Controlled release of pesticides for sustainable agriculture, 1st ed , rakhimol k r , sabu thomas, tatiana volova, jayachandran k , 2020 557

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Rakhimol K R · Sabu Thomas · Tatiana Volova · Jayachandran K Editors Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture Rakhimol K R Sabu Thomas Tatiana Volova Jayachandran K • • • Editors Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture 123 Editors Rakhimol K R International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Mahatma Gandhi University Kottayam, Kerala, India Tatiana Volova Institute of Biophysics SB RAS Siberian Federal University Krasnoyarsk, Russia Sabu Thomas School of Chemical Sciences Mahatma Gandhi University Kottayam, Kerala, India Jayachandran K School of Biosciences Mahatma Gandhi University Kottayam, Kerala, India ISBN 978-3-030-23395-2 ISBN 978-3-030-23396-9 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23396-9 (eBook) © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Preface The rapidly increasing demand for food presents a major challenge to the scientific community More efficient developments in agricultural and industrial sector are needed to face this issue Novel techniques which result in high-quality products with high yield and reduced adverse effects are required In ancient times, a major problem which scientists faced was the inefficiency of the pest control agents due to the inability of these products to reach the target and deliver optimum quantity within a short span of time Mostly, the conventional mode of pesticide application resulted in wastage of 80% of applied pesticides through leaching, degradation, and evaporation This intern resulted in reduced performance and environment pollution This led the scientists to think about delivering chemicals to the target in a controlled manner With the use of novel technologies such as nanotechnology and polymer technology, scientists could develop controlled release pesticides In this book, we discuss different aspects of controlled release pesticides Chapter of this book gives a general introduction about the conventional pesticide application and its adverse effects on health and environment Chapter discusses the methods for pesticide analysis and their role in the agriculture fields Chapter deals with the chemical nature and toxicology behind different chemical pesticides and insecticides of today’s use In Chap 4, we give an overview of controlled release pesticides and their bioengineering aspects for the sustainable crop production In Chap 5, we explain different methods for synthesizing controlled release pesticides Types of slow and controlled release pesticides and their characteristics are discussed in Chap Types of pesticides based on different parameters and their physical as well as chemical characteristics are included in this chapter Nanotechnology has played a major role in the field of controlled release technology Nanotechnological aspects in pest control are included in Chap To release pesticides in a controlled manner, encapsulation in a porous carrier is needed Polymers play a major role as pesticide carrier Polymer technology for pesticide release is incorporated in Chap To detect the release of pesticides from v vi Preface carriers, novel sensors were developed by many scientists Chapter provides a detailed data on fabrication and working of such sensors Chapters 10 and 11 are dealing with controlled release of herbicides and plant hormones to tune the crop production Kottayam, India Kottayam, India Krasnoyarsk, Russia Kottayam, India Rakhimol K R Sabu Thomas Tatiana Volova Jayachandran K Contents Conventional Methods of Pesticide Application in Agricultural Field and Fate of the Pesticides in the Environment and Human Health V Dhananjayan, S Jayakumar and B Ravichandran Methods for Determination of Pesticides and Fate of Pesticides in the Fields Angel G Polanco Rodríguez and Jesús Alfredo Araujo Ln 41 59 Chemistry and Toxicology Behind Insecticides and Herbicides S Sousa, M L Maia, L Correira-Sá, V C Fernandes, C Delerue-Matos, C Calhau and V F Domingues Controlled Release Pesticides as a Route to Sustainable Crop Production 111 Maya Rajan, Vinaya Chandran, S Shahena and Linu Mathew Manufacturing of Slow- and Controlled-Release Pesticides 127 V R Remya, Jesiya Susan George and Sabu Thomas Characteristics and Types of Slow/Controlled Release of Pesticides 141 Ayilalath Ashitha and Jyothis Mathew Advanced Controlled Nanopesticide Delivery Systems for Managing Insect Pests 155 R K Saini, S Patel, J Bajpai and A K Bajpai Polymer Formulations for Pesticide Release 185 Abhilasha Mishra, Rajesh K Saini and A K Bajpai vii viii Contents Molecularly Imprinted Sensors for Detecting Controlled Release of Pesticides 207 Fatma Yılmaz, Nilay Bereli, Ali Derazshamshir, Duygu Çimen, Semra Akgửnỹllỹ, Yeeren Saylan, Aykut Arif Topỗu and Adil Denizli 10 Controlled Release Herbicides and Allelopathy as Sustainable Alternatives in Crop Production 237 S Shahena, Maya Rajan, Vinaya Chandran and Linu Mathew 11 Controlled Release of Plant Hormones for Modifying Crop Yield 253 Vinaya Chandran, S Shahena, Maya Rajan and Linu Mathew Chapter Conventional Methods of Pesticide Application in Agricultural Field and Fate of the Pesticides in the Environment and Human Health V Dhananjayan, S Jayakumar and B Ravichandran Abstract The increasing growth of world population required raising overall food production In order to meet the requirement, food supply factors of increasing yields, expanding agricultural area and increasing the productivity of crop and animal agricultural are necessary As a consequence, application of pesticide for protection of crop involves wide variety of chemicals with various applicable techniques The pesticides are very commonly used in agriculture sector with several methods of applications in recent years However, in developing countries, the conventional method of application of pesticide is the major practice The knowledge and awareness of application play a major role in fate of pesticides in the environment and human health Several studies have reported the handling practices and subsequent exposure of farmers to pesticides and pesticide accumulation In addition to the preparation and application of pesticides, there are several important problems related to pesticide use that should be understood by every applicator Generally, in the conventional way, application of pesticides did not include any regular inspections for safety procedure and follow-up inspections of problem areas Some of the methods, however, may result in problems such as over application, not reaching the pest habitat while using a minimum amount of pesticide, and depositing unsafe residues Proper techniques of application not only aid in effectiveness but also ensure workers’ safety, public protection and protection of the environment Although newer pesticides are capable of degrading fast, the adverse impact of these chemicals with already existing persistent pesticides on environment including humans is reported in recent years The application of pesticide is not merely the operation of sprayer or duster It has to be coupled with a thorough knowledge of the pest problem The application techniques ideally should V Dhananjayan (&) Á B Ravichandran Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology Division, ICMR—Regional Occupational Health Centre (Southern), NIOH, ICMR Complex, Bangalore 562110, India e-mail: Dhananjayan_v@yahoo.com S Jayakumar Department of Zoology and Wildlife Biology, A.V.C College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai 609305, Tamil Nadu, India © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 Rakhimol K R et al (eds.), Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23396-9_1 V Dhananjayan et al be target oriented so that safety to the non-targets and the environment is ensured Therefore, environmentally responsive controlled release of pesticide through advance technologies is needed and recommended This chapter deals with the different types of pesticide application, their distribution and occurrence in the environment and human health-related issues Keywords Pesticide application 1.1 Á Fate of pesticides Á Health effects Introduction Agriculture is the most important enterprise and it is the major key to economic development in many developed countries The agriculture remains traditional and labour intensive; little or no external inputs are used Pest management practice under these conditions is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity [1] The most important concern associated with agricultural production is the problem of pests (weeds and insects) An important step for raising productivity and increasing the gross output of agricultural products is the elimination of losses of the harvest due to pests, plant diseases and weeds The farmers use pesticides to control weeds, microbes, insects, rodents and other higher organisms to protect their crops and preserve food materials [2–4] In the initial stages of agricultural practice, the cultivation together with crop and animal husbandry was largely eco-friendly, although the yields were not as high as of the present day During 1874, the German chemist Othmar Zeidler had first synthesized dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) compound, but failed to realize its value as an insecticide Similarly, a series of chemical pesticides were synthesized to protect crop plants against insect pests While the immediate benefits of these pesticides were indeed quite impressive, their long-term harmful effects on environment and non-target organisms came to be understood only after much damage to ecosystems had already been done After the description of Carson [5] on deleterious effects of DDT and other chlorinated pesticides in her book on ‘Silent Spring’, there has been a growing campaign against the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture As an alternative to the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphates (OPs) and carbamate pesticides are largely used in agriculture field The introduction of these synthetic insecticides—organophosphate (OP) in the 1960s, carbamates in 1970s and pyrethroids in 1980s—and herbicides and fungicides in the 1970s–1980s contributed greatly to pest control and agricultural output Ideally, a pesticide must be lethal to the targeted pests, but not to non-target species, including man Unfortunately, this is not the case, so the controversy of use and abuse of pesticides has surfaced The rampant use of these chemicals, under the adage, “if little is good, a lot more will be better” has played havoc with humans and other life forms During the past three decades or so, a significant amount of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) or IPM-related research has been conducted in many parts of .. .Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture Rakhimol K R Sabu Thomas Tatiana Volova Jayachandran K • • • Editors Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture... are dealing with controlled release of herbicides and plant hormones to tune the crop production Kottayam, India Kottayam, India Krasnoyarsk, Russia Kottayam, India Rakhimol K R Sabu Thomas Tatiana. .. for repairing In the case of power-operated sprayers, the engine repairs are classi ed into minor and major respires Minor Repairs: Spark plug cleaning and adjustment, air cleaner, carburettor
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