Counting populations, understanding societies, véronique petit, 2013 3418

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Counting Populations, Understanding Societies Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development Volume Editors-in-chief: Yves Charbit and Ian Pool This dynamic series builds on the population and development paradigms of recent decades and provides an authoritative platform for the analysis of empirical results that map new territory in this highly active field Its constituent volumes are set in the context of unprecedented demographic changes in both the developed—and developing—world, changes that include startling urbanization and rapidly aging populations Offering unprecedented detail on leading-edge methodologies, as well as the theory underpinning them, the collection will benefit the wider scholarly community with a full reckoning of emerging topics and the creative interplay between them The series focuses on key contemporary issues that evince a sea-change in the nexus of demographics and economics, eschewing standard ‘populationist’ theories centered on numerical growth in favor of more complex assessments that factor in additional data, for example on epidemiology or the shifting nature of the labor force It aims to explore the obstacles to economic development that originate in high-growth populations and the disjunction of population change and food security Where other studies have defined the ‘economy’ more narrowly, this series recognizes the potency of social and cultural influences in shaping development and acknowledges demographic change as a cause, as well as an effect, of broader shifts in society It is also intended as a forum for methodological and conceptual innovation in analyzing the links between population and development, from finely tuned anthropological studies to global, systemic phenomena such as the ‘demographic dividend’ Reflecting the boundary-blurring rapidity of developing nations’ socio-economic rise, the editors are actively seeking studies relating to this sector, and also to Russia and the former Soviet states At the same time as addressing their underrepresentation in the literature, the series also recognizes the critical significance of globalization, and will feature material on the developed world and on global migration It provides everyone from geographers to economists and policy makers with a state-of-the-art appraisal of our understanding of demographics and development For further volumes: Véronique Petit Counting Populations, Understanding Societies Towards an Interpretative Demography Véronique Petit MIGRINTER – MSHS bâtiment A5 Université de Poitiers, Migrinter Poitiers, France ISBN 978-94-007-5045-6 ISBN 978-94-007-5046-3 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-5046-3 Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg New York London Library of Congress Control Number: 2012954637 © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( Foreword by the Series Editors The discipline of population studies is at a crossroads This challenges the way it has accumulated its corpus of knowledge – what has become its ‘conventional wisdom’ Over the post-war decades, we had gained a reasonably systematic and robust picture of macro-demographic trends, focusing on the causes and consequences of rapid population growth To this end, the discipline also built a massive empirical and theoretical knowledge base on a key driver of natural increase, fertility and family formation But, swept to one side, relatively speaking, were other critical questions that throw more light on processes covarying with demographic change, namely, the transformation of cultures, societies and economies Even within demography itself, there was far less focus on population structures than on dynamics As a net result, there was a relative neglect of many aspects of population and development Furthermore, it has become clear that the classical population and development models are too often unidirectional and deterministic and assume almost an unchanging initial state But critical historical analyses, including new studies in historical demography in Africa and elsewhere, are eroding those comfortable but unrealistic assumptions In reality populations, technology, politics, societies and economies have always been dynamic, not just awaiting the munificence of colonialism or, post-colonially, of the ‘Washington Consensus’ agencies The reason that this now provides a challenge for researchers is simple and driven by its subject matter: people, in both the developing and developed world, are not behaving the way they had over recent decades So, the universe that demography has been measuring, mapping and explaining for the decades since 1945 must be complemented by new agendas and methodologies grounded in new paradigms This book is the first in a series that takes up this challenge The series offers a seminal platform on which empirical results representative of emerging paradigms, as well as the leading-edge methodologies and theories that underpin them, can be communicated to a wider scholarly community Broadly speaking, it provides the vehicle for the exposition of new paradigms – and new substantive knowledge – about population and development These could range from macro-level approaches that focus on aspects of composition, such as those on the demographic dividend, to v vi Foreword by the Series Editors anthropological and other micro-level approaches that show, inter alia, how decision-making occurs Moreover, the series recognises that the traditional boundaries between ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ are becoming increasingly blurred, so, though this series is oriented towards the latter, it cannot exclude populations in developed countries and in former Soviet societies in transition It thus implicitly accepts the effects of globalisation on individuals and communities, perhaps most manifest in those migrating between different global regions At a macro-level, the series makes a shift away from the populationist perspective of recent decades that has focused on growth and numbers The series instead emphasises wider demographic transformations occurring through age-structural, demographic, epidemiologic, labour force and mobility transitions and their underlying determinants and consequences There is, however, still an important place for analyses on problems of socio-economic development faced by high growth populations or disjunctions between population change and food security, poverty and access to potable water At a more micro-level, the series recognises that, breaking away from the usual demographic treatment of the socio-economic characteristics of the individual or the households, there is a need to turn to disciplines such as anthropology and sociology This will provide a more enriched perspective on the roles of social and cultural factors in driving demographic change and, in turn, the ways in which societies and cultures are being affected by population trends such as shifts in composition If one lists all the constraints exerted on individuals by their social and cultural environment (family, community, religious and ethnic affiliation, etc.), can one really call anybody a truly autonomous actor? How then should demography throw light on the contents of what has to date been a sort of ‘black box’: culture? These latter major challenges are at the core of this first book of the series It addresses both fertility and migration, the two factors that were changing so rapidly and inexorably altering the known world as it existed in 1960 Veronique Petit shows that, by the innovative incorporation of anthropological and sociological methodologies, in-depth analyses can provide the keys to understanding how individuals, families and small groups come to make life-altering choices Starting from the premise that what is needed is a thorough and careful epistemological approach, Petit has chosen to identify systematically the mutual fertilisation of demography and anthropology She first demonstrates this at a theoretical level, but then, also their interweaving when undertaking fieldwork and, last but not least, when carrying out explanatory analyses of the data collected in this way In short, the author offers a quite different level of explanation of demographic phenomena, made more comprehensive because of her approach She illustrates this by drawing on African-sourced case studies Yves Charbit and Ian Pool Contents Epistemology in Demography and Anthropology The Institutionalisation of a Wild Science 2.1 A Wild Social Science 2.2 Germany: Statistik 2.3 English Political Arithmetic: Demographic Expertise 2.4 France: Demography as a State Science 2.4.1 The Ancien Regime: Intendants and Learned Individuals 2.4.2 The Revolution and the Empire (1789–1815): A Mirror to the Nation 2.4.3 From the Statistique Générale de la France to INED and INSEE 2.4.4 The Origins of Demography Teaching 2.5 Demography and Governance 9 12 13 14 The Contours of a Social Science 3.1 An Ambiguous Position in the Social Sciences 3.2 From Demography to Demology? 3.2.1 The Foundational Definition 3.2.2 A Key Dimension: Demography as a Science of Numbers 3.2.3 Beyond Quantitative Description: Demology 3.3 The Variability of Disciplinary Boundaries in Different National Traditions 3.3.1 The North American School 3.3.2 The French-Speaking School 3.4 Openness or Dissolution? 14 16 17 19 20 23 23 27 27 28 30 34 35 44 50 vii viii Contents An Object Called Population 4.1 The Concept of Population in Historical Perspective 4.2 Population: A Plural Concept 4.2.1 The Greek Origins of the Concept 4.2.2 Population: Subject and Actor 4.2.3 The Contribution of Political Philosophy: Power, Sovereignty and the Individual 4.3 The Demographic Holy Grail: The Quest for Purity 4.3.1 Cross-Sectional Analysis, Reification and Homogeneity 4.3.2 Cohort Analysis 4.3.3 Biographical Analysis 4.3.4 Multilevel Analysis 4.4 Critical Perspectives 4.4.1 Which Paradigm for the Social Sciences? 4.4.2 The Statistical Individual: A Man Without Qualities 4.4.3 The Temptation of Reductionism 4.4.4 Multidisciplinarity and Intelligibility 4.5 Contextualisation and Interdisciplinarity Demography and Anthropology: A Return to the Origins 5.1 Two Antithetical Disciplines? 5.2 British Social Anthropology 5.2.1 Malinowski: Field Observation 5.2.2 Radcliffe-Brown: Social Morphology and Demography 5.2.3 Evans-Pritchard: Demography as the Explanatory Variable of Politics 5.2.4 Firth and Fortes: Optimum and Dynamics of Traditional Populations 5.3 A Different Tradition: French Anthropology 5.3.1 Mauss: ‘Total Social Facts’ and Concrete Social Reality 5.3.2 Maget: From Population to Culture 5.3.3 The Demographic Dynamics of Subsistence Societies 5.3.4 Marxist Economic Anthropology: The Regime of Reproduction and Production 5.3.5 The Dizzying Heights of French Anthropology 5.3.6 A Missed Opportunity: The Social Anthropology of Development 5.4 The Institutional, Political and Scientific Context: A Disciplinary Rapprochement 5.4.1 Anthropology, Culture and the Theory of Demographic Transition 5.4.2 Challenging the Demographic Transition in Europe 5.5 The Emergence of Anthropological Demography 53 53 55 55 59 62 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 76 80 83 85 89 89 91 91 92 92 94 94 95 96 97 99 101 103 106 107 109 110 Contents The Practices of Comprehensive Demography 6.1 Field Demography Versus Armchair Demography 6.2 Improving the Quality of Demographic Data 6.2.1 Introduction to the Field: A Discreet Entry 6.2.2 The Census Process: Logistical Order and Ancestral Order 6.2.3 An Identity with a Variable Geometry 6.2.4 Choosing Interviewer-Interpreters 6.2.5 Identifying the Relevant Social Units 6.2.6 Declaring Ages and Dates 6.2.7 Measuring Economic Practices 6.2.8 The Context of Production of Discourses and the Status of the Spoken Word 6.3 In Search of Lost Meaning 6.3.1 The Secret Use of Modern Contraception in Senegal 6.3.2 Emigration as a Source of Conflict Among Dogon Families 6.3.3 Djibouti: A Break in the Practice of FGM 6.4 Culture: Pandora’s Box or Sesame? Some Unresolved Issues 7.1 Anthropology or Qualitative Research? 7.2 A Persistent Gap 7.3 Time and Status 7.4 Epistemological Tensions: Incompatible Tempers? 7.4.1 Nesting 7.4.2 Defending Territories Appendix: The Contemporary Actors of French Demography 8.1 Research Institutes 8.1.1 The National Institute for Demographic Studies 8.1.2 The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies 8.1.3 The Institute for Research on Development: Applied Demography and Development 8.1.4 The National Centre for Scientific Research: The Shadow of Demography ix 113 113 114 115 117 117 119 120 121 123 125 128 129 131 135 140 145 145 147 148 149 149 151 155 156 156 163 165 169 ... state-of-the-art appraisal of our understanding of demographics and development For further volumes: Véronique Petit Counting Populations, Understanding Societies Towards... relation between researchers and research participants The conception of time in V Petit, Counting Populations, Understanding Societies: Towards an Interpretative Demography, Demographic Transformation... 203 Introduction My position is neatly summed up in the title of this book, Counting Populations, Understanding Societies The aim is not to provide yet another how-to guide to demography
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