Correct reasoning, esra erdem, joohyung lee, yuliya lierler, david pearce, 2012 2805

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Lecture Notes in Computer Science Commenced Publication in 1973 Founding and Former Series Editors: Gerhard Goos, Juris Hartmanis, and Jan van Leeuwen Editorial Board David Hutchison Lancaster University, UK Takeo Kanade Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Josef Kittler University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Jon M Kleinberg Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Alfred Kobsa University of California, Irvine, CA, USA Friedemann Mattern ETH Zurich, Switzerland John C Mitchell Stanford University, CA, USA Moni Naor Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel Oscar Nierstrasz University of Bern, Switzerland C Pandu Rangan Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India Bernhard Steffen TU Dortmund University, Germany Madhu Sudan Microsoft Research, Cambridge, MA, USA Demetri Terzopoulos University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Doug Tygar University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Gerhard Weikum Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarbruecken, Germany 7265 Esra Erdem Joohyung Lee Yuliya Lierler David Pearce (Eds.) Correct Reasoning Essays on Logic-Based AI in Honor of Vladimir Lifschitz 13 Volume Editors Esra Erdem Sabanci University Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences Orhanli, Tuzla 34956, Istanbul, Turkey E-mail: esraerdem@sabanciuniv.edu Joohyung Lee Arizona State University School of Computing, Informatics and Decision Systems Engineering P.O Box 878809, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA E-mail: joolee@asu.edu Yuliya Lierler University of Kentucky Department of Computer Science 329 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40506, USA E-mail: yuliya@cs.uky.edu David Pearce Politechnical University of Madrid Department of Artificial Intelligence Campus de Montegancedo, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain E-mail: david.pearce@upm.es ISSN 0302-9743 e-ISSN 1611-3349 ISBN 978-3-642-30742-3 e-ISBN 978-3-642-30743-0 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-30743-0 Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2012938501 CR Subject Classification (1998): F.4.1, I.2, F.3, I.2.3, D.2.4, F.4 LNCS Sublibrary: SL – Theoretical Computer Science and General Issues © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other way, and storage in data banks Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use Typesetting: Camera-ready by author, data conversion by Scientific Publishing Services, Chennai, India Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) Vladimir Lifschitz Preface Vladimir Lifschitz was born in Moscow, Russia, on May 30, 1947 The present volume is a Festschrift in his honor to celebrate the 65th birthday of an outstanding scholar of computer science, logic and artificial intelligence It comprises 44 contributions by no less than 87 authors They include many of Vladimir’s students, colleagues, co-authors and friends Their topics cover many of the scientific areas where Vladimir has made a lasting and profound contribution: logic programming, circumscription, default logic, action theory, planning, causal reasoning and of course answer set programming On approaching scholars to contribute to this Festschrift, we received an overwhelming, positive response It became clear that Vladimir is admired, liked and held in esteem throughout the scientific community the world over The enthusiasm with which authors responded to our request was delightful and infectious It became clear that we could have produced several volumes of this size, and only time and practical concerns prevented us from doing so We heartily thank all the contributors for their fine efforts, and we apologize sincerely to the many colleagues that we were not able to approach We are especially grateful to Jack Minker for contributing a personal piece on Vladimir’s life and work The reader will also find a collection of personal reminiscences on Vladimir Lifschitz as teacher, as lived by his students Our warm thanks also go to Springer for their support of this initiative and the editorial process We shall not dwell further here on the scientific achievements of Vladimir Lifschitz the scholar, since they are visible time and again in the pages that follow For Vladimir Lifschitz, colleague and friend, we close by wishing you a very happy 65th birthday! We are sure we speak on behalf of all the present contributors in wishing you many more years in the business of correct reasoning March 2012 Esra Erdem Joohyung Lee Yuliya Lierler David Pearce Table of Contents To Vladimir Lifschitz on His 65th Birthday Jack Minker Vladimir Lifschitz — A Youth at 65 Neelakantan Kartha, Esra Erdem, Joohyung Lee, Paolo Ferraris, Wanwan Ren, Yuliya Lierler, Fangkai Yang, and Albert Rondan 14 A “Conservative” Approach to Extending Answer Set Programming with Non-Herbrand Functions Marcello Balduccini 24 The Inverse Lambda Calculus Algorithm for Typed First Order Logic Lambda Calculus and Its Application to Translating English to FOL Chitta Baral, Marcos Alvarez Gonzalez, and Aaron Gottesman 40 Parameterized Splitting: A Simple Modification-Based Approach Ringo Baumann, Gerhard Brewka, Wolfgang Dvoˇra ´k, and Stefan Woltran 57 From Primal Infon Logic with Individual Variables to Datalog Nikolaj Bjørner, Guido de Caso, and Yuri Gurevich 72 Here and There Among Logics for Logic Programming Alexander Bochman 87 Causal Logic Programming Pedro Cabalar 102 On the Interaction of Existential Rules and Equality Constraints in Ontology Querying Andrea Cal`ı, Georg Gottlob, Giorgio Orsi, and Andreas Pieris 117 Extending Action Language C+ by Formalizing Composite Actions Xiaoping Chen, Guoqiang Jin, and Fangkai Yang 134 Strong Equivalence of RASP Programs Stefania Costantini, Andrea Formisano, and David Pearce 149 Considerations on Belief Revision in an Action Theory James Delgrande 164 Approximation Fixpoint Theory and the Semantics of Logic and Answers Set Programs Marc Denecker, Maurice Bruynooghe, and Joost Vennekens 178 X Table of Contents Privacy Preservation Using Multi-context Systems and Default Logic Jă urgen Dix, Wolfgang Faber, and V.S Subrahmanian 195 Simulating Production Rules Using ACTHEX Thomas Eiter, Cristina Feier, and Michael Fink 211 Applications of Action Languages in Cognitive Robotics Esra Erdem and Volkan Patoglu 229 The Intelligent Grounder of DLV Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, and Simona Perri 247 Bi-state Logic Luis Fari˜ nas del Cerro, David Pearce, and Agust´ın Valverde 265 An Equational Approach to Logic Programming Dov M Gabbay 279 Gearing Up for Effective ASP Planning Martin Gebser, Roland Kaufmann, and Torsten Schaub 296 Toward Question Answering in Travel Domains Yana Todorova and Michael Gelfond 311 Algorithms for Solving Satisfiability Problems with Qualitative Preferences Enrico Giunchiglia and Marco Maratea 327 Oscillating Behavior of Logic Programs Katsumi Inoue and Chiaki Sakama 345 Applying Visible Strong Equivalence in Answer-Set Program Transformations Tomi Janhunen and Ilkka Niemelă a 363 From Turners Logic of Universal Causation to the Logic of GK Jianmin Ji and Fangzhen Lin 380 Lifschitz and Circumscription Neelakantan Kartha 386 Towards Formalizing Non-monotonic Reasoning in Physics: Logical Approach Based on Physical Induction and Its Relation to Kolmogorov Complexity Vladik Kreinovich 390 Reformulating Action Language C+ in Answer Set Programming Joohyung Lee 405 The Truth about Defaults Hector J Levesque and Gerhard Lakemeyer 422 Table of Contents XI Parsing Combinatory Categorial Grammar via Planning in Answer Set Programming Yuliya Lierler and Peter Schă uller 436 Declarative Distributed Computing Jorge Lobo, Jiefei Ma, Alessandra Russo, and Franck Le 454 Disjunctive Programs with Set Constraints Victor W Marek and Jerey B Remmel 471 The Gă odel-Tarski Translations of Intuitionistic Propositional Formulas Grigori Mints 487 Stepwise Debugging of Description-Logic Programs Johannes Oetsch, Jă org Pă uhrer, and Hans Tompits 492 Answer Set Programming and Planning with Knowledge and World-Altering Actions in Multiple Agent Domains Enrico Pontelli, Tran Cao Son, Chitta Baral, and Gregory Gelfond 509 A Language for Default Reasoning about Actions Hannes Strass and Michael Thielscher 527 Connecting First-Order ASP and the Logic FO(ID) through Reducts Miroslaw Truszczynski 543 A New Incarnation of Action Language H Sandeep Chintabathina and Richard Watson 560 Well-Supported Semantics for Logic Programs with Generalized Rules Jia-Huai You, Yi-Dong Shen, and Kewen Wang 576 Author Index 593 To Vladimir Lifschitz on His 65th Birthday Jack Minker Department of Computer Science and Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 Introduction I am honored to have been invited by the editors of this Festschrift to write an article in honor of Vladimir Lifschitz on the occasion of his 65th birthday In this article I describe some of the major contributions that Vladimir has made in his exceptional career I provide background material about Vladimir in the Former Soviet Union (FSU), where he was born; discuss his beginning years in the United States (US); how I became aware of his research; his work on stable models with Michael Gelfond, and some of my work in related areas; and describe some of the many contributions Vladimir has made in formalizing ad hoc approaches in artificial intelligence to a formal basis of logic-based analysis Vladimir Lifschitz in the Soviet Union Vladimir Lifschitz was born in Moscow in the Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on May 30, 1947 to Jewish parents His family moved to Leningrad when he was five The USSR had a long history of discrimination against their Jewish citizens not only by USSR citizens, but by the state as a whole This became especially severe under the regime of Joseph Stalin who, in 1922, won the most powerful post in the USSR, general secretary of the party His reign lasted until March 5, 1953 Under Stalin, thousands USSR citizens had been brutally killed by orders of the state without legal process, and millions incarcerated without due process Following the death of Stalin, subsequent general secretaries of the party were less brutal However state anti-Semitism still existed Jewish students were discriminated against and were prevented from attending the best universities Vladimir was too good a scholar to be denied entry to one of the best universities in the USSR, and was accepted to Leningrad State University in 1963 In fact, he was a kind of ”child prodigy”: he learned calculus on his own, and audited advanced college courses, when he was in high school At the age of 19, he presented his original research at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Moscow, and he published nine more papers on mathematical logic during the next three years Fate would have it that Michael Gelfond, also enrolled at the same time and both majored in mathematics They took many courses together and became friends forever While still an undergraduate student, Vladimir met a charming and intelligent young woman, Elena Donskaya at a holiday resort for writers and their families where they E Erdem et al (Eds.): Correct Reasoning, LNCS 7265, pp 1–13, 2012 c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 J Minker spent some time during winter break Elena was also a student at Leningrad University and studied English literature Vladimir’s father was a famous playwright who wrote under the name Alexander Volodin His mother had a degree in chemistry Elena and Vladimir were married when Vladimir was 20 years old They have a son Alexander, and a granddaughter Sonya As a high school student, Vladimir attended seminars and discussions of the logic group at the famous Steklov Mathematical Institute in Leningrad The Steklov Institute was known for its work in mathematical logic and mechanical theorem proving In 1968, under the direction of the famous logician Nikolai Alexandrovich Shanin, Vladimir completed and defended his thesis, Constructive Counterparts of Găodels Completeness Theorem. In spite of anti-Semitism, he was able to find eventually a really good position at a research institute of the Academy of Sciences in Leningrad Elena recalls their decision to emigrate from the USSR as follows The main reason why we decided to emigrate was our general disgust for the totalitarian Soviet system, our desire to live as free people There were two choices there: either to repeat slavishly the lies of the official propaganda or to become outspoken dissidents and to spend years in prisons and labor camps We didn’t like either option, and this is why we chose the difficult path of emigration In 1974, Vladimir and Elena applied for an exit visa and became refuseniks A refusenik is generally a Jewish person in the USSR who was denied an exit visa According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights passed by the United Nations on December 10, 1948, every individual has the right to leave their country Vladimir and Elena received their exit visa in 1976 and immigrated to the US At the time they applied, Vladimir was employed When someone in the USSR applied for an exit visa, they were generally dismissed from their job However, Vladimir decided to leave on his own terms and resigned He did not want to cause trouble for those who had hired him His boss, Boris Pittel, eventually immigrated to the US where Vladimir wrote several papers with him Vladimir Lifschitz’s Early Years in the United States After Vladimir arrived in the US in 1976, he was fortunate to find a temporary position at Stanford University working with Patrick Suppes on computer-aided learning In 1977 he found a two year position at Brigham Young University in the Mathematics Department as an assistant professor In 1979 he found a tenure track position as an assistant professor in the Mathematics Department at the University of Texas, El Paso (UTEP) Shortly after Vladimir was at UTEP, he was instrumental in attracting Michael to UTEP As with many universities at that time, UTEP had a computer science program as part of its mathematics department and decided to upgrade the program to a Department of Computer Science Michael and Vladimir contributed to developing a Plan of Organization for the new department and were among its first members Since Vladimir was in a computer science department, he decided to broaden his knowledge in computers While he was at UTEP, he enrolled in a summer course in computer science and artificial intelligence (AI) offered at Stanford University One of ... shared some of her memories with me also I also wish to thank the editors, Esra Erdem, Joohyung Lee, Yuliya Lierler, and David Pearce for inviting me to contribute to the Festschrift References... contributors in wishing you many more years in the business of correct reasoning March 2012 Esra Erdem Joohyung Lee Yuliya Lierler David Pearce Table of Contents To Vladimir Lifschitz on His 65th... A Youth at 65 Neelakantan Kartha, Esra Erdem, Joohyung Lee, Paolo Ferraris, Wanwan Ren, Yuliya Lierler, Fangkai Yang, and Albert Rondan 14 A “Conservative” Approach
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