Cosmopolitan education and inclusion, 1st ed , yusef waghid, chikumbutso herbert manthalu, judith terblanche, faiq waghid, zayd waghid, 2020 504

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Cosmopolitan Education and Inclusion Human Engagement and the Self Yusef Waghid Chikumbutso Herbert Manthalu Judith Terblanche Faiq Waghid Zayd Waghid Cosmopolitan Education and Inclusion Yusef Waghid Chikumbutso Herbert Manthalu Judith Terblanche • Faiq Waghid Zayd Waghid Cosmopolitan Education and Inclusion Human Engagement and the Self Yusef Waghid Stellenbosch University Stellenbosch, South Africa Judith Terblanche Department of Accounting University of the Western Cape Bellville, South Africa Zayd Waghid Faculty of Education Cape Peninsula University of Technology Mowbray, South Africa Chikumbutso Herbert Manthalu School of Education University of Malawi Zomba, Malawi Faiq Waghid Centre for Innovative Learning Technology Cape Peninsula University of Technology Cape Town, South Africa ISBN 978-3-030-38426-5    ISBN 978-3-030-38427-2 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38427-2 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Palgrave Pivot imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Foreword It is generally accepted that public education was first created in Western societies to two things: create workers for the newly emerging industrial economy that required at least minimal levels of literacy and numeracy; and forge a common citizenry out of the desperate peoples found in modern nation-states In both cases homogeneity was regarded as very important; workers needed common skill sets and attitudes, and citizens needed to be weaned away from their socio-cultural particularities into compliance and loyalty to the nation-state The forces of colonialism and neo-colonialism saw these approaches to education spread well beyond the so-called West While there has been considerable critique of the industrial and homogenising nature of public schooling around the world, the general template has proven quite resilient and largely persists to this day The authors of this book for example, are critical of the “neo-liberal ideology in modern education” which is both narrowly focused on producing workers and is dismissive of local and diverse perspectives In the jurisdiction where I live, the provincial government recently released a discussion paper on public education which criticises the original industrial model but begins with the sentence: “Our province needs a literate, numerate, critical thinking, problem-solving, workforce if we’re going to succeed” (Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, 2019, p. 3) It seems the type of industries might have changed, but preparation for work continues to dominate the purposes and structures of public education Around the world, democratic jurisdictions have struggled to move citizenship education away from its focus on ethnic and national cohesion v vi  FOREWORD to approaches more open to fostering diversity and difference A contemporary expression of the later is the movement to global education or, as one multilateral organisation puts it “global competencies” (OECD, 2018) A problem with this, however, is that global education is often as homogenising as previous approaches to citizenship education It is very much like what the authors of this volume call “an absolutist transcendent conception of cosmopolitanism that demands every society to conform to allegedly universal and objective cosmopolitan norms.” In this book, the authors reject both neo-liberal and conformist goals for education Instead, they propose a cosmopolitan education through which “people engage with difference.” They this in quite a cosmopolitan way, drawing on the work of nine prominent philosophers, five women and four men, with very different cultural and scholarly backgrounds and working in diverse parts of the world The scholars focused on the idea of cosmopolitanism differently, but the authors of this volume weave together a set of coherent and consistent themes from their work They then explore the implications of these themes for higher education generally and in an African context in particular First, engagement with difference is central to cosmopolitan education The dominant approach to cosmopolitanism is the absolutist one described briefly above, but the philosophers drawn on here all “conceive of cosmopolitanism as an act of engaging with difference.” Human beings are inherently cultural, cannot be divorced from their cultural context, and, therefore, cosmopolitan education has to engage with cultural difference in ways that are respectful and safe As the authors put it, “rooted cosmopolitanism must necessarily be responsive to the sources of individual rootedness for different people across the world.” Second, cosmopolitan education is deliberative It provides a place where people from different cultural contexts and backgrounds feel safe to make their case It is akin, in Derrida’s view, to a biblical “city of refuge,” a sheltered place where people’s stories and worldviews can be examined and respectfully considered Third, reflection, and particularly self-reflection, is key to cosmopolitan education One cannot engage thoughtfully with difference without “the skill or capacity to engage critically with his or her own embedded values, beliefs and particular worldview.” I have seen this repeatedly in my own work on how teachers and students conceive of and think about diversity Most often they exhibit little or no sense that their own view is not “normal” or “universal” and this results in them categorising other views as  FOREWORD  vii foreign, strange and even pathological (Peck, Sears, & Donaldson, 2008, Peck & Sears, 2014, Hamm, Peck, & Sears, 2018) The starting point for deep engagement with difference is recognition of one’s own positioning Fourth, cosmopolitanism is very complex and so is a comprehensive approach to cosmopolitan education These authors reject the homogenous approach to cosmopolitanism which, by definition, is much simpler than the “rooted” approach that engages with the interaction between and among cultural perspectives They also reject the “world traveller” approach which, in the words of Marianna Papastephanou, sees cosmopolitans “as individuals who appear to function comfortably (outwardly) in various countries, frequently crossing international borders, and who seemingly embrace the globalised world as currently reality.” For the authors of this book, the point of cosmopolitan education is not to create jetsetters, but rather to foster engaged and effective citizenship that seeks social justice and equity in a complex and diverse world The last chapter of the book seeks to apply these themes by exploring their implications for massive open online courses (MOOCs) MOOCs have been popular in Western education systems and these, authors argue, have the potential to address key issues in African higher education including accessibility and moving from the dominant “instructivist” model of education in most institutions to more “connectivist” approaches The former emphasises the accumulation and recall of isolated facts, while the latter puts students at the centre and seeks to foster substantial connections among people leading to deep learning and understanding One approach breeds homogeneity and rejects cultural rootedness and difference, while the other makes exploring difference the centre of education In the view of these authors, “a cosmopolitan-deliberative approach can offer the implementation of MOOCs some ways as to why and how difference, dissent, and otherness can be cultivated among South African students and learners.” They make a compelling case that this is so NB, Canada Alan Sears viii  FOREWORD References Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (2019) Succeeding at home: A green paper on education in New Brunswick Retrieved from Government of New Brunswick website: https://www2.gnb.ca/content/ dam/gnb/Departments/ed/pdf/promo/summit/GreenPaper.pdf Hamm, L., Peck, C. L., & Sears, A (2018) “Don’t even think about bringing that to school”: New Brunswick students’ understandings of ethnic diversity Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 13(2), 101–119 https://doi org/10.1177/1746197917699219 OECD (2018) Preparing our youth for an inclusive and sustainable world the OECD Pisa Global Competence Framework Paris: Directorate for Education and Skills Peck, C. L., & Sears, A (2014, April 3) Teachers’ understandings of ethnic diversity: After 40+ years of official multiculturalism in Canada, are we any further ahead? Presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Philadelphia Peck, C.  L., Sears, A., & Donaldson, S (2008) Unreached and unreachable? Curriculum standards and children’s understanding of ethnic diversity in Canada Curriculum Inquiry, 38(1), 63–92 Preface Education has long been associated with acts of human engagement Ancient Greek thinkers, such as Plato and Aristotle, have never looked at education (padeia) as independent from human interactions Likewise, neo-Aristotelians, such as al-Farabi and al-Ghazzali in the Islamic tradition, considered education inextricably linked to acts of human engagement (shura) Ibn Khaldun, a Muslim philosopher-historian, was adamant that education ought to be associated with human (social) practices To look at education other than seeing it as the involvment of humans in social practices would therefore be remiss of a necessary understanding of the concept Simply put, education involves the human act of engagement whereby people get to experience one another on account of what they present through their interactions Of course, there are different understandings of education on the basis of how one wants to elucidate the concept And, as Muslim or Buddhist education reveals a particular kind of education, in the same manner, cosmopolitan education—the subject of this book—presents a particular understanding of education If one were to conceive of cosmopolitanism as an act of engaging with difference, for instance, a person connecting with others and their otherness, then such a form of education accentuates the importance of bringing education into play with diversity and difference The kind of cosmopolitan education that we wish to exposit in this book is one where people engage with difference Considering that cosmopolitan education already involves an education that connects with otherness, it might not be implausible to argue that those who are not other would invariably be excluded from human ix x  PREFACE engagement For instance, sameness would imply that there might be no otherness and, consequently, the idea of cosmopolitanism might not be in the present However, sameness or being similar does not necessarily imply a lack of otherness One can be exposed to similar teaching methods but this does not mean that one’s learning would not be different to that of others It could well be, as is the case with so many students in a university classroom, that these students might be subjected to similar methods of teaching But, this does not mean that their learning is exactly the same It might be that some students happen to be more critical than others; yet, they might have been exposed to similar teaching approaches The point is that otherness cannot be wished away on the grounds of similarities with which people are confronted There might also be the element of difference in learning irrespective of how similar teaching might have occurred What follows, is that those who might learn differently—irrespective of having been taught in the same manner—will therefore not necessarily be excluded from an educational encounter Hence, those who are other might not have to be excluded from an educational encounter For this reason, cosmopolitan education does not have to be delinked from inclusion The argument in this manuscript is that cosmopolitan education engenders pedagogical spaces for encounters to be inclusive despite its emphasis on difference and otherness Put more succinctly, one might be exposed to a cosmopolitan education but this does not always mean that one would be excluded Our interest in this book is to show how cosmopolitan education enhances human inclusion rather than exclusion, despite the possibility that exclusion might also occur As our main premise, the argument in this book is about the possibility of cosmopolitan education to include without being remiss of the possibility that such a form of education could also exclude And, when the latter occurs, ways have to be found to cultivate inclusive human relations rather than perpetuating exclusion Premised on the propositional thought of Immanuel Kant on cosmopolitanism, we infer that humans have a natural inclination towards freedom of expression and rationality in an atmosphere of antagonistic relations among themselves In this way, humans are citizens in the world in terms of which they exercise their free and rational will in a spirit of resistance to achieve their cosmopolitan goals For Kant (2010, p. 25), in considering the world, humans contemplate and apply their “supreme wisdom … to remain a constant reproach to everything else.” Our interest in this book is how humans in pedagogical encounters exercise their freedom and rationality in relation to one another guided by co-operative, Index A Accountability acts of, 132 level of, 132, 136 notion of, 131 structures of, 65 understanding of, 132 virtue of, 132, 133 Act of accountability, 132 of aggression, 3, of apartheid, 14 of care, 88 of censorships, 10 of deliberative iterations, 18 of disrespect, of embrace, 98 of engagement, ix, 18 ethically, 87 of forgiveness, xi, 15 of hospitality, 11, 12 of hostility, of humane co-existence, 12 of human engagement, ix, 18 of humane living, 12 immoral, of interruption, 11, 16 of rationality, of relational care, 113 of repentance, 14 of representing the voiceless, 132 of resistance, xi responsibly, 112 of teaching, 114 of terror, 11 of terrorism, 10 uncosmopolitan, 12 of violence, 3, 14 of xenophobia, 12 Actions, cosmopolitan, see Cosmopolitan, actions Africa, 125 African context, vi, 48, 117, 122–124, 127, 133, 134, 137, 138 continent, 6, 7, 134 countries, 12 culture, 7, 123, 137, 138 education, vii, xiv, 48, 75, 124, 125, 133, 134, 137, 138 experience, xiv, 48, 75, 123, 124, 133, 137 © The Author(s) 2020 Y Waghid et al., Cosmopolitan Education and Inclusion, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38427-2 143 144  INDEX African (cont.) governments, 48 heritage, 137, 138 history, 7, 134 identity, 137, 138 interests, 134 knowledge, xiv, 126 knowledge sharing, xiv, 124 languages, 48 learners, vii, xiv, 123–125, 133, 138, 139 nations, 75, 82, 122 notion of ubuntu, 92, 116, 118 people, philosophical approach, 133, 137 philosophical concepts, 134 philosophy, 137, 138 philosophy of education, 133, 134, 137, 139 societies, 134 students, vii, xiv, 122–126, 133, 134, 138, 139 theories to teaching and learning, 137 thinking, 12, 134 youths, 68 Apartheid, 7, 15 acts of, 14 Argument analytic, 95 deliberating, 95 human, xi, 4, Kantian, xi rational, 95, 131 valid, 128 Argumentation critical (see Critical, argumentation) impromptu, 113 Asylum political, 11 right to, 11 seekers, 12 Autonomy exercise of, 34 as humans, xi of the individual, xii, 25, 30, 68 student, 127, 134 B Beliefs intrinsic, 94 own, vi, 87, 116 C Care act of, 88 compassionate, 96 demonstrate, 110, 117, 118 ethical, 88, 91, 95 moral, 88, 89, 95, 96 notion of, 73, 91, 95–96 relational, 113–115 in students, 95 through deliberation, 100 Citizen cosmopolitan, of countries, 11, 100 democratic, 72, 75, 100 global, 30, 56 responsible, 100 in the world, x, xi, 2–8, 10, 18 of the world, 18 of Yemen, Citizenship cosmopolitan, 37, 38, 58, 61 democratic, 7, 48, 99, 100 global, 30, 31, 37, 61 shared, 128, 129 world, 5–7 cMOOCs, 123, 127 Coercion, 68, 129 forms of, 68, 129  INDEX  Colonialism hierarchies of, 48 legacy of, 36 Coloniality, 7, 36, 46 Commonality concept of, 31 human, 28, 61, 62, 69, 136 Compassion, 96, 100 Compassionate, 134, 135 Connectivism, 126, 127 Connectivist, vii, 123, 125–127, 135, 137 Consciousness, 112, 130, 132 moral, 132 Cosmopolitan actions, 4, 19 activity, 57 ambitions, 50, 62 aspect, 43 aspirations, xii, 42, 58, 76 aspirations of equality, xii, 42 attention, 4, 67 attitudes, 43, 100 being, 2, 10 capacity, 46 citizens, 2, citizenship, 37, 38, 58, 61 commitment, 66 configurations, 27 deliberative, vi, vii, 127–133 democratic education, 131 dialogue, 116, 117 dimension, xii, 42, 67, 74 dispensation, 117 duty, 4, 67 education, vi, vii, ix, x, xiii, 5, 18, 25–27, 30–39, 42, 47–50, 54, 55, 59, 62, 63, 73, 100, 125, 136 educational encounters, x, xiii, 27, 54 encounters, x, xiii, 14, 18, 24, 27 145 epistemology, 60 ethic, 55, 56, 59 goals, x horizons, 93 hospitality, 3, 16, 67 human encounters, 18 humanism, 4, ideals, xii, 21, 38, 42, 47, 48, 54, 62 impartial values, 62 judgements, 56–58 justice, 58 knowledge, 57 living, manner, ix, -minded, 106, 107, 109, 110 norms, vi, 18–28, 58, 62, 67, 69 notion, xi, 2, 5, 130 orientation, 110, 113, 114 outlook, 76, 107 perspective, 111 point of view, 130 project, 60, 67 purpose, xi quality, 63 right, 11, 47 rules, 58 sense, 60, 116 skills, 24, 48 spirit, 44 thinking, 58–63 thought, x, xi, xiii, 63, 86, 88, 89, 91, 109 un-, universalism (see Universalism, cosmopolitan) values, 58, 67, 69 virtues, 47, 61–63, 69 world, 3, 83, 90, 100 Cosmopolitanism deep, 106 deliberative, 20, 24, 27, 86–100 146  INDEX Cosmopolitanism (cont.) of difference, vi, ix, xi, 18–19, 21, 24, 27, 31, 33–35, 42, 48, 60–63, 128 difference-based, xi, 27, 136 difference-grounded, 18–19, 24 eccentric, 87–89, 91, 99, 100 eccentric ethico-political, 91, 92, 94, 99 educating for, 58–59 education, 36, 63, 69, 99–100 educational, 5–7, 19, 30, 54, 59–61, 69, 106, 109–111, 114–119 elucidation of, 19, 129 essentialist, 36, 61, 63, 65 ethically just, 100 ethico-political, 87–91, 93, 100 of forgiveness, 10 form of, 24, 32, 48, 50, 60, 65, 66, 69 foundation of, 43, 89 global, 36, 60, 93 ideal, xiii, 42, 62, 88–90, 95, 96, 99 impartial, 32, 36 impartialist, 61 inclusive, xi, 30, 107 as interruption, 10–16 notion of, xi, xiii, 7, 10, 30, 42, 49, 50, 69, 89, 97, 107, 111, 127, 133, 136 objective, 19, 36 radical, 30–33, 65 reflexive, xiii, 114, 118 rooted, vi, xi, xii, 30, 33–35, 37, 38, 136 scripted, xii, 54, 58–62, 69 sound, 33 stoic, strand of, 128, 131, 132, 138 subjective, 19 thinking, 60–63 thinking according to, 60 Cosmopolitanist cause, 92 curriculum, 123, 127 -deliberative, xiv, 122–139 Cosmopolitics, xii, 63, 69, 138 Crimes against humanity, xi, 14–16 unjust, 16 Critical analytical capacities, 127 argumentation, xi, 7, 8, 135 aspects, 26 engagement, 49, 90 examination, 48 history, 61 innovation, 123 judgement, 112 re-examination, 122 reflection, 97, 100, 107 responses, self-reflection, 94, 95, 132 skills, 100 stance, 108 thinking, v, 95, 123 thought, 138 un-, 6, 82 Cultural being, 44, 45 communities, 49 difference, vi, xi, 5, 6, 8, 42, 50, 122 diversity, 24, 43, 55 encounters, 44, 46–47, 136 evolution, 43 perspectives, vii, 47, 117 Culture contrastive, 44 global, 24, 46, 55 hegemonic, 74, 76 local, 46, 56 non-mainstream, 48 of resistance, 123, 137, 138 subaltern, 46–48 subordinate, 46–47  INDEX  D Decoloniality, 7, 117 Deliberation democratic, xi, 18–21, 23–27, 39, 72, 75, 76 dialogic, 65 in education, 24, 30, 50, 72, 75, 77–78, 81–83, 110, 136 educational, xi, 19, 23, 25–27, 30, 39, 72–83, 97, 117, 119 in educational domains, 30, 77, 78 infinite, 16 in the institution, 72, 75, 77, 78, 80–82 layers of, 72–74 notion of, xi, 22, 25, 67, 72, 83, 136 process, 72, 77 spirit of, 77, 81 Deliberative action, 18, 93, 97, 113, 118, 129, 132 acts, xi, 18, 98, 113, 118 approach, 128, 133, 138 attitude, 79, 80, 92, 97 cosmopolitanism, xiii, 18, 20, 24, 27, 30, 38, 65, 86–100, 111, 125, 129, 133, 138 democracy, xiii, 80, 86, 125 democratic model, 138 dialogue, 18, 117, 118 education, vi, xiii, 24, 27, 38, 77, 86–100, 118, 125, 128, 129, 133, 137 encounter, xi, xiii, 18, 23, 30, 77, 80, 86, 87, 96–98, 110, 112, 113, 132, 133 engagement, 18, 80, 129, 133 forms of universalism, 65 framework, xiv, 65, 92 iterations, 18 pedagogical interventions, 92 process, 23, 24, 27, 80, 112, 113 147 reflection, 96, 97, 100 research, 93, 94, 100, 124 spirit, xi theory of education, 133 universalism, 25, 26, 65 Democracy deliberative, xiii, 75, 80, 86, 125 dialogic, 64 ideal, 49, 75–77, 89 inclusive, 61 just, 72, 75, 78, 80, 89 meaningful, 76, 78 models of, 63 structures of, 48, 49 theory of, 64 transformative, 78 Democratic approach, 55, 128, 133, 138 citizens, 33, 75, 100 citizenship, 7, 48, 99, 100 citizenship education, v, vi, 99, 100 co-existence, 12, 55 communities, 12, 15, 127 countries, 99, 100 cultures, 25 decision-making, 128, 131 deliberation, 39, 75, 76, 136 demands, 79 education, 26, 77, 125, 128, 131 ideals, 79 inclusion, 128 institutions, 21, 25, 33, 37, 49, 72 iterations, xi, 18–21, 23–28, 129, 136 life, 37, 43, 72, 79 model, 138 norms, 20, 33, 49, 75, 79 notion, 127–133 people, 19 re-beginning, 15 society, 33, 49, 72, 109 South Africa, 15 148  INDEX Democratic (cont.) structures, 75 systems, 72 theory of education, 133 un-, 125 understanding of education, 125, 133 virtues, 79 Dialogue cosmopolitan, 117 deliberative, 117, 118 facilitation, 116 meaningful, 88 opportunity for, 116 Dignity human, xi, 3, 22, 24, 25, 114 moral, 73 personal, 92 unqualified, 25 Disadvantaged communities, xiv, 123, 124, 127 historically, xiv, 122–124, 127 minority, 79 -ness, 82 Discourse accountable, 131, 133 normative, 20, 35, 43 Disrespect, 2, 129 Disruption deliberate, 100 sufficient, 111 Diversity context of, 55 cultural, 43, 55 global, 59, 60 human, 60 and inclusivity course, 5, and inclusivity curriculum, of opinions, 126 rich, 93 Duties abstract, 24 associative, 34 attributes of, 33 cosmopolitan, 67 ethical, xi, 30, 32, 38 of impartiality, 32 moral, xi, 30 norms and, 33 of partiality, 33 priority of, 33 of a teacher, 54 universal/universalistic, 32, 33 E Education access, xiv, 49, 122, 124 in Africa, xiv, 48, 124, 134 African, vii, 48, 75, 122–139 aims of, 19, 24–26, 72, 73, 81, 110 approaches to, v–vii, 24, 128 aspects of, 19, 35, 37, 115, 135 Buddhist, ix, 133 commodification of, 49 conventional, 46 cosmopolitan (see Cosmopolitan, education) deliberative, vi, xiii, 26, 38, 75, 77, 86, 92–100, 125, 127–133 democratic, xiii, 24–27, 37, 39, 48, 55, 72, 77, 99, 100, 125, 127–133 dimensions of, 82 dimension to, 94 domain of, 30, 35, 61, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83 enabling condition for, 14 enterprise, 49, 76 epistemologies, 27, 48, 81 exclusion in, 46, 50, 76 exclusive, 25, 42, 48, 50, 69 form of, ix, x, 35, 48, 50, 76, 78, 137 higher, vi, vii, xiv, 19, 24–27, 49, 122–139  INDEX  human, 25, 109 impartial, 27 implications for, 106–119, 134 inclusive, 27 institutions, vii, 81, 123, 124, 137, 138 just, 39, 83, 136 kind of, ix matters, 7, 27, 35–38 model of, vii, 55, 73 modern, v, 24, 27, 31, 36, 42, 46–50, 73–76 Muslim, ix notion of, 25, 111, 127–133 philosophers of, 86 philosophy of, 133, 134, 137, 139 policy, 62 practice of, 83 primary, 61 project, 81 purpose of, 95 systems, vii, 81 tertiary, 122 for thinking, 58–63 today, 24, 42, 72, 74, 76, 78, 82, 83 understandings of, ix, 125, 133 university, 82, 118 Educational agendas, aims, 19, 25, 26, 72, 73, 81 aspects, 135 concerns, xi context, 114, 115 curricula, 30, 73 curriculums, 30 deliberation, 78 domains, 30, 61, 77, 78, 80 elements, 72 encounters, x, xii, xiii, 14, 15, 19, 23, 25, 27, 30, 31, 54–69, 72–83, 97, 113, 134, 138 experiences, 27, 81 149 frameworks, 35 human encounters, 14 institutions, 26, 54, 58, 75, 77, 78, 122, 137 landscape, 109, 116 matters, 7, 27 perspective, 78 policies, 39, 62, 77 potential, xiv, 124 practice, 55, 75, 76, 109 process, 112 spaces, 74, 117 values, 42, 73, 109, 115 Educative encounter, 13–16, 18 relationships, 14, 15 Encounter cultural, 44, 46–47, 136 deliberative, xi, 23, 75, 80, 87, 96–98, 110, 112, 113, 132, 133 of difference, 74, 78 educational, x, xii, xiii, 14, 19, 23, 25, 27, 30, 31, 54–69, 72–83, 97, 113, 134, 138 educative (see Educative, encounter) higher educational, xiii just, xii, 54 learner–learner, 72 learner–teacher, 72 new, 14 with the other, xiii, 24, 31, 44, 67, 86, 110 with otherness, 23 pedagogical, x, xi, xiii, 86, 123, 134 person–institution, 72 person-to-person, 72 responsive, 77, 111 transformative, 132 vexing, 99 150  INDEX Engagement act of, ix, 18 critical, 49, 90 deliberative, 18, 129, 133 with difference, vi, vii, ix dignified, 44 forms of, 14, 18, 30, 134 human, ix, 3, 10, 13, 14, 18, 134 non-, 116 rational, 3, 10 rules of, 57–59 student, 113, 129, 133, 135 terms of, 80 Environment abstract, 79 appropriate, 92 changing, xiv, 124 controlled, 79, 81 ethically safe, 99 global, 122, 139 local, 100 problems, 94 shared, 117 unsafe, 111 Equal ability, 135 beings, 130 concern, 32, 50 conditions, 114 human relationships, xi, 16, 117, 118, 135 intelligence, 113 opportunity, 129 respect, right, 129 terms, 129 treatment, 32 Equality aspirations of, xii, 42 global, 81 moral, 32 political, 129 Ethical agents, 111 attitude, 92 call for justice, 110, 112 care, 95 caring, 88, 96 community, 34, 35 concerns, 35 cosmopolitan world, 100 duties, xi, 30, 32, 38 future, 90 hope, 99 imagination, 91, 97 notion of care, 91, 95–96 obligation, 35 person, xii, 30, 33 realm, 33, 35 relations, 35 response, 87, 89–94, 110 responsibility, 87, 93, 94, 96 self, 33, 107 self-improvement, 106, 109 significance, 35 Ethics of cosmopolitanism, 32, 107 principle of, 47, 108 of self-improvement, 106–108 Exclusion of culture, xii, 42 human, x of the local, 62, 76 F Forgiveness act of (see Act, of forgiveness) interruption of, xi, 15 potential of, 16 predicament, 16 unconditional, 16 Fourth Industrial Revolution, xiv, 122, 124, 127, 137  INDEX  Freedom from coercion, 68, 129 communicative, xi, 21–23, 28, 64–66, 136 from domination, 129 exercise of, x, xi of expression, x, 128 form of, 130 individual, 68 of others, 63 task of, 130 of the will, 68 G Global citizen, 30, 56 citizenship, 31, 37, 61 community, 30 cosmopolitanism, 36 diversity, 59, 60 education, vi, 47 interconnectedness, 19, 55, 73, 75, 81 justice, 64 order, 36, 38, 47, 61, 63, 65, 81 Globalisation, 44–46, 81 H Hospitable, 13, 107 Hospitality conditional, 12–14, 16, 135 cosmopolitan (see Cosmopolitan, hospitality) excluded, 11 human (see Human, hospitality) unconditional, xi, 12, 13, 16, 18, 135 universal, xi, 8, 11, 12, 95 violence of, 68 151 Hostility absence of, 97 acts of, Human action, xiii, 2, 18 act of repentance, 14 argument, xi, behaviour, 36 being, vi, xi, xii, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 15, 21, 22, 24–26, 31–33, 35–37, 39, 42, 44, 45, 50, 56, 59, 61, 62, 67–69, 78, 96, 111 co-existence, 12, 14, 15 commonality, 22, 24, 27, 28, 48, 61, 62, 69, 136 communities, 2, 22, 33, 44, 62, 64 condition, 18, 46, 76, 77 co-operation, xi, 7, 12, 14 difference, 7, 34 dignity, xi, 3, 4, 22, 24, 25, 114 diversity, 55, 60 encounters, xi, xiii, 14–16, 18 endeavour, xi, 18, 111 engagement (see Engagement, human) equality, 19, 22, 26, 27, 30, 32, 56, 60, 62 existence, 60 experiences, 16, 45, 59, 130 hospitality, 3, 12 ideas, impartiality, 32, 61 inclusion, x inclusivity, x injustices (see Injustices, human) interaction, ix, 19, 50 interests, x, 27, 35, 68 justice, 15 life, 33, 128 lives, 33, 128 living, 5, 152  INDEX Human (cont.) nature, 19, 22, 25–27, 48–50, 73, 74, 79 passions, person, 34 plurality, 55, 63 practices, 10 problems, xi, 2, 3, relations, x, 13, 14, 19, 38 relationships, xi, 16, 117, 118, 135 responsibilities, xi, 8, 10, 12, 18, 21, 135 rights, 3, 6, 20–22, 55, 65, 68 sciences, 36 societies, 15, 21, 46, 50, 54 starvation, 4, 67 story, 48 subjectivities, 47, 62 wisdom, 45 Humanity attributes of, 42, 43 right for, 22 shared, 32, 91, 98, 99 universal, 55, 65 Humanness, 24, 111 I Impartiality, xi, 30, 32, 33, 61 Inclusion human (see Human, inclusion) understanding of, 129 Inclusive cosmopolitan education, 30 cosmopolitanism, xi, 30 curriculum, 119 democracy, 61 democratic justice, 21 education, 27, 39, 42, 50, 136 humanity, 107 human relations, x learning, 26, 135 pedagogical practices, 93 spaces, x, 125, 135 Inequality economic, 88 eradication of, 6, 114 global, 82 structured, 79 Injustice global, 49, 93, 94 social, xiv, 80, 124 societal, Injustices cultural, 46 human, 15 inner, 66 internal, 66 local, 49 peculiar, 48 societal, 100 Instructivism, 123, 125–127 Instructivist, vii, 123, 125–127, 134, 137 J Judgements bad, 58 condition of, 57 delay of, 117 Justice aspirations for, 60 call for, 110, 112, 118 demands of, 106 democratic, xiii, 21 dimensions, 54 fight for, 94 for all, 92, 94, 106, 107 global, 35, 64 ideal of, 60 notion of, xiii, 107 practice of, 57 restorative, 134, 135  INDEX  social, vii, 33, 35, 72, 86, 87, 89, 92, 99, 100, 107, 115, 124, 134 societal, 92 spheres of, 135 L Learning design, 126, 127 difference in, x dominant modes of, 122 endeavours of, xii, 42 environment, 111 forms of, 124 inclusive, 135 lifelong, 128 open to, 113 opportunities, xiv, 124 platforms, 123 problem-based, 123 process, 111, 113, 126 project-based, 123 safe space, 98 theories, 126, 127 M Marginalisation, 36, 47, 74, 76, 78, 81, 82 Massive open online courses (MOOCs), vii, xiv, 122–139 Moral agents, 22, 111 agreement, 86 attention, 62 beings, 56, 77 capacity, 66 care, 89, 95 caring, 88 concern, 31, 34, 35, 56, 132 consciousness, 132 dignity, 73 dilemmas, 54, 79 dimension, 54, 87, 94, 116 dissatisfaction, 80 duties (see Duties, moral) horizons, 86 idea, 128 imagination, 91, 97 impetus, 117 interactions, 56 interests, xii, 54 judgements, 2, 33 necessity, 64 needs, xii, 54, 138 notion of care, 91, 95–96 obligation, 19 outlook, 72–74 person, xii, 22, 54 principles, 21, 28, 44 promise, 111 relativism, 21 respect, 54, 59, 77–79, 86–89 response, 91, 93–94 responsibility, 93, 94 right, 11 standards, standpoint, 22, 131 universalism, 31, 42, 54, 64, 65 values, 54, 64, 69 views, 50 virtues, 79 world, Morality call for, 114 communitarian, 92 of cosmopolitanism, 32, 107, 108 informal, 47 of justice, 106, 118 prescriptive, 93, 114 proscriptive, 93 153 154  INDEX N Neo-Kantian understanding, view, 2–8, 10 Normative conceptualisations, 22, 31 concern, 31 legitimacy, 21 obligations, 23 validity, 21 Norms universal, 20 universalist, 20 O Objectivity, 19, 31, 69 Open-minded, 107, 109 Openness reflective, 106–108 reflexive, xiii Oppressed, the, 21, 80, 96, 97, 129, 130 Oppression, 21, 23, 38, 65–67, 72, 76, 80, 96, 130 Oppressors, 97, 129, 130 Otherness, vii, ix, x, xiii, 13, 18, 20–24, 26, 30, 35, 36, 47, 54, 58, 65, 74, 76–79, 81, 82, 93, 125, 128, 129, 133, 138 encounters with, 75 Outsider, 6, 66, 68 P Pedagogical challenges, 123 encounters (see Encounters, pedagogical) framework, 123, 124 practices, xiii, 86, 93, 95–98, 100, 115, 116, 118, 125, 126 spaces, x Philosophy, 31, 113 African, 137, 138 Philosophy of education, 133, 134 African, 133, 134, 137, 138 Pluralism cultural, 65, 66, 68 expressions of, 66 global, 65, 69 Political horizons, 86 institutions, 37 processes, 37 transformation, Practices human (see Human, practices) social, ix, 38 Prejudice, xi, 7, 8, 47, 79, 80, 135 racial, R Racism, 4, Rational aspirations, beings, 2, 35, 61 capacities, 31 engagement, 3, 10 explication, expression, 131 humanity, Rationality, x, xi, 2, condition of, 18 Reflect, 34, 59, 63, 89, 93, 94, 100, 106, 110, 115, 116 willingness to, 106, 107 Reflection critical, 97, 100, 107 emotional, 115 purpose of, 106 Reflective distance, 115 educators, 112, 114, 115, 118 openness, 106–108  INDEX  stance, 96, 108, 112, 118 Relationship educative, 13–15 hospitable, 13 Relativism, 20 moral, 21 Resistance to critical innovation, 123 culture of, 123 Respect attitude of, 96 equal, mutual, 38, 77–80, 128, 129, 133, 134 of persons, 79 worthy of, 25 Responsibility, xi, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18, 21, 25, 35, 57, 73, 88–90, 93, 94, 100, 110–112, 115–117, 135 ethical, 87, 94, 96 Responsiveness, 4, 108, 114, 118 Right of residence, 12 to temporary refuge, 11, 16 Rights universal (see Universal, rights) visitation, 11, 14 Rooted, cosmopolitanism, see Cosmopolitanism, rooted Rootedness aspects of, 34 elements of, 36, 38 individual, vi, xii, 30, 38 S Self -actualisation, 68, 77 -articulation, 23 aspirations of, 36 -contained, 66 -criticism, xiii, 43 -defense, 155 -definition, 23 -directed, 134 embedded, 33 ethical, 33, 107 -governing, 20 -growth, 109, 113, 118 hood, -identity, 77 -improvement, 106–109 -interested, 75, 76 -interests, 131 -introspection, xiii -pedagogy, 113 -preservation, 90 -proclaimed, 11 -reflection/-reflective, vi, 94, 95 -reflexive, xiii, 113, 118, 132 -reflexivity, 132 -righteous, 59, 79 -sufficiency, 50 -sufficient, 25, 42, 46, 48 -sustaining, 46 the, xiii, 34, 87–89, 91–95, 98, 100, 106–111, 113, 114, 116–118 transcendent, 24, 25, 31, 59, 60, 73, 78 -transformation, 89 Social cohesion, 89, 94, 96, 114, 118 enlightenment, mobility, 37 transformation, 31, 87, 107 values, 43 world, Societal change, 111, 112, 117–119 concerns, 6, 111 difficulties, 94 inequities, xiv, 124 injustice, 7, 100 justice, 92 problems, 94 transformation, 114 156  INDEX South African context, 122–124, 133, 137, 138 higher education, 122–139 higher education institutions, 123, 124, 137, 138 learners, vii, 123–125, 133, 138 schools, 123–125, 138 students, vii, 125, 133, 134, 138 universities, 123, 125, 133–138 Speech free, 129 harmful, xiii unjust, xiii T Teacher background, 54, 56, 62, 69 duties, 54 education, 124 roles, 54, 56, 58–62, 78 Teaching approaches, x, 26, 130 for change, 133 experiential, 123 forms of, 123, 130 and learning, xiv, 2, 19, 26, 48, 56, 57, 61, 63, 95, 96, 99, 100, 106, 113, 115–118, 122–125, 127, 130, 133, 134, 137, 138 methods, x, 19, 27 pedagogical, 95, 99, 100, 125 practices, 95, 96, 99, 100, 115, 116, 122, 123, 125 process, 56, 112, 113 strategy, 95, 96 theories, 137 university, 2, 124 Thinking African, 12, 134 critical, v, 95, 123 development, 122 mode of, 122 rational, 131 Transformation, 7, 43, 79, 82, 88, 89, 97–100, 108, 112, 113, 115, 116 societal, 114 Truthfulness, virtue of, 132, 133 U Ubuntu -inspired practices, 93, 100 pedagogical practices, 93 Universal aspirations, xi, 4, 5, 7, 68 dimension, 67 hospitality (see Hospitality, universal) humanity (see Humanity, universal) rights, 11, 55 Universalism anti-, 69 configuration of, xii, 24, 42 cosmopolitan, xii, 19, 21, 25, 27, 42, 54, 58, 61, 64–67, 69 deliberative, 20, 65 dialogic, 66, 67 discursive, 22 form of, 48 Kantian, 31, 43 mistrust of, 69 moral, 31, 43, 54, 64, 65 objective, 18 University classroom, x, 125 context, 124, 127 course, culture, 69 education, 82, 118 educators, 122–124, 136 environment, 127  INDEX  life, 74 pedagogical encounters, xi pedagogy, 73 routines, 62, 69, 73, 74 setup, 56 sphere, 77 students, 123–125, 128, 135 teachers, 114 Unjust causes, 79 crimes, 16 legacies, 50 outcomes, 59 practices, 87, 88 speech, xiii 157 V Values educational (see Educational, values) embedded, vi, 87 functional, 109 purposive, 109, 110 W Worldview, vi, 73, 87, 112, 116 X Xenophobia, 5, 12 xMOOCs, 123, 125 .. .Cosmopolitan Education and Inclusion Yusef Waghid Chikumbutso Herbert Manthalu Judith Terblanche • Faiq Waghid Zayd Waghid Cosmopolitan Education and Inclusion Human Engagement and the Self Yusef Waghid... Presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Philadelphia Peck, C.  L ., Sears, A ., & Donaldson, S (2008) Unreached and unreachable? Curriculum standards and children’s... “universal” and this results in them categorising other views as  FOREWORD  vii foreign, strange and even pathological (Peck, Sears, & Donaldson, 200 8, Peck & Sears, 201 4, Hamm, Peck, & Sears, 2018)
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