Crafting and shaping knowledge worker services in the information economy, 1st ed , keith sherringham, bhuvan unhelkar, 2020 929

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Crafting and Shaping Knowledge Worker Services in the Information Economy Keith Sherringham · Bhuvan Unhelkar Crafting and Shaping Knowledge Worker Services in the Information Economy Keith Sherringham • Bhuvan Unhelkar Crafting and Shaping Knowledge Worker Services in the Information Economy Keith Sherringham A.C.N 629 733 633 Pty Ltd Sydney, NSW, Australia Bhuvan Unhelkar College of Business University of South Florida Sarasota–M Sarasota, FL, USA ISBN 978-981-15-1223-0    ISBN 978-981-15-1224-7 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1224-7 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-­01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore Factors impacting capacity and capability building for knowledge worker transformation 3URFHVVIRU ,PSURYHPHQW 2XWFRPHV 7UDLQLQJ &KDQJH %HKDYLRXUV /HDGHUVKLS 6NLOOLQJ &KDQJH (QYLURQPHQW It is the empowered, motivated individuals working as a group that brings change 5LVN0DQDJHPHQW while we don’t know what the future will bring we know how to prepare to adopt, to adapt, and to benefit from opportunities Foreword Reflecting the nature of this book in being neither a business book nor an academic book, nor a technology or a business book, but about capacity and capability building for emerging opportunities, a foreword from the business academic perspective as well as one from the technology perspective are included Academic Perspective By: Prof Cihan Cobanoglu—McKibbon Distinguished Chair Professor of Hospitality Technology, University of South Florida My decades of experience tell me that the lifeblood of the hospitality industry is the flow of information between parties to service the needs of customers Furthermore, this is the case for almost all modern industries From resource scheduling to the management of bookings, to cost management, inventory management, and marketing, hospitality has end-to-­ end processes that gather, analyse, and supply information to people for the delivery services Like hospitality, every industry today is being impacted by changes in technology—from the automation of supply chains to demand management matching and peak pricing, as well as the operations of knowledge workers Technologies around real-time decision-­ making, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and data analytics are bringing transformations to operations across industry, especially the knowledge workers Knowledge workers play an essential role in every industry—especially service and hospitality industries From the routine accounts payable to ix x  FOREWORD accounts receivable, through hygiene standards and monitoring with compliance reporting, to supply chain logistics, and to customer management, the dependency upon end-to-end information flows is critical From the automation of routine operations, automation of compliance reporting, advanced analysis of purchasing decisions, targeted marketing campaigns through customer analytics, the use of AI for pattern matching to correct for data errors, through to information exchange standards across integrated supply chains validated by machine learning, the opportunities for the adoption integration and transformation of contemporary businesses are numerous The provisioning of knowledge worker services from the cloud is radically transforming business architectures and corresponding operations Large-scale service industries ranging from hospitality to hospitals and production industries from automobiles to toys, each one of them stands to benefit from the lower costs and ease of deployment of cloud-based knowledge worker services into their businesses This benefit is also true for small to medium industries When an initial copy of this book was first presented to me for review, I was drawn to two aspects The first was the practical and pragmatic nature of the book Being technology agnostic and driven by business adoption realities, this book addresses the adoption of technology into business and the required business changes as well as the knowledge worker transformation In outlining how to capacity and capability build for adaptiveness and responsiveness and resilience, the book shows how to prepare for transformation, how to manage service and operational changes, and how businesses adopt and adapt to rapid changes in technology The second aspect of the book that I was drawn to was that I could see the trends in the hospitality industry that I have experienced, researched on, advised businesses about, and spoken about present in the pages of this book, even though the book does not focus specifically on the hospitality industry The style of presentation from a practitioner’s perspective and the arguments on how to equip and support knowledge worker services are of value to me from both a teaching and a research perspective On reading deeper into the book, often taking several passes to draw out all the value from a section, the applicability of the expertise in this book to industry, government, and to a range of business types became transparent This book provides a strong basis to make such service transformation happen in practice I wish the authors my very best  FOREWORD  xi Profile: Cihan Cobanoglu, PhD, is the McKibbon Endowed Chair Professor of the College of Hospitality and Tourism Leadership (CHTL) at the University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee, and he also serves as the director of the M3 Centre for Hospitality Technology and Innovation and coordinator of international programs for the College of Hospitality and Tourism Leadership He is a renowned hospitality and tourism technology expert Dr Cobanoglu is a Fulbright Specialist commissioned by the Fulbright Commission, which is part of the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and World Learning (2018– 2021) He is a Certified Hospitality Technology Professional (CHTP) commissioned by Hospitality Financial & Technology Professionals (HFTP) and the American Hotel & Lodging Association Educational Institute He is editor of the Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Technology (indexed in Emerging Sources Citation Index and Scopus), editor of the Journal of Global Business Insights, co-editor of the Journal of Global Education and Research, associate editor of Tourism Review (world’s oldest tourism journal, indexed in Social Sciences Citation Index and Scopus) and a co-author of six books and ten conference proceedings He is serving as president of the Association of North America Higher Education International (ANAHEI) In addition, he serves as publisher of ANAHEI Publishing Dr Cobanoglu served as the chair of the American Hotel & Lodging Association’s Technology and E-Business Committee from 2009 to 2011 and as a member of the CHTP Advisory Council and Editorial Advisory Board of HFTP Technology Perspective By: Murali Sagi (PSM, FACS, MIEAust), CIO Government Agency Automation of knowledge worker services and resulting business transformation can be scary, but sometimes when we try, we can find things that make it better This book is one of those that will definitely help us know that mistakes along the way are okay and part of learning, but success is achievable This is the book if you want to know how to influence the environment, provide strategy and instil behaviours to succeed in meeting the transformation challenge One of the things that is especially interesting in this book is that the impact on knowledge workers through rapid changes in technology is inevitable It is not a question of if but when and by how much Some people may not like this book because it may make them feel inadequately prepared, but rest assured, this book is   APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE…  505 adoption of PMaaS. The PMOs support a portfolio of OPEX and CAPEX projects (programs) with operations optimised around PMaaS; –– supporting the transition of PMOs to portfolio management integrated across the enterprise rather than silo-centric management; –– resources, skilling, and training for PMaaS and PMO from the cloud; –– adoption of True Costed Project management (save funds, prioritise, reduce number of projects that should not get started, increase success rates) • Integrated Offerings: Meeting the demand for skills, resources, expertise, and services through integrated offerings, whilst supporting certain needs like the integrated change management with project management as well as providing stand-alone change management –– supporting the embedding of project management skills and expertise within client business areas, along role-based lines; –– strengthening the project management capacities and capabilities within client business areas across a range of areas from governance, through resources, to the use and application of frameworks; –– framework integration and elimination of duplication within frameworks; –– skilling for the use of management through frameworks Collectively, there are a series of emerging opportunities for this company to bring to clients and to establish the adviser (trusted adviser) relationship with the assurance of revenue pipelines The opportunity for market innovation and market disruption to rivals also exists 2.8  Realising the Opportunities Having a strategy and an objective on paper is worthy but the strategy needs to be taken off the page and made real The challenge for the company in this example is to make the strategy real to deliver benefits to its clients whilst managing revenue Specific challenges for the company include: • Overcoming competitor strengths such as going with Tier providers for fear of losing job and comfort with the existing adviser (trusted adviser) relationship Examples include: 506  APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE… –– competitiveness through lower costs; –– proven in implementing strategy by managing service integration across a range of providers; –– addressing the existing adviser (trusted adviser) relationship at top of organisations as well as commercial ties between organisations (such as airlines using a service provider in return for business from the provider) through assured service delivery illustrated through a series of tactical incremental deliveries • Leveraging Disruption: Both create market disruption and leverage disruption through rapid adaption and adoption because knowledge worker cloud services disrupt offerings, including: –– gain the speed to market through opportunity sharing with partners using alliances to reinforce offerings; –– opportunity for cross-silo offerings (e.g Organisational Change Management requires multiple integrated frameworks) integrated; –– adoption of smaller high calibre teams to deliver rather than larger teams of low value resources (provides cost advantages, time to market, assured services); –– use of assisted diagnosis services to drive opportunities; –– technology partnering (the technology partners provide the underlying technology in support of knowledge worker cloud-­ based services) • Service Improvement: Establishing expertise and services in the provision and management of a service improvement process to enable transformation to occur The on-sell of this improvement service as part of the adviser (trusted adviser) relationship and within the presales function The skilling and training integrated with the service improvement process is the combined value proposition and market differentiator 2.9  Quick Wins The approach of adopting a series of quick wins helps in realising the strategy and selling the value proposition and may include: • Integrated Frameworks: Adoption and use of integrated frameworks in service delivery and courses   APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE…  507 • Presales: Adoption and implementation of the presales function as mentioned previously • Strategy: Opportunities for services around strategy include: –– sales effort on making strategies real, the taking of strategy off the page; –– alignment of tactical sales to overall strategic sales; –– integration of business and technology through the use of technology partners • Courses: See previous • Partnering: Strategic partnering with technology companies who want to grow cloud and consulting • Service Improvement Process: See previous 2.10  Conclusion The company is faced with the need to expand and grows to meet investor needs whilst meeting the emerging opportunities from changes in technology around knowledge worker service automation and the use of cloudbased knowledge worker services The company has a need to move from transactional consulting to adviser (trusted adviser) services for growth, revenue assurance, meeting technology changes, and to differentiate from competitors Making this transition was also needed, if it was to support clients in the adoption of automation of knowledge worker services and the integration of cloud-based knowledge worker services The automation of knowledge worker services and adoption of cloud-based knowledge worker services also cause disruption to the company, enabling competitors to gain advantage By leading the adoption of the automation of knowledge worker services and adoption of cloud-based knowledge worker services, the company can secure its position, meet the market disruption, assist its clients, and become the adviser (trusted adviser) it needs to be The need for change to support existing operations and the challenges from technology is not an either/or situation, but a necessity with the drivers strengthened because of the adoption of automation for knowledge worker services and cloud-based knowledge worker services The need to move up the value stack to adviser (trusted adviser) relationship, and the automation of knowledge worker services and adoption of cloud-based knowledge worker services, is an example of the role of technology in 508  APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE… c­ ompany objectives, strategy, and risk management The core activity of selling courses to drive the company’s objectives and strategies remains as the capacity and capability building within clients for automation of knowledge worker services, and adoption of cloud-based knowledge worker services requires skilling and training The need to revise the offering, integrate the offering, the inclusion of recipes and how to within offerings, and the need for skilling services were all required by the company The knowledge worker service transformation both intensifies the need for change as well as providing opportunities Integral to the overall approach was the need for a service improvement process Beyond the needs within its company, the service improvement offering can be provided to clients to assist clients, reinforce the adviser (trusted adviser) relationship, facilitate the knowledge worker service transition, and form the basis for capacity and capability building The effectiveness of the service improvement requires active management participation with a desire to make service improvements This worked example has shown the alignment of company development and service improvement opportunities with the automation of knowledge worker services and adoption of cloud-based knowledge worker services It forms a model for other service providers as well as being applicable to other types of businesses A case study for academic research and course work is also provided 3   Impacts and Responses of Asia Pacific Operations of Global Logistics Company This case and example is used to paint a picture of the challenges and opportunities around business transformation in another way The Shared Services, Operational Services and Branded Services models are used in the review of the emerging use of automation and cloud-based knowledge worker services within the AsiaPac (Asia Pacific) operations of a global logistics company 3.1  Background Global logistics companies provide a utility service, with the underlying operations often being complex, involving their own operations, supplier dependencies, channel partners, co-sharing, branded operations for others or through parties, and working with regulatory and government agencies in a range of regulatory regimes, and in varying physical environments   APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE…  509 The operations may include vertical integration with ownership and/or leasing of airlines, and/or shipping lines, and/or rail operations, as well as land-based transportation alongside their own operations Logistics can be as simple as receipt, forwarding and dispatch of goods or an entire supply chain service can be provided (customer requests, packaging, dispatch, receipt, forwarding, deliveries, after care) Logistics companies have knowledge worker role supporting operations that are suited for automation and use of cloud-based services but also have many other areas of operations that are information dependent (e.g deliveries) Areas for automation and use of cloud-based services include: • Customer Retention and Acquisition: Maintaining existing customers and increasing the services to these customers together with gaining new customers to grow market share whilst preserving margins • Service Assurance: To guarantee service delivery • Capacity Management: From maximising revenues through to optimal storage planning, several areas of capacity management are suited for data analytics The use of knowledge worker service automation and the use of cloudbased knowledge worker services is considered using a simplified and stylised logistics operations (Fig B.2) based on the Branded Services, Operational Services, and Shared Services model (see Chaps and 9) Shared services are the services that apply across an organisation and are the cost of doing business; Operational Services are the revenue-­generating activities (i.e what the organisation does); and the Branded Services are the experience of the customer 3.2  Automation and Cloud Services The automation of knowledge workers and knowledge worker services from the cloud within selected activities of the services model (Fig B.2) are considered to show the transformation of logistics that may occur The common cross-business cloud-based services like Project Management as a Service (PMaaS) are not repeated nor are many other common examples already discussed in previous chapters 3.2.1 Shared Services Within Shared Services, the following selected examples are occurring and/or are set to occur and/or become more extensive and more complex 510  APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE… &XVWRPHUV6WDNHKROGHUV %UDQGHG6HUYLFHV 0DUNHWLQJ 6HUYLFHV 6DOHV 6HUYLFHV 5HWHQWLRQ 6HUYLFHV 2SHUDWLRQDO6HUYLFHV 6FKHGXOLQJ 5HFHLSW 7UDQVSRUW 6KLSSLQJ 'LVSDWFK :DUHKRXVLQJ 6WRUDJH )OHHW 0DQDJHPHQW 6WUDWHJ\3ODQQLQJ $XGLW5LVN*RYHUQDQFH 6HUYLFH'HOLYHU\ 6KDUHG6HUYLFHV 3HRSOH 6HUYLFHV ,&7 6HUYLFHV /HJDO &RPSOLDQFH 6HUYLFHV 6HFXULW\ 6DIHW\ 6HUYLFHV 3URSHUW\ 6HUYLFHV )LQDQFH 7UHDVXU\ 6HUYLFHV Fig B.2  Stylised operation model: logistics services (Modified from and Reproduced with Permission From Sherringham, K & Unhelkar, B in Customer Centric Business Strategy: Aligning Business and IT Cutter Consortium Business-IT Strategies Executive Report 13:10, 2010, pp. 1–21) within the operations of logistics companies as their knowledge worker roles are increasingly automated: 3.2.1.1  Information and Communications Technology Operations and Services ICT Operations and Services are set to provide services to the company, its customers, and channel partners using the common cloud-based Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), and DataBase as a Service (DBaaS) Beyond the take up of knowledge worker services like Business Analysis as a Service (BAaaS) or Project Management as a Service (PMaaS) for service management, ICT Operations and Services use Operations as a Service (OaaS) from its providers and packages its services to customers and channel partners as OaaS ICT Operations and Services is a critical business activity within logistics A loss of critical systems can damage a logistics company severely, and   APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE…  511 it is almost impractical to operate manually for any length of time without technology As operations are automated further and as the dependency upon information sources increases, sustaining ICT Operations and Services is not only more critical but the focus moves to assurance and continuity of information sources 3.2.1.2  Finance and Treasury Within finance and treasury is revenue management, with the use of analytics to optimise revenue management opportunities and improve cash flow using analytics by accessing information from various other areas of operations Revenue management is also used in other areas of the company Also occurring are improvements in the automation of reconciliations, automation of payments, and automation of reporting Automation of customised messaging for areas like accounts receivable, amongst others, is also used Across larger operations, the assurance of operations occurs (e.g nonstandard naming and account matching) Analytics is used in the identification of errors and anomalies for review and resolution Analytics is also used in detection of irregular payments and possible nefarious activities for areas for investigation Addressing cash-flow management to sustain the business is a key driver for the automation of knowledge worker roles within finance Cost savings within the cost of doing business is also a driver for knowledge worker transformation 3.2.1.3  Legal and Compliance The routine automation of information searches, automated drafting of routine documents, automation of routine patent extensions and intellectual property, and automation of routine query advice are all areas within legal activities that are being impacted Other legal aspects for which automation is being applied include automation of routine regime requirement matching to expedite deliveries across borders including drafted paperwork for review and identifying shipments that may be at risk The routine regime requirement matching also supports the compliance management where routine reporting is being automated and routine analytics for compliance monitoring As part of the sourcing of knowledge worker services from the cloud, boutique legal players are offering routine legal advice and transactional legal services on a pay per use model These boutique offerings are increasing in value and complexity, which changes the type of legal expertise 512  APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE… required in-house Less lower-value services are required in-house but frameworks for assurance and review of advice and legal services is required Such changes also reduce the need for legal subscription services across the business This servicing brings efficiencies, cost savings, and greater speed for resolution Successful adoption also requires measures for assurance and managing risk (e.g adverse decision costs where advice was wrong) The driver for automation of knowledge worker services within legal is just part of the overall business need for service improvement and efficiencies rather than a specific factor 3.2.2 Operational Services The automation of vehicles (planes, trains, cars, trucks, ships) with the use of artificial intelligence is underway with different levels of use and adoption at varying degrees of sophistication (e.g transport of large numbers of animals in one human-driven multi-trailer truck with transport in multiple smaller self-driven trucks being impacted by road and weather conditions) In the simplified and stylised Operational Services, cloud-based services and automation for knowledge workers is seen within the following selected examples: 3.2.2.1  Scheduling Automation of scheduling has been an ongoing activity as the many variables for optimal management are best managed through algorithms and iterations of processing rules Managing exceptions and last-minute changes is often still managed manually but even these are being increasingly automated Key to the automation of the analysis is the quality of the data (i.e if the wrong details are entered, the wrong shipment will still occur) Within scheduling, it is the aggregation of information from a range of sources that are brought together, and examples include: • Best Zoning: Aggregation of details so that travel times to zones (areas) are minimised and best utilisation of time within a zone • Route Optimisation: Use of delivery details, traffic details, travel times, one-way systems, left or right turns, and other details to optimise the route and minimise the number of turns and time spent crossing traffic • Resource Availability: The availability of resources (people, vehicles, loading docks, and loading equipment) impacts planning and sched-   APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE…  513 uling and information from a range of sources is required to be included within the decision-making • Profitability: Within the scheduling is the consideration of profitability Delivery to one location of many consignments in bulk has a given cost and an expected profitability Bulk deliveries are low margin based on volume Conversely, customers pay a premium for priority delivery on which larger margins occur, but the volumes are lower Profitability considerations can lead to defers in deliveries for short periods All of the details for scheduling and planning required need to be quality assured, the information aggregated, and managed against the business decision rules to provide the required schedules, routes, and information Last-minute changes like delays in shipping are also required to provide ongoing scheduling optimisation and real-time updates The ability of a computer to process the multiple dependencies better than a person within scheduling is an example of where automation is used Management of exceptions, however, is often best done by a human Scheduling is a critical component of logistical operations Although driven by a range of activities, it is the effectiveness of scheduling in service delivery that influences expenditures, margins, vehicle usage, staffing, storage time, contractor supplies, and many other activities The more scheduling is optimised through automation with assured information, the more effective and efficient the operations can become 3.2.2.2  Dispatch Dispatch uses scheduling and is the end-to-end process for taking shipments from storage and moving to the destination As a shipment moves through chain, a series of iterative receipts and dispatches may occur against an evolving schedule Much of the discussion and the principles identified for scheduling apply within dispatch but include warehousing and storage details Beyond the internal and partner information, dispatch also includes the customer interfacing from receipting through queries to escalations Within dispatch, the issue of data quality assurance is of higher risk because of the increased customer dependency for provision of critical information, resulting in the company having less control and influence in data quality The accuracy, consistency, processing, and precision of the information impact the outcomes An increased effort is being used in 514  APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE… data validation to ensure the effectiveness of automation with reductions in the number of reworks and exceptions and manual interventions Techniques include: • Authentication: The credibility of the source is rated like the data being supplied from a recognised source such as government authoritative source or third-hand report from a less recognised source • Currency: Validation of how up to date the details are Details that have not been updated or checked for an extensive period are considered less relevant • Multi-Source Authentication: Validation against multiple authenticated current sources makes the data more reliable • History: The history of the data is considered because it influences the processing actions Consider the impacts of where the last three deliveries went to an address that was invalid, even though the address is listed as current in the data Such data validation is too expensive to be repeated manually but automated routines to validate, check authentication and currency against history and either automatically validate or identify for manual intervention are cost effective It is the consistency and persistency of the routine validation at source that reduces the number of errors and reworks later (i.e cost savings and improved service) 3.2.2.3  Receipt Receipt is the end-to-end process for taking shipments from customers and moving them into the shipment chain Receipting uses scheduling as well as driving inputs into the schedule for other activities Much of the discussion and the principles identified for dispatch and scheduling apply within dispatch but include warehousing and storage details Receipting again includes the internal and partner information, but also includes the customer interfacing for details, orders, queries, and escalations Aspects of data quality as per dispatch are also used within receipting (e.g customers not available for agreed pickups) Measures for improving information at source include: • Validation at Capture: A range of validation across data sources to ensure the information is valid at time of data capture Beyond reporting errors, alternatives are suggested, actions advised, and points of action recommended   APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE…  515 • Channels: Similar validation through channels and partners and authentication of the information from partners and channels • Updates: Validation and authentication on the propagation of updates to ensure consistency and currency Similar automated processing for data validation occurs 3.2.3 Branded Services The automation is often most advanced within the Branded Services such as social media algorithms for targeted advertising One aspect for logistics operations is where a company operates on behalf of another Consider the example of a computer supplier who has the ordering, parts, shipping, and logistics, all managed for them In this example, the logistics company may have the same operations servicing many customers with the same service desk answering for multiple companies (it is only the branding that differs with the systems and operations being the same) Other cloudbased services and automation occur as follows: • Marketing Services: Use of automation in market segmenting, customisation of messages, tailored promotions and advertising, and use of analytics in reporting and trend management Automation is also used in the tracking of customers, management of customer life time process, and targeted offerings This is used to manage the relationship with individual customers as well as the relationships between businesses • Sales Services: Beyond the use of algorithms in advertising, automation of reporting and customisation of messaging and communications, it is in the analysis of customer trends and markets that analytics comes in Performance to service levels, monitoring feedback, and purchasing intents are areas for the use of automation including analytics • Retention Services: Similar to Sales Services and Marketing Services, it is in the use of analytics of trends and the use of automation to assist with engagement that occurs within Retention Services 3.3  Markets For logistics, the market variability impacts in different ways The use of cloud-based knowledge worker services and the automation of knowledge 516  APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE… workers impacts individual businesses and the overall industry sector Both are helping to shape the markets and the response to markets 3.3.1 Government Services There are selected aspects of logistics under government contracts and/or which government sees the provision of as a societal necessary The government requirement for these services varies and changes with time As governments have more money, the demands for services increase and when government revenues are constrained, cuts in services often result Logistics companies bid for this government work and are awarded on the basis of costs, services, assurance, relationships, and other factors (e.g economic and social responsibilities) The automation of knowledge workers and the resulting lower costs and improved services are a factor within the contracts for this work The influence can be direct (e.g cost) or indirect (such as lower carbon footprint), but seldom is knowledge worker service automation a direct determinant of the service within varying markets Takeout Message: Within government-sourced services, knowledge worker automation and cloud-based services are just a factor of influence 3.3.2 Economic Activity Overall, the strength of economic activity influences logistics operations more than individual impacts such as knowledge worker automation Large-scale changes in the economy have a significant influence on logistics overall and for individual companies When more people are buying goods and services, movement of freight is stronger, and there is more work for logistics companies A major recession impacts the overall market and can see a logistics company go bankrupt, whether their knowledge workers are automated or not Takeout Message: Overall economic impacts and resulting market changes are often of more overall influence on a logistics company than the adoption of technology 3.3.3 Industry Trends The changes in technology and the automation of knowledge workers is an industry-wide trend that will eventually see widespread adoption across the industry The early movers in the adoption of technology gain the initial competitive advantage (e.g the adoption of financial systems required less people for accounts payable, accounts receivable, and reconciliations) As financial systems became more widespread and many players   APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE…  517 adopted this, having financial systems became the industry standard and is just the cost of doing business (i.e businesses are no longer competitive without the automation and systems), likewise, with the adoption of cloud-based knowledge worker services and automation of knowledge workers The early adopters gain the advantage (growing and gaining markets, mergers, and acquisitions) whilst existing players can lose the competitive edge Eventually, the competitive advantage of knowledge worker automation is an overall industry-wide gain and is just the cost of business The specifics of market differentiation (i.e the business-specific implementation of automation for a competitive advantage) will vary, however, depending on the industry trend, having differing impacts within businesses and for different businesses within an industry sector Takeout Message: Changes in technology have both overall industry sector impacts and business-specific impacts These overall industry sector impacts often drive the responses of individual businesses as much as the accumulative impact of individual businesses affect the industry sector 3.4  Conclusion ICT Operations and Services is a critical business activity within logistics A loss of critical systems can damage a logistics company severely, and it is now almost impractical to operate manually for any length of time without technology As operations are automated further and as the dependency upon information sources increases, sustaining ICT Operations and Services is not only more critical, but the focus moves to assurance and continuity of information sources Addressing cash-flow management to sustain the business is a key driver for the automation of knowledge worker roles within finance Cost savings within the cost of doing business is also a driver for knowledge worker transformation From the takeout messages, changes in technology are just one factor of many within markets and logistics operations 4   Impacts and Responses Within Healthcare The complex operations and the role of information and patient records within healthcare are reviewed in this case and example The multi-­ stakeholder and multifaceted services and operations within healthcare illustrate a range of considerations in business transformation and information management within the automation of knowledge workers Irrespective 518  APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE… of the funding for healthcare (government funded, insurance funded, or mixed funding) or who provides the healthcare (government, private providers, or mixed), government (state and federal), not for profits, and businesses are involved This multi-stakeholder complexity becomes more prevalent when the functions in support of healthcare services such as waste disposal or laundry services or vehicle provision for patient transfers are included Whilst points of activity are more readily automated (e.g algorithms for diagnosis based on imaging systems), the cross-stakeholder dependencies and information sharing are required for effective and efficient operations now, even before automation is considered 4.1  Introduction This case study takes an overall look at the use of data within healthcare and the opportunities for automation Whilst many areas are not dependent upon patient records (e.g arranging for the disposal of low-toxic materials used in medical practice), patient records underpin many activities (e.g diagnosis or arranging out-care or prescription supply) and are key to the cross-silo information sharing to the many users of information as well as knowledge worker service automation In taking a simplified and illustrative approach, some areas and complexities within healthcare are omitted (e.g use of data automation in research) 4.2  Stakeholders and Providers A stylised healthcare operation is shown (Fig B.3) with the centre being the patient and patient records that underpin many areas of operations Government is illustrated as providing the overall framework for the services, using patient records, and being directly involved in supplying and/ or supporting other areas The simplified areas of healthcare are summarised as follows: • Government: In addition to funding and administering healthcare, governments manage policy and monitor and report on healthcare Governments also oversee the provision of healthcare services and may be involved directly in the provision of services or through agencies for service provision to agreed standards and outcomes Governments also set standards and regulatory frameworks for healthcare • Community Services: This is often the frontline of healthcare services and is where people see their local doctor and/or nurse, take   APPENDIX B: CASES AND EXAMPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKER SERVICE…  519 +RVSLWDO6HUYLFHV &RPPXQLW\6HUYLFHV 'RFWRU 1XUVH 6XSSRUW 6HUYLFHV 'RFWRU 1XUVH 6XSSRUW 6HUYLFHV 3KDUPDF\ 6SHFLDOLVW 3KDUPDF\ 6SHFLDOLVW 3DWLHQW 5HFRUGV &DUH6HUYLFHV 7UDYHO 6XSSRUW 6HUYLFHV 3URYLGHUV +RXVLQJ 'RPHVWLF )DFLOLWLHV (TXLSPHQW &RQVXPDEOHV &RXQVHOOLQJ 3KDUPDF\ /RJLVWLF *RYHUQPHQW Fig B.3  Stylised service model: healthcare prescriptions to the local pharmacy, and may see a specialist in selected circumstances Provision is dependent upon government and reports to government whilst using many products and services from providers, care services, and hospitals Community services include: –– Doctor and Nurse: The frontline patient care with the required Support Services (equipment, services, logistics, facilities, pharmaceuticals, consumables) using pharmacy and specialists as required –– Pharmacy: The provision of pharmaceutical services to the community (e.g the local chemist for prescriptions and other healthcare support) Again, a range of Support Services is used –– Support Service: The range of supporting activities provided by businesses, community organisations, and government agencies –– Specialist: A range of specialists providing services (e.g chiropractors or dermatologists) either on request of doctors or as direct offerings Again, a range of Support Services is used • Providers: A range of Support Services is required by the providers provisioned from a range of sources Providers (government, busi- .. .Crafting and Shaping Knowledge Worker Services in the Information Economy Keith Sherringham • Bhuvan Unhelkar Crafting and Shaping Knowledge Worker Services in the Information Economy Keith Sherringham... knowledge workers, the integration of cloud-based knowledge worker services, and the automation of knowledge workers and their services for success in an information- ­ driven economy Background Within... for Knowledge Worker Services 195 7People Within Knowledge Worker Services 231 8Training and Skilling Within Knowledge Worker Services 261 9Operational Transformation Within Knowledge Worker
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