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Roxana D Maiorescu-Murphy Corporate Diversity Communication Strategy An Insight into American MNCs’ Online Communities and Social Media Engagement Corporate Diversity Communication Strategy Roxana D. Maiorescu-Murphy Corporate Diversity Communication Strategy An Insight into American MNCs’ Online Communities and Social Media Engagement Roxana D. Maiorescu-Murphy Emerson College Boston, MA, USA ISBN 978-3-030-29943-9    ISBN 978-3-030-29944-6 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29944-6 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland ‫בס"ד‬ With gratitude to my husband, Brian Murphy, and to our parents Contents Part I Online Corporate Diversity in the Financial Industry   1 1Introduction  3 2Online Diversity Communication at JPMorgan Chase 23 3Online Diversity Communication at Wells Fargo 41 4Online Diversity Communication at Bank of America 55 5Online Diversity Communication at Citigroup 69 6Conclusions from the Financial Industry 81 Part II Online Corporate Diversity in the Tech Industry 101 7Online Diversity Communication at Microsoft103 vii viii  Contents 8Online Diversity Communication at Google121 9Conclusions from the Tech Industry139 Part III Online Corporate Diversity in the Consumer Goods Industry 155 10Online Corporate Diversity at Johnson & Johnson157 11Online Corporate Diversity at Altria Group173 12Conclusions from the Consumer Goods Industry181 Part IV Industry Comparison 191 13New Directions for Theory and Practice193 I ndex211 List of Figures Fig 6.1 Diversity in context Fig 9.1 Organizational legitimacy through diversity communication Fig 13.1 The online diversity communication model (ODC) 94 149 204 ix PART I Online Corporate Diversity in the Financial Industry CHAPTER Introduction The multifarious projects that corporations develop to promote diversity and inclusion speak to the importance they attribute to embracing differences so as to abide by current legislation, understand and appeal to consumers, and attract and recruit top talent (Baker & Kelan, 2018; Knights & Omanović, 2016; Kulik, 2014; Maiorescu & Wrigley, 2016; Singh & Point, 2004; Swanson, 2002; Trittin & Schoeneborn, 2017; Wondrak & Segert, 2015) Despite these efforts, the recent discrimination lawsuits faced by corporations such as Ford (Associated Press, 2018), Lockheed Martin (Campbell, 2018), and IBM (Bloomberg, 2018) raise concerns about the effectiveness of diversity programs The 13.6% surge in the number of sexual harassment charges that the US Equal Opportunity Commission addressed  in 2018 (US Equal Opportunity Commission, 2019) and  the  recent research that evinces the reticence of job seekers to apply for jobs that stress commitment to diversity (Windscheid et al., 2017), showcase that the present approaches to diversity are in need of serious revamping Internally, companies are facing employee fatigue and reluctance toward diversity trainings, programs, and recruitment strategies (Dobbin & Kalev, 2016; Kidder et al., 2004; Maiorescu & Wrigley, 2016) and such corporate initiatives were shown to lead to anxiety, fear (Schwabenland & Tomlinson, 2015), misunderstanding, suspicion, and conflict (Bassett-Jones, 2005; Theodorakopoulos & Budhwar, 2015) Finally, studies showed that diversity recruitment and training may reinforce stereotypes and lead to employee backlash (Dobbin & Kalev, 2016; © The Author(s) 2020 R D Maiorescu-Murphy, Corporate Diversity Communication Strategy, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29944-6_1 200  R D MAIORESCU-MURPHY a more meaningful impact of their programs through citizen activism Undoubtedly, facilitating online dialogue and enabling stakeholders to shape diversity programs constitute paramount precursors to the users’ offline engagement In addition to an increased societal impact, the stakeholders’ offline engagement has the potential to lead to their higher identification with the company through the convergence of their personal values and the values of the company and, ultimately, as a consequence of their increased self-efficacy Therefore, offline engagement is likely to be beneficial on multiple levels The chi-square tests conducted to assess the users’ intention to contribute offline revealed that in the case of innovative industries, users were six times more likely to get involved offline (61.1%) than in the case of companies characterized by routine practices [28.2%, (x2 (6, N = 13,728) = 270.18, p = 0.00)] These results suggest that the extent to which bond-based attachment emerges in online communities impacts the users’ intention to contribute to diversity programs offline The present analysis found two of the three variables of bond-based attachment to have a higher presence in the online communities pertaining to innovative industries These variables were online interaction and personal attraction (reduced social distance) The third variable, self-disclosure, had a lower presence in innovative industries than in less creative ones Based on these findings, it can be implied that exposure to diverse users and engaging in dialogue around their concerns and perspectives may decrease the initial perceived distance These results support recent studies (Bouchillon, 2018) that determined that increased online interaction leads to feelings of trust among individuals who live in racial and ethnic diverse neighborhoods and who were shown in offline settings to exhibit high levels of distrust (Bouchillon, 2014; Putnam, 2007) In a study on diverse neighborhoods in the US, Putnam (2007) found that the more diverse neighborhoods became, the fewer interactions took place among neighbors Moreover, despite the fact that the majority of the population comprised immigrants, those that had already settled in the neighborhood tended to distrust incoming immigrant neighbors (Putnam, 2007) The lack of interaction among neighbors led to low social capital (Bouchillon, 2014; Putnam, 2007) Therefore, the results of this analysis reveal once more that the reduced physical distance that the internet fosters (Atzori, Iera, & Morabito, 2014; Bauernschuster, Falck, & Woessmann, 2014) leads to a perceived common identity and closeness (Putnam, 2007) 13  NEW DIRECTIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE  201 The present study determined the impact of online interactions in a corporate context and, therefore, represents a step in the direction of ethical corporate diversity projects, as opposed to the diversity management approaches that have represented the nexus of corporate efforts for a long time Given the tremendous power the corporations exercise on the society, power that ranges from the control of natural resources to the availability of new products (Deetz, 2000, 2004) and the definition of diversity in accord with their financial interests (Wrench, 2005), it becomes important for scholarship to ascertain ways in which companies can contribute to the cause of diversity beyond a focus on the bottom line As a result of their for-profit profile it is understandable that corporate conglomerates would aim to gain advantage on the marketplace (Maiorescu & Wrigley, 2016) Yet, diversity projects should also be developed from an ethical perspective as opposed to a predominantly business approach (Hoobler, Masterson, Nkomo, & Michel, 2018; Hunt, Prince, Dixon-Fyle, & Yee, 2018; Rachele, 2017; Ramirez, 2018) that does little to address the causes espoused by minorities that not represent consumer bases The results of this study suggest the potential of online dialogue about diversity to increase social capital and to lead to the development of diversity projects that have a significant societal impact In addition, the benefits for companies are multifarious and range from an increased stakeholder identification with the company to consumer loyalty and a positive reputation to draw from in times of future crises Such benefits emerge within the context of ethical business practices and a focus on the implementation of diversity projects that denote social responsibility In other words, it is highly possible that by establishing a reputation for socially responsible diversity projects companies enjoy the aforementioned benefits that were shown in past studies to be displayed by stakeholder groups as a consequence of CSR initiatives (Aguinis & Glavas, 2012; Cuesta-Valiđo, Rodríguez, & Núđez-Barriopedro, 2019) It is important to note that the pursuit of RQ3 entails a limitation Namely, it is based on the users’ stated intention to participate online, which past studies showed that may not materialize in activism but may remain manifest at the level of slacktivism, giving one the illusion of active participation in a cause through likes, retweets, and posts (Glenn, 2015; Smith, Krishna, & Al-Sinan, 2019) A recent study suggests combating slacktivism through an understanding of the fact that engagement in a cause precedes social media involvement It follows that users who are invested in a cause may join brand communities of companies that have 202  R D MAIORESCU-MURPHY gained a reputation for addressing that specific cause, a hypothesis that merits further investigation In time, it is possible that online interactions may lead to the users’ identification with the company as well as to consumer loyalty All of these considerations should be pursued in future research studies especially since they may reveal motivations for joining brand communities that go beyond the identification with a company (as shown in past literature), but that in time lead to its display By contrast, users who join an online community out of an identity-based attachment may become invested in a diversity-related cause due to the connections established online and the interactions thereof The transformation that occurs throughout this process and the type of corporate communication that facilitates it should also be investigated Finally, it is worth mentioning additional factors that may impact online diversity communication despite the fact that their assessment was not directly related to the investigation of the three research questions asked in this study First, a chi-square test conducted for the purpose of the present industry comparison (x2 (9, N = 13,728) = 4113.94, p = 0.00) revealed that users displayed higher identification with innovative companies (66.1%) than the less innovative ones (16.3%), results that stress the importance of corporate identification While past studies ascertained that corporate identification or identity-based attachment sparks users to join an online community, future studies should determine whether diversity communication and bond-based attachment lead users to display higher identification with the company Such studies can prove important in communicating the benefits of online diversity communication to companies that would like to embrace it Second, innovative companies enjoyed about nine times (x2 (9, N = 13,728) = 8082.85, p = 0.00) more positive interactions around their diversity posts (82.9%) than less innovative ones (9.5%) did It is possible that the bond-based attachment that dominated the former’s online communities led to a higher positive valence as users felt comfortable sharing and communicating about diversity However, it becomes paramount that future research studies further investigate the potential emergence of additional variables that could play a role in the valence of the user-generated content Based on the preceding chapters, corporate reputation and a ­history of crises exerted influence on the extent to which users commented positively about diversity or regarded the company’s communication as window dressing Several variables should therefore be investigated Interestingly, in the communication literature, corporate reputation and a 13  NEW DIRECTIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE  203 history of crises were also found to represent assets in crisis management (Coombs, 2019), namely determinants of the extent to which stakeholders hold a company accountable in the aftermath of a crisis While past studies on crisis communication and diversity looked into how discrimination scandals impact the relationship between organizations and stakeholders (Krishna, Kim, & Shim, 2019; Brunner & Brown, 2008), future studies could focus on determining the extent to which crises that are not necessarily related to diversity, such as product recalls, impact the stakeholders’ perceptions of a company’s social justice efforts Online Diversity Communication Based on the preceding findings and the results presented throughout the book, the following paragraphs introduce and discuss the elements of a new model whose aim is to enable companies to effectively engage their online communities in dialogue about diversity While past studies concluded that to combat the stakeholders’ reticence toward diversity (Maiorescu & Wrigley, 2016) and to enact more ethical approaches (Uysal, 2013) corporations should engage their constituencies into dialogue, to date, few studies established how dialogue should be construed (Ciszek, 2019) In addition, online dialogue has the potential to break down the barriers extant in offline settings: recent studies showed that highly interactive online users who live in diverse environments are more likely to exhibit trust than those whose online interactions are scarce (Bouchillon, 2018) (Fig. 13.1) In the proposed model, companies strike a balance between communicating diversity around programs they developed out of business concerns and those whose implementation is meant to address societal issues raised by stakeholders who not represent a consumer base To develop the latter, companies have to rely on dialogic communication so as to engage users in online dialogue that would lead to the emergence of causes and concerns that corporate programs can address Such corporate efforts are supported by the strategic management function of the public relations practice By contrast, projects that aim to address a specific consumer group are developed by a diversity management approach (Knights & Omanović, 2016) and through a top-down process that is triggered by management and communicated online by public relations practitioners Since the decision making process has concluded before communication professionals post the respective information online, public relations 204  R D MAIORESCU-MURPHY Reputation Crisis history Corporate Identification Diversity as CSR Diversity as a business strategy Dialogicapproach; PR as strategic management Bond-based attachment Trust Informationgiving; PR fulfills a technical role Adds to or restores reputation Increases/est ablishes identification; Adds to/ restores reputation Positive reception of diversity programs; Offline participation Fig 13.1  The online diversity communication model (ODC) emerges as a technical function, in charge of information giving for the purpose of maintaining or regaining a favorable reputation In the case of a CSR approach to diversity public relations professionals should communicate in order to trigger increased bond-based attachment among the members of their online communities First, they should encourage storytelling since self-disclosure is a paramount precursor to the establishment of close bonds Second, their communication should be focused on reducing the perceived social distance among individuals by stressing commonalities and triggering a bridging effect Such communication practices should not supplant the paramount dialogue that should be taking place around specific issues that face minority and ethnic groups It is important to continue such conversations in order to raise awareness and trigger societal change Yet, at times companies should communicate around similarities as issues that individuals face irrespective of their identity are likely to trigger increased online communication and bond-based attachment Finally, the third precursor to fostering bond-based attachment represents social/online interactions which companies can increase by embracing the preceding variables, namely storytelling and commonalities In addition, the very inclusion of the users in the company’s deci- 13  NEW DIRECTIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE  205 sion making processes about diversity is likely to lead to increased interaction Therefore, asking for suggestions and feedback on past, current, or future diversity programs may lead to increased online interactions as a result of the users’ self-efficacy (Maiorescu, 2015) and as a direct consequence of social norms, among which are the users’ perceptions of feeling valued and appreciated (Shahin & Dai, 2019; Yang & Ott, 2016) In turn, online interactions are likely to augment the users’ trust in a company and in other users, the latter leading to increased social capital (Bouchillon, 2018) It is highly probable that trust is going to continue to trigger increased dialogue especially, as it concerns the participation of diverse users In a recent study, Ciszek (2019) found trust to be antecedent of the extent to which members of the LGBTQ+ community were willing to engage in dialogue with corporations The ODC model further details the fact that users who are exposed to dialogic communication are more likely to participate in diversity projects offline, therefore making concrete contributions to certain causes while increasing the company’s reputation through positive word-of-mouth According to the results presented in this chapter, users who engaged in dialogic communication displayed a higher corporate identification than those exposed predominantly to information giving Because corporate identification was found to be an important variable in the context in which companies communicate about diversity, the online diversity communication process can be viewed as cyclic Specifically, the higher the identification of the online users with a company, the more likely the users will engage in online communication and respond to corporate messages Similar to the enactment of dialogic communication, information giving is triggered by the company’s reputation, history of crises, and the extent to which its online followers display high corporate identification As presented in Part I, companies that experienced recent crises are likely to attract online backlash should they focus on engaging their stakeholders into a feedback loop Therefore, it is recommended that companies address their crises first On the other hand, one-way communication can be embraced by companies that enjoy a positive reputation but that have developed several programs from a diversity management perspective In this case, public relations practitioners focus on informing publics on diversity initiatives for the purpose of maintaining or adding to a solid reputation Therefore, public relations practitioners perform a technical function and may be asked to report on the online sentiment engendered by the respective piece of information A positive sentiment adds to the 206  R D MAIORESCU-MURPHY company’s reputation by feeding into the precursors of diversity communication and reflecting the cyclic characteristic of the process The proposed model is based on the findings presented throughout the book as well as in the current chapter Its nexus represents the companies’ newest tendencies, as reflected in recent research studies (Maiorescu & Wrigley, 2016; Uysal, 2013) These tendencies refer to embracing diversity from both a business perspective and through a CSR approach While the model assumes that diversity as CSR is conducted through dialogic communication and programs developed from a diversity management lens are communicated via information giving, in practice the communication processes can be inversed However, the inversion would be a reflection of a less than ethical approach to diversity Specifically, programs developed through a diversity management perspective have already been decided upon and PR practitioners should only attempt to trigger a feedback loop if these can be altered in the future and based on the users’ suggestions Otherwise, such attempts represent two-way asymmetrical communication (Grunig & Grunig, 2016; Toledano, 2018) or the creation of faux dialogue enacted for impression management purposes and with no intention to implement the feedback received Given the fact that diversity initiatives should be driven by morality and ethics (Alcázar et al., 2013; Greene & Kirton, 2015; Wondrak & Segert, 2015) the model entails separate communication paths for the two divergent diversity approaches The core of the proposed model represents the positive impact that online communication has on social capital Our neighborhoods long lost the sense of community and our interactions have become scarce We have become more and more skeptical of newcomers in spite of our own diverse background (Putnam, 2007) Yet, on social media we reveal and communicate to a larger extent than in offline settings As corporations have been encroaching on our everyday life (Deetz, 2004), they can contribute to building social capital while ripping the benefits of maintaining/gaining a positive reputation Above all, social media communication enables us to hold companies to higher standards Finally, the studies presented in this book entail several limitations First, in the fall of 2017, Twitter changed its character limitation from 140 to 280 characters This decision may have affected the last two months of the five-year period of analysis However, several assessments conducted on the impact of this decision revealed that the culture of Twitter continued to revolve around brevity and remained unaffected by the increase in 13  NEW DIRECTIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE  207 characters (Larson, 2017; Perez, 2018) Nonetheless, the present study analyzed diversity in the context of Twitter as this represents the predominant platform that stakeholders use to communicate with corporations (Einwiller & Steilen, 2015; Nitins & Burgess, 2014) Diversity communication may emerge differently on platforms that have always fostered a culture of verbosity and this possibility should be investigated in future studies Finally, because research on visual communication and public relations is in incipient stages, the present study did not code for visuals, which may have affected the users’ reception of the companies’ diversity communication Future studies may consider investigating diversity communication from the lens of graphic design Despite the limitations, it is the author’s belief that the present book represents a first step toward the understanding of the role that online corporate communication can play to address paramount societal issues and to build social capital References Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A (2012) What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda Journal of Management, 38(4), 932–968 Alcázar, F. M., Fernández, P. M R., & Gardey, G. S (2013) Workforce diversity in strategic human resource management models: A critical review of the literature and implications for future research Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 20(1), 39–49 Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G (2014) From “smart objects” to “social objects”: The next evolutionary step of the internet of things IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(1), 97–105 Austin, E. W., & Pinkleton, B. E (2015) Strategic public relations management: Planning and managing effective communication campaigns New  York: Routledge Bauernschuster, S., Falck, O., & Woessmann, L (2014) Surfing alone? 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The power of social norms in driving public participation with organizations Public Relations Review, 42(5), 832–842 Index A Actional legitimacy, 151 Altria, 12, 14, 173–179, 181, 185–187, 194 B Bank of America, 12, 14, 24, 55–66, 81, 83–91, 194, 198 Bond-based attachment, 8–11, 14, 28–32, 44, 46–48, 52, 58–60, 65, 72, 73, 77, 78, 110–112, 124–130, 134–136, 144–147, 160, 161, 163, 164, 166, 177, 178, 198, 200, 202, 204 Brand community, 7, 8, 10, 14, 47, 96, 151, 163, 166, 201, 202 Business studies, C Chi-square tests, 13, 14, 25, 28, 30, 31, 42, 44, 48, 52, 60, 61, 70, 72, 73, 87, 107, 109, 111, 123, 126, 128, 130, 131, 139, 142, 146, 158, 161, 163, 195, 198, 200, 202 Commitment, 3, 9, 23, 24, 26, 28–30, 35, 43, 45–47, 50–52, 57, 59, 65, 66, 71, 74, 83–88, 92, 97, 105–107, 110, 116, 124, 126, 128, 132, 135, 142, 160, 162, 164, 166, 175, 186, 196, 197 Commonalities, 9, 26, 28, 35, 43, 45, 46, 57, 59, 65, 71, 87, 107, 124, 125, 130, 134, 135, 144, 150, 161, 162, 204 Communication studies, 4, 5, 63 Competitive advantage, 4, 8, 182 Corporate communication, 9, 10, 35, 45, 56, 58–60, 70, 71, 73, 76, 77, 85, 88, 89, 97, 109–111, 117, 123, 124, 127, 134, 135, 143, 144, 146, 150, 162, 164, 165, 202, 207 Corporate identification, 8, 10, 11, 14, 32, 33, 44, 47, 48, 50, 52, 58, 61, 73–75, 77, 78, 83, 89, 90, 93, 94, 97, 108, 112, 125, 131, 136, 145, 148, 150, 163, 166, 167, 169, 177, 182, 183, 202, 205 Corporate identity, 97 Corporate reputation, 14, 117, 202 © The Author(s) 2020 R D Maiorescu-Murphy, Corporate Diversity Communication Strategy, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29944-6 211 212  INDEX Corporate social responsibility (CSR), 6, 77, 91, 96, 113, 114, 117, 140, 141, 148, 173, 175–179, 185–187, 195, 196, 201, 204, 206 Corporate values, 83, 97, 113, 114 Creativity, 4, 77, 97, 178, 194 Crisis history, 43, 47, 92, 109, 202, 203, 205 Crisis management, 104, 157, 203 Cultural competency, D Decision making, 55, 82, 87, 104, 106, 110, 117, 160, 169, 177, 184, 196, 197, 203–205 Dialogic communication, 4, 9, 27, 28, 30, 43, 44, 46, 47, 58, 72, 91, 109, 110, 126, 146, 161, 163–166, 169, 184–186, 195, 198, 203, 205, 206 Dialogic public relations theory, 13, 84 Dialogue, 4, 5, 7–10, 25, 27–30, 35, 36, 43, 44, 56–58, 64, 65, 70, 75, 77, 78, 82, 84, 85, 93, 94, 98, 107, 111, 114, 124, 126, 128, 129, 143–146, 161, 164, 165, 169, 178, 182, 184, 186, 187, 196, 197, 200, 201, 203–206 Diversity, 3, 23–36, 41–52, 55–66, 69–78, 81, 103–118, 121–136, 139, 157–169, 173–179, 181, 193 Diversity engagement, 7, 8, 12, 43, 57, 62, 74, 139, 148, 151, 169 Diversity management, 6, 96, 177, 182, 197, 201, 203, 205, 206 E Empathy, 9, 26, 28, 29, 43, 45, 46, 58, 59, 71, 85, 107, 124, 128, 143, 160, 162, 165, 166, 175, 197 Employee engagement, 105 Employee resource groups (ERGs), 196 Engagement, 8, 27–29, 36, 42, 43, 46, 60, 70, 73, 77, 88, 91, 108, 127–129, 134, 164, 176, 182, 200, 201 Ethics, 90, 175, 186, 206 F Feedback, 4, 9, 26, 29, 31, 43, 46, 57, 71, 73, 82–87, 104, 107, 109, 124, 127, 128, 143, 161, 162, 164–166, 169, 175, 195, 197, 205, 206 Frequency analysis, 25, 26, 42, 44–46, 56, 57, 71, 107, 123, 125, 159, 162, 174, 177 G Generation Z, 4, 140 Global diversity, 56, 81, 83, 91, 163, 184 Globalization, Goodness of fit tests, 13, 25, 42, 56, 107, 123, 146 Google, 12, 14, 121–136, 139, 140, 142–146, 148, 149, 194, 195 I Identification, 6–8, 24, 27, 28, 32, 33, 36, 44–46, 48–50, 52, 58, 60, 61, 72–74, 77, 86, 88, 90, 93–96, 104, 108, 110–114, 116, 125, 128, 131, 136, 141, 145, 148, 150, 160, 163, 166–168, 177, 182–184, 200–202, 205 Identity-based attachment, 8, 10, 11, 28, 32, 47, 48, 60, 61, 73, 108, 110, 112, 113, 125, 128, 131, 146, 166, 167, 193, 198–199, 202  INDEX  Inclusion, 3, 4, 12, 23, 41, 44, 106, 114, 157, 160, 164, 169, 175, 204 Innovation, 4, 11, 77, 97, 105, 113, 114, 116, 157, 194, 196, 198 Interactivity, 10, 28–30, 44–46, 48, 49, 52, 56, 58, 60, 61, 65, 70, 73, 74, 77, 78, 83, 108–110, 114, 116, 117, 123, 124, 126, 127, 130, 133, 134, 146, 159, 161, 164–166, 169, 174, 175, 177, 182, 183, 198 J Johnson & Johnson (J&J), 12, 14, 157–169, 181–185, 187, 194, 195 JPMorgan Chase, 12, 14, 23–36, 81 M Metadiversity, 161, 169, 183–185 Microsoft, 12, 14, 103–118, 139, 140, 142–146, 148, 194, 195 Millennials, 4, 140 Multiculturalism, 193 O One-way communication, 10, 29, 42, 48, 72, 83, 110, 126, 128, 142, 143, 146, 159, 175, 178, 186, 195, 197, 198, 205 Online community, 7–10, 14, 28, 32, 35, 42, 44, 47–49, 52, 58, 60, 63, 65, 72, 92, 110, 116, 123, 128, 131, 139, 144, 146, 151, 158, 165, 196, 198–200, 202–204 Online contributions, 73, 116, 165 Online engagement, 11, 27, 36, 43–44, 57, 59, 75, 93, 111, 143, 169, 178, 184 Online interaction, 8, 12, 27, 28, 30, 31, 44, 45, 47, 57, 60, 61, 65, 82, 213 88, 106, 110–112, 129, 144, 159, 161, 164, 165, 175, 177, 179, 182–184, 196–198, 200–205 Organizational identification, 95, 97–98, 116, 167, 168 Organizational legitimacy, 14, 63, 93–95, 142, 148, 149, 151, 173, 179, 185 P Primary stakeholders, 6, 92, 115, 195 Public relations, 5, 9, 13, 26, 42–43, 50, 55–56, 63, 76, 82, 87–90, 95–97, 114, 115, 165, 195–197, 203–205, 207 Q Qualitative analysis, 25–27, 34–36, 41, 46, 48, 50–52, 57, 58, 61–65, 72, 75–77, 89, 90, 108, 111–117, 131–134, 168–169, 199 Quantitative analysis, 25–33, 42–50, 52, 56–61, 70–76, 107–112, 123–131, 135, 139, 146, 159–167 R Recurrent online contributions, 27, 60, 145, 177 Routine business operations, 194 S Self-disclosure, 7, 10, 49, 65, 198–200, 204 Self-efficacy, 27, 30, 71, 86, 92, 104, 110, 160, 164, 169, 200, 205 Sin industry, 14, 178, 181 Social capital, 6–8, 10, 25, 36, 65, 78, 95, 183, 193, 200, 201, 205–207 Social justice, 86, 161, 162, 184, 203 214  INDEX Social media, 7, 12, 27, 31, 33, 51, 64, 72, 75, 78, 88, 91, 96, 97, 114, 147, 151, 168, 201, 206 Social media communication, 12, 25, 92, 96, 97, 129, 182, 206 Social responsibility, 63, 90, 94, 115, 132, 201 Stakeholder engagement, 29, 56 Stakeholder perceptions, 36, 92 Storytelling, 9, 10, 44–47, 49, 51, 52, 57, 58, 60, 65, 71–73, 75, 78, 84, 86, 87, 96, 107, 111, 112, 116, 117, 124, 125, 127–129, 132, 134, 136, 143, 144, 147, 150, 151, 161, 163–166, 177, 182, 184, 195, 198, 199, 204 107, 112, 123, 126, 128, 131, 135, 151, 158, 168, 176, 178, 196 Twitter, 12, 33, 42, 44, 70, 75, 78, 82, 88, 93, 96, 97, 106, 117, 140, 158, 206, 207 Two-way communication, 9, 29, 30, 35, 46, 48, 55, 57, 58, 60, 65, 70, 71, 78, 84, 86, 93, 107, 110, 116, 117, 123, 125–128, 142–143, 150, 162, 164–166, 184, 195 T Thematic analysis, 13, 14, 25, 34, 42, 50, 52, 56, 58, 61, 62, 70, 75, 91, W Wells Fargo, 12, 14, 24, 41–52, 63, 81, 83–91, 194, 198 U User engagement, 12, 27–29, 182 User interaction, 29, 31, 35, 46 ... Research, 3 0, 59–64 Sriramesh, K ., & Verči , D (Eds.) (2019) The global public relations handbook Theory, research, and practice (3rd ed. ) New York: Routledge Stevens, R ., Gilliard-Matthews, S ., Dunaev,... Dunaev, J ., Woods, M. K ., & Brawner, B. M (2017) The digital hood: Social media use among youth in disadvantaged neighborhoods New Media & Society, 19(6 ), 950–967 Swanson, D.  R (2002) Diversity. .. theme and were listed as such The themes were later reviewed and defined (Maguire & Delahunt, 2017) Each company’s communication was coded based on the guidelines that resulted from the preceding
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