriculum of music that likely fosters creativity of the learners in the context of music education (Chap 16) but present reserved reflections on challenges of implementation of policies of music education (Chap 13) Taking insights and views of the authors of this volume into consideration, developing ways to teach creatively and to teaching creativity in music education can be suggested and tested Creativity in music education is for humanity, positive growth, healthy personhood, and the good Humanity is the ultimate outcome of creativity in music education Examples of humanity in practice are respect, love, integrity, kindness, compassion, and benevolence Music teaching for creativity is composed of a structure that allows continuation and renewal of knowledge useful for the learners during and after classroom learning (Bruner, 1960) A structure of teaching ensures that new knowledge or specific contents are part of the broader knowledge in the discipline Creative music teaching awakens internal processes to react, act, engage, and create It arouses awareness to good, to collaborate, and to communicate Creative music teaching is more than disseminating information It is a process of inviting learners to engage in genuine conversation and meaningful dialogue for the emergence of love for life-long learning Music learning is a creative experience comprising simultaneous processes of acquiring, transforming, and evaluating knowledge for good use or for personal and social development (Bruner, 1960) Creativity in music is constructive in the presence of love for learning, compassion for unavoidable sufferings, and readiness to compensate incompleteness in life Creative music teaching with “spiral curriculum” spells out the aspiration of education for growth and development beyond the classroom (Bruner, 1960) It embraces intuitive thinking that complements logical thinking Confident music learners honestly accept any discrepancy in the process and outcome of learning emerging from thinking intuitively and thinking logically Creative music teaching ensures that instructions and materials are organized for elaboration and for memory (Bruner, 1960) Creativity emerges from interactions of the mind and the body and with objects, people, and systems (Buber, 1937) The conceptions of creative approaches to teaching music fit well to the systems theory of creativity A creative person is an open system which is interactive with social-culture which are also open systems (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) Openness, freedom to act and interact, and unconditional support are essential for creativity to emerge constructively within the person (Rogers, 1961) The authors are committed to compiling and synthesizing resources in their communities for music teaching and learning They seem to be convinced of overgenerational effects of creativity (Simonton, 1999): Creativity of the past generations can influence creativity of the present generation and the latter can influence creativ- 19 Creativity in Music Education: Moving Forward 271 ity of the next generations The over-generational influences are observed through scaffolding, mentoring, and the will to share and create Conclusion Research can be a feedback tool of creativity in music education on the effectiveness of curriculum, materials, instructions, and policies of music education (see Hodges, 2010) It serves as a feedforward tool for creative teaching and teaching for creativity in music As a feedback tool, research can employ designs and methods that analyze cause and effect and experiences of teaching and learning Creativity is cross-disciplinary and boundary crossing Research on creativity in music education employs both quantitative and quantitative research methodologies and designs References Amabile, T M (1983) The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(2), 357–377 Brinkman, D J (2010) Teaching creatively and teaching for creativity Arts Education Policy Review, 111, 48–50 Bruner, J S (1960) The process of education Oxford, England: Harvard University Press Buber, M (1937) I and Thou (translated by Ronald Gregor Smith) Edinburg: Clark Csikszentmihalyi, M (1996) Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention New York: HarperCollinsPublishers Hodges, D A (2010) The impact of a funded research program on music education policy Arts Education Policy Review, 111, 71–78 Humphreys, J T (2006) Towards a reconstruction of “creativity” in music education British Journal of Music Education, 23(3), 351–361 Noblit, G W., & Hare, D R (1988) Meta-ethnography: Synthesizing qualitative studies Newbury Park, CA: Sage Rogers, C (1961) On becoming a person Boston: Houghton Mifflin Shulman, L S (1986) Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching author(s) Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14 Simonton, D K (1999) Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity New York: Oxford University Press Ai-Girl Tan is a faculty of the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore She was a visiting professor at the Department of Psychology, University of Munich, Germany sponsored by the German Academic Exchange Service, and as a visiting scholar at the Department of Asian Studies, Kansai Gaidai University, Osaka, Japan Currently, she is the program leader of higher degree research programs (Master and Ph.D.) at the department of Early childhood and special education She supervised study projects (human development, integrative project, and critical inquiry term papers), theses, and dissertations at the Master and Ph.D levels Her research projects include meta-ethnography/meta-synthesis critical making and creativity, play and strength-based education Author Index A Albright, D, 42 Amabile, T M., 6, 61, 188, 269 Aoyagi, Z., 104–107 Azzara, C D., 201, 202 B Bach, J S., 37, 201 Bandura, A., 18, 19, 57 Barenboim, D., 43, 233, 234, 236, 237, 239 Barrett, M S., 17, 19, 24, 59, 60, 62, 63, 68, 138, 148 Bateson, G., 76–81 Beethoven, L V., 36–38, 113, 201, 232, 241 Begetto, R Berio, L., 114, 130, 133 Berliner, P., 203, 206 Bernstein, L., 127, 222 Bjørkvold, J., 17 Blacking, J., 68, 153, 160 Bond, V L., 169, 250, 255–264 Bowman, W., 13, 88, 93 Bronfenbrenner, U., 245, 249, 257–260 Brooks, J G., 18 Bruner, J S., 17–19, 21, 23, 29, 270 Burnard, P., 7, 19, 63, 138, 143, 148 Burt, P., 116, 117, 120 C Cage, J., 39, 79, 112, 140 Campbell, P S., 17, 24, 59, 60, 62, 63, 70 Chen, X M., 172, 179, 188 Chopin, F., 134, 233, 236 Cole, M., 18 Comini A., 37 Craft, A., 3, 62 Csikszentmihalyi, M., 6, 63, 146, 167, 188, 220, 221, 241, 263 D Davis, S G., 26, 77, 135, 233, 235, 236, 239 Debbusy C Dewey, J., 5, 8, 17, 52, 170, 173, 245, 259 E Ehrlin, A., 250, 255, 257, 258, 260, 261 Elliott, D J., 201, 204, 205 Espeland, M., 19, 24, 22, 26, 28 European Classical music, 36, 127, 135 F Falkenhausen, L V., 170 Furtwängler, W., 236, 237 G Griffiths, P., 39 Guilford, J., 3, 5, 9, 187, 220 H Hahn, T., 86 Hanslick, E., 36, 38, 76 Hitchcock, A J Ho, W C., 11, 170, 171, 174, 177 Hofstede, G., 169 Horowitz, J., 236–238 I Ives C., 43, 133 © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2019 Y Tsubonou et al (eds.), Creativity in Music Education, Creativity in the Twenty First Century, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2749-0 273 274 J Jarvie, I C., 7, 11, 98 Jo S., 42, 43 K Kaufman, J C., 3, 4, 7, 38, 168, 169, 220, 231, 233, 241 Keister, J., 86, 87, 89 Kitamura, H., 104 Kramer, L., 76 Kratus, J., 8, 53 Kumakura, S., 139 Kurasawa, N L Lave, J., 18 Law, W W., 170, 174, 177 Lee, R., 90, 246, 255–257, 260 Lubart, T I., 3, 5, 6, 60, 61, 86, 205 M Marsh, K., 18, 19, 63, 187, 188, 190, 191, 197 Matsunobu, K., 85–87, 89, 94 Matsushita, I., 114, 115 McCarthy, M., 8, 152, 163 McNicol, R., 133, 219 Messiaen, O., 38, 43, 112 Monson, I., 138 Mozart, W A., 37, 201, 208, 236 N Niu, W H, 168, 169, 179 No-idiomatic improvisation Nyodo, J., 89 O Odena, O., 138 Oe, K., 113, 123 Otomo Y., 139 P Paynter, J., 7, 49, 75, 129, 131–133, 151, 162, 219 Pressing, J., 203, 205, 206 R Randel, D M., 56 Randles, C., Redon, O., 121, 124 Author Index Riley, T., 39, 90, 234 Rogoff, B., 18, 19, 28 Rossini, G A., 127, 131 Rubinstein, A., 236, 237 Rudowicz, E., 86, 171, 179 Runco, M A., 60, 61, 63, 188 S Sawyer, R K., 3, 47, 48, 63, 138, 143, 146, 220, 221, 227 Schafer, R M., 38–43, 75, 129 Schoenberg, A., 133, 206, 207 Schön、D A., 205, 206 Schulman, L S Sternberg, R., 3, 5, 6, 60, 169, 179, 205 Stravinsky, I., 133, 206 T Taisho period, 102–104, 106, 108 Takemitsu, T., 11, 111125, 137 Tan, A G., 8, 245 Tan, L., 12 Torrance, E P., Trimillos, R D., 86, 93 Tsubonou, Y., 11, 124, 129, 131, 133, 219 Turino T., 146 21th century skills, the 21th century ability, The V Vygotsky, L S., 4, 7, 18, 245, 259, 263 W Walker, R., 38, 236 Watazumi, D., 90, 91 Webster, P R., 5, 9, 10, 13, 62, 68, 205 Wigfield, A., 189, 190, 196 Wiggins, J., 10, 18–21, 24, 28, 62, 217 Wiora, W., 162 Wishart, T., 219 Y Yano, C R., 87, 94 Yokoyama, L., 90, 91 Young, S., 18, 189 Z Zohn, J., 76 Subject Index A Academic self-concept, 188–197 Action, 3, 4, 8, 12, 13, 21, 27, 53, 77, 79, 113, 124, 143, 160, 187, 201, 203, 205, 251 Aesthetic, 9, 36–38, 62, 79, 88, 92, 99, 101, 102, 104–106, 108, 109, 112, 172, 173, 178, 180, 218 Agbadza, 135 Agency, 10, 18–25, 27–29, 259, 268 Appraising, 13, 218, 222–224, 225, 268 Art education, 99, 102, 103, 105 Art-religion, 37 Asia, 6, 11, 13, 39, 47, 162 Audience, 4, 7, 8, 10, 13, 19, 23, 36–38, 77, 146, 237 Australia, 59, 94 Azuchi-Momoyama period, The, 159 B Bali island, 135 Barcarole, 134, 135 Baroque, 105, 130, 201, 233 Basic Act of Education, 218, 226 Beat, 8, 51, 52, 135, 168, 225 Beauty, 7, 10, 36, 38, 98, 101, 102, 106, 108, 155, 173, 218, 225, 237, 239 Big-C, 38, 220, 221, 241, 242 Big music, 35, 38 Blues, 233, 234, 239, 240 Buddhist music, 157, 159 C Call-and-response, 47 China, Chinese, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 86, 90, 140, 157–160, 167–174, 176–181 Chorus, 129, 142–148, 197 Collaboration, collaborative, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 17–20, 23, 24, 29, 47, 48, 51, 54, 139, 142, 145, 167, 197, 221, 226, 251 Collaborative performance, 23, 24 Collectivism, 169, 180, 181 Communism, 12, 176, 180 Composer, 19, 23, 38–40, 43, 75, 76, 79, 91, 105, 108, 111–119, 124, 129, 130, 133, 138–140, 206, 234, 238 Composing, 5, 9, 10, 12, 13, 19, 20, 37, 76, 124, 133, 154, 161, 174, 197, 218–220, 222, 223, 227, 231, 232, 268, 269 Compulsory education, 97, 173, 220, 224 Constructivism, 18, 267 Contemporary, 12, 13, 80, 104, 114, 115, 129, 130, 133, 138, 140, 178, 217, 267, 268 Convergence, 13, 245, 246, 260, 262–264 Country, 139, 158, 170, 172, 234 Course of Study, 12, 48–50, 113, 131, 132, 134, 217–219, 221–226, 242 Creative expression, 50, 157, 219, 223 Creativity, 3–13, 17, 19, 27–29, 36, 38, 39, 47, 50, 59–63, 65, 68–70, 76, 81, 85–94, 97–99, 102, 103, 105–109, 111, 112, 124, 137–140, 142, 143, 146–149, 151, 153, 159–163, 167–181, 187, 188, 197, 205, 217–222, 225, 226, 228, 231–234, 237, 238, 240–242, 245, 246, 260, 262–264, 267–271 Critical listening, 39 Cross-cultural, 11, 86, 93, 143, 148 Cultural, 4–13, 38, 44, 59–62, 78, 85, 86, 88, 89, 93, 94, 99, 112, 137, 143, 145, 149, 151, 153, 157, 159–163, 167, 168, © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2019 Y Tsubonou et al (eds.), Creativity in Music Education, Creativity in the Twenty First Century, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2749-0 275 276 Subject Index 170–174, 180, 181, 197, 221, 226, 233, 245, 250, 254, 256, 259, 262–264, 268 Curricular knowledge, 269 Curriculum, 7, 8, 12, 68, 75, 81, 103, 107, 151, 152, 162, 170, 172, 173, 176, 180, 181, 201, 211, 218, 225, 242, 260, 261, 269–271 Ghana, 135 Gigaku, 158, 159 Globalization, 149, 178, 226 Glockenspiel, 114, 115, 132 Gospel, 234 Graphic notation, 44, 129, 130 Group genius, 221 D Decision-making, 203, 226 Digital, 10, 218, 225 Disciplinary integration, Domain-specific, 137, 148, 220, 231 Dynamics, 21, 23, 26, 41, 44, 168, 170, 174, 178, 212, 225, 237 Dynamite-bushi, 154 H Harmony, 4, 41, 76, 86, 108, 120, 159, 169, 177, 178, 222, 225, 245, 262 Harpsichord, 236 Heian period, 158, 159 Higher-order thinking skills, 201, 202, 204, 207–213 Honkyoku, 90, 91 E East Asia, 86, 159 Ecological, 11, 75–78, 80–82, 245, 249, 259, 260, 268 Edo period, The, 151, 153, 158, 159 Emotion, 64, 66, 76, 105, 127, 173, 219, 235–237, 240 Enabling condition, 62, 69, 205 Enka, 153–156, 161 Environment sound, 40 Ethnomusicological, 59, 163 Experience, 4, 6, 9, 13, 17, 18, 21–23, 25, 27–29, 35, 36, 38–41, 43, 49, 53, 56, 57, 59–61, 65, 68, 86, 90, 94, 102, 106, 115, 123, 124, 127, 129, 132, 138, 141, 147, 149, 162, 173, 180, 190, 205, 207, 208, 212, 236, 238, 239, 242, 245, 253, 258, 262, 268–270 Expression, 28, 38, 42, 49, 56, 57, 60, 64, 66, 69, 76, 81, 86, 87, 90–92, 94, 105, 107, 108, 141, 148, 160, 162, 167, 171, 173, 175, 178, 219, 222, 223, 226, 232, 233, 237, 242, 246, 260, 264 I Idiomatic improvisation, 79, 82 Iemoto, 86 Ikigai, 89 Imitation, 11, 36, 53, 86, 87, 90, 93, 94, 107, 153, 160, 202, 203, 239 Improvisation, 5, 7, 11, 13, 25–27, 47, 48, 53, 54, 61, 76, 77, 79–81, 107, 138, 147, 174, 201–212, 221, 222, 269 Inari Chorus, The, 138, 140–143, 146–148 Individual genius, 221 Individualism, 176, 178, 179, 267 Indonesia, 6, 135, 159 Industrial revolution, 36 Instrument, instrumental, 43, 49–51, 53–57, 64, 67, 88, 105, 107, 108, 112, 124, 189, 190, 197, 202, 235, 238 Intelligence, 173, 201, 221, 267 Intercultural creativity, 138, 143, 146–148 Internalization, 28 Intrinsic motivation, 24, 61, 168, 188–190, 196 Itoshima International Art Festival, The, 138, 140 F Flat, 113–120, 240 Flattered finger, 42 Flow, 40, 48, 104, 115, 117, 124, 125, 132, 146, 188, 206, 210, 221, 253, 263 Focused listening, 38 Folk song, 137, 154, 163 Free play, 49, 52, 53, 55, 57, 76, 81, 82 J Japan, Japanese, 3–6, 10–12, 35, 36, 41, 43, 44, 48–50, 56, 57, 85–89, 91, 92, 94, 97, 102, 105, 111, 112, 117–119, 122, 124, 128, 131, 133, 135, 137, 138, 140, 142–145, 147, 151–154, 157–163, 171, 175, 191, 217–222, 224, 225, 232 Japanese National Curriculum, The, 113 Jazz, 40, 47, 48, 76, 79, 80, 135, 138, 145, 203, 221, 232–235, 239, 240, 253 G Gagaku, 144, 152, 158, 159 General genetic law, 28 Germany, 5, 37, 39, 130 K Kabuki, 87, 127, 132, 159 Subject Index Kata, 87, 89–94 Kechak music, 135 Keyboard, 8, 39, 113, 115, 139, 140, 144, 148, 207, 208 Kindergarten, 21, 48–50, 57, 59, 247, 252, 253 Kinesthetic engagement, 21 KJ, Knowledge, 4, 7, 8, 11, 18, 19, 21, 23, 27, 60, 61, 77, 81, 86, 151, 167, 173, 176, 180, 181, 201, 203–206, 208–212, 218, 220, 221, 224, 226, 239, 241, 255, 257, 260–262, 264, 269, 270 Korea, Korean, 6, 42, 59, 157–160 L Learning, 3, 6–10, 13, 18–20, 24, 27–29, 49, 52, 64, 76–82, 85–88, 90, 92–94, 152, 158, 169, 170, 172–175, 177, 180, 188, 189, 191, 192, 197, 202, 203, 205, 206, 208, 211, 212, 220, 221, 224–226, 231, 232, 235, 238–240, 242, 250, 251, 253, 255–258, 260–262, 264, 267–271 Lines of flight, The, 76, 79–82 Listening, 5, 8–10, 13, 19, 22, 26, 36, 41, 53, 56, 106, 107, 113, 114, 123, 124, 127, 129–131, 133, 173, 174, 178, 202, 205, 207, 218, 219, 224, 236, 239, 269 Little-C, 38, 220, 241, 242 Logical types of learning, 78 Low fidelity (lo-fi), 43 M Major, 4, 24, 37, 93, 118, 119, 122, 127, 138, 145, 152, 158, 172, 178, 179, 208 Marimba, 113–115, 132 Meiji era, Meiji period, The, 89, 99, 102, 137, 152, 158 Melody, 4, 24–27, 62, 64, 66, 69, 106–108, 118, 119, 129, 145, 153, 154, 178, 225 Metacognitive knowledge, 201, 204, 208–211 Metaphor, 113, 115, 141 Meter, 130, 144, 145 Microsystem, 249, 255, 257, 259, 260 Mimicking, 87 Mini-c, 38, 220, 241, 242 Mini-c model, The, 233 Ministry of Education (MoE), The, 99, 102, 172, 218, 219, 223, 225 Ministry of Education songs, 103, 104 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 50, 114 277 Motivation, 11, 24, 60–62, 64, 69, 87, 89, 176, 188–197, 242, 269 Music (musical) meaning, 21, 24, 35, 62, 203 Music (musical) understanding, 5, 12, 19, 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 81, 86, 107, 224, 239, 257, 260 Music activity, 12, 13, 56, 108, 114–116 Music classroom, 17, 19, 40, 135, 181, 190, 249, 258 Music education, 5, 7–13, 19, 29, 35, 36, 38–40, 47, 49, 57, 75–82, 88, 93, 94, 97, 99, 103–109, 113, 127, 129, 131, 132, 134, 137, 139, 151, 152, 162, 163, 168, 170–174, 176, 177, 180, 181, 187, 197, 201, 204, 205, 217–222, 224–226, 228, 231–233, 241, 242, 245–247, 251, 260–262, 267–271 Music educator, 7, 75, 80, 116 Music for all, 8, 12, 13 Music in social-culture, Music making, 129, 133, 135 Musical genre, 235 Musical identity, 24, 28 Musical interaction, 28 Musical problem solving, 19, 205 Musical structure, 51, 54, 115, 133, 203, 208, 221, 222 Musical syntax, 60, 62, 64 Musician, 7, 23, 26, 27, 29, 36, 42, 77, 81, 154, 158, 234, 238, 241, 268 N Nara period, 158, 159 National Music Curriculum Standard for Compulsory School Education, The, 172 Netherlands, The, 159 Novice, 202, 203, 241, 242, 261 Nursery rhyme movement, 103, 104 O Organ, 171, 236 Originality, 28, 36, 62, 64, 65, 69, 89, 151, 160, 206, 232–235, 237, 238, 240–242 Ownership, 23, 91, 92 P Passacaglia, 135 Pedagogy, 70, 86, 87, 89, 93, 97, 99, 104, 105, 107, 152, 202, 211, 256, 258–260, 263 People’s Music Publishing House, 174, 175 278 Performance, 7, 13, 20, 23–27, 37, 43, 44, 57, 59, 63, 68, 86–88, 90–92, 94, 103, 108, 138, 141–143, 146–149, 153, 155, 168, 173–175, 177, 188, 197, 201, 205, 206, 231–242 Performing, 4, 5, 9, 10, 13, 19, 23, 43, 56, 57, 76, 80, 86, 87, 93, 94, 130, 131, 138, 140, 146, 158, 173, 240, 267 Philippines, The, 10, 135 Piano, 17, 20–25, 36, 41, 42, 111, 112, 114–117, 122, 131, 132, 140, 171, 202, 207, 236, 268 PISA, 7, 226 Pop, 40, 127, 135, 174, 178, 224, 235 Pose, 52, 269 Practice, 5–7, 9–11, 13, 63, 70, 78, 85–90, 103, 104, 107, 124, 141, 143, 170, 179, 181, 201, 203, 227, 242, 247, 250, 264, 267, 270 Problem solving, 203, 204, 221, 226, 269, 3, 5, 19, 22, 26 Procedural skill, 203 Psychology, 3, 5–7, 10, 38, 77, 241 R Random, 53, 62, 69, 146, 222, 224 Recital, 66 Reggio Emilia, 257 Rhythm (rhizome), 4, 7, 8, 10, 41, 43, 49, 51, 53, 62, 65, 76, 79–82 Roller Coaster, 21–23 Romantic, 42, 233 Romanticism, 37, 42, 105 Rondo, 135 Rote learning, 172, 203 Rote memorisation, 172 Rubato, 41, 43, 237 S San’ya, 89, 91 Scaffolding, 9, 19, 22, 24, 26, 27, 271 Shanghai Music Publishing House, 174 School Education Law, 218, 226 School system, 12, 97, 99, 151 Score, 54, 114, 115, 120, 122, 130, 138, 143, 189, 191, 194, 207, 208, 240 Self-cultivation, 85, 86, 89 Self-efficacy, 18, 19, 57 Self-expression, 8, 105, 107, 108, 168, 223 Subject Index Self-play singing, 66 Self-Regulated Learning (SRL), 11, 188–190, 192–197 Shakuhachi, 85, 86, 89–91, 113 Shape, 62, 90–92, 105, 115, 169, 208, 224, 225, 263 Sharp, 113–115, 119, 122, 123, 152 Singing, 11, 12, 40, 49, 64, 66–68, 88, 102–104, 106–108, 127, 130, 131, 138, 144–147, 151–153, 161, 163, 171, 173, 174, 176–179, 218, 219, 222, 224, 242, 253, 257 Small music, 38 Social constructivist, 18, 20 Sociocultural context, social context, 220, 221 Sonata, 76, 135 Soul, 92, 173, 181, 233, 234, 237 Sound, 4, 7, 12, 23, 26–28, 38–44, 49–52, 55, 56, 62, 64, 66–69, 76, 81, 99, 105, 107, 108, 113–115, 117, 119, 122, 124, 127–134, 141–143, 145, 147, 152, 219, 222, 223, 235, 236, 238, 239 Soundscape, 10, 35, 39–41, 43, 129 Spiral curriculum, 270 Spontaneous music making, 5, 60, 201 Style, 26, 41, 52, 60, 87, 90–92, 111, 112, 115, 117, 129, 130, 134, 144, 154, 158, 178, 189, 206, 208–211, 233, 234, 238–242 Subject matter content knowledge, 269 Sustainable development, 226 Suzuki violin method, The, 85, 87 T Taisho Art Education, 102 Talent, 5, 239 Taishõ period, The, 102-104, 106, 108 Tambourine, 49–54, 56, 57 Teacher-centered activities, 57 Teaching creativity, 181, 270 Teaching strategy, 210 Tempo, 21, 26, 43, 62, 108, 134, 155, 222, 225, 237 TIMMS, 7, 226 Tone color, 69, 117 Tone, tonal, 21, 36, 52, 69, 113, 114, 117, 120, 122, 163, 206, 225 Tongatong music, 135 Traditional, 12, 40, 68, 86, 87, 89, 92, 105, 117, 118, 127, 128, 132, 133, 140, 141, Subject Index 143–145, 147, 148, 152–154, 157, 159–162, 169, 170, 172, 174, 222, 224, 232–234, 237–240, 268 Transformative process, 18 U U K., The, 88 United Nation of Educational Sciences Corporation (UNESCO), The, 6, 8, Unpredictability, 47, 48, 51, 76 U S., The, 5, 87, 88, 94, 168, 217 V Vibraphone, 113–115 Violin, 85, 87, 93, 112, 115, 155, 171, 238 Virtuoso, 37 279 W West, Western, 50, 56, 86, 93, 99, 119, 127, 130, 148, 152, 157, 159, 170, 179 X Xylophone, 25, 115 Y Young children, 19, 22, 27, 57, 59–62, 66, 70, 76, 81, 174, 189, 241, 247, 257, 259, 260, 264 Z Zen, 112 ... creative music education, music educators collaborate with musicians, historians of music, creativity researchers, and learners who are interested in mastery of musical instruments, music theory, composition,... (Vygotsky, 2004) Creativity in music can be nurtured in music lessons in school, private lessons by musicians, summer schools, and so on In this manner, creativity in music is part of creativity in music. .. Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan engaged in educational reform and economic innovation activities In Japan, educational reforms attempted to include individuation into curricula In
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Creativity in music education, 1st ed , yukiko tsubonou, ai girl tan, mayumi oie, 2019 2524 , Creativity in music education, 1st ed , yukiko tsubonou, ai girl tan, mayumi oie, 2019 2524

Mục lục

Xem thêm

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn