Controlled environment horticulture, 1st ed , christoph martin geilfus, 2019 3072

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Christoph-Martin Geilfus Controlled Environment Horticulture Improving Quality of Vegetables and Medicinal Plants Controlled Environment Horticulture Christoph-Martin Geilfus Controlled Environment Horticulture Improving Quality of Vegetables and Medicinal Plants Christoph-Martin Geilfus Division of Controlled Environment Horticulture, Faculty of Life Sciences Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences Humboldt-University of Berlin Berlin, Germany ISBN 978-3-030-23196-5    ISBN 978-3-030-23197-2 (eBook) © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland V Dedicated by C.-M Geilfus: To my family Preface Plant-based food not only is important for caloric supply, but also acts as a crucial source of human health-promoting metabolites These metabolites belong to groups including glycosides, polyphenols, alkaloids or terpenes, the members of which can act as anticarcinogens or in an analgesic, antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiarrhythmic or even antimalarial manner Many of these compounds are produced by plants in response to stresses from the environment and allow plants to withstand unfavourable conditions The horticulturist can utilize such stress responses to enrich vegetables or medicinal plants with beneficial compounds For instance, after the induction of a mild stress event in a controlled manner (e.g lack of water, high temperature, nutrient shortage), a plant can initiate defence reactions, viz the production of these metabolites; however, the stress intensity is controlled in order that biomass formation is not affected The fine-tuned control of production factors such as water, temperature or nutrient availability is only possible during protected cropping In horticulture, this refers to production within, under or sheltered by structures such as covers, artificial shading, plastic tunnels or greenhouses This textbook entitled Controlled Environment Horticulture: Improving Quality of Vegetables and Medicinal Plants describes in detail ways in which the horticulturist can control abiotic and biotic production factors in order to adjust the metabolism of the crop to the production of metabolites that are beneficial when ingested as part of a plant-based diet or as plant-based pharmaceuticals Before guidance in this regard is given, a theoretical background is provided that allows the reader to apply their acquired knowledge to other situations The unique character of the book is that undergraduate and graduate students have written many parts of this textbook In this way, complex plant physiological concepts are presented in a simple and understandable manner, making this book the perfect format for undergraduate students Christoph-Martin Geilfus Berlin, Germany VII Acknowledgements I would like to sincerely thank all the student coauthors, without whose great dedication this book would not have originated My special thanks to Veronika Strauss, Jeffrey J Jones, Adrian Vollmer and Roland Sier who made a strong commitment to the textbook Veronika Strauss helped to proofread all ­chapters, which was greatly appreciated Jeffrey J Jones gave many critical comments that helped to improve many chapters Last, I would like to thank Springer Nature, which made it possible to write this book IX Contents IIntroduction 1Introduction References 2Protected Cropping in Horticulture 2.1 2.2 Horticultural Vegetables 12 Medicinal Plants 14 References 16 3Plant Secondary Compounds 19 3.1 Primary Metabolites 3.2 Secondary Metabolites 3.2.1Improving Quality by Adjusting Metabolites Through the Regulation of Controlling Environmental Factors References 20 21 27 31 4Hydroponic Systems in Horticulture 35 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Drip System Flood and Drain (Ebb and Flow) System Nutrient Film Technique Deep Water Culture Aeroponic System Divergences of Hydroponic Systems References II Controllable Production Factors in Horticulture 36 36 37 38 38 39 40 5Light 43 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Light Sources in CEH 48 Types of Lamps 48 Major Functions of Light: The Effect of Different Light Qualities on Plant Growth and Development   50 What Happens Under Excess and Lack of Light? 54 Strategies to Increase the Quality of Horticultural Crops by Lighting 54 References 55 6Nutrient Deficiencies 57 6.1 6.2 Nitrogen Deficiency 58 Phosphorus Deficiency 62 X Contents 6.3 6.4 Potassium Deficiency and Other Nutrient Deficiencies 64 Practical Note 65 References 65 7Salt Stress 69 7.1 7.2 7.3 Salt Toxicity Effects Adaptation Strategy to Mitigate Burst of ROS Under Salinity Stress Enriching Bioactive Compounds in Crops by Exposing the Plants to Salt Stress References 71 75 78 79 8Drought Stress 81 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Function of Water in Plants 8.3 What Happens in Plants During Drought Stress? 8.4 Plant Reactions to Drought Stress 8.4.1Adjusting the Osmotic Potential (Ψп) 8.4.2Rise of Antioxidants in Drought-Stressed Plants 8.5 Additional Effects of a Deficient Water Supply 8.6 Methods of Creating a Controlled Water Deficit for Plants References 82 82 83 84 84 85 88 89 93 9Thermal Stress 99 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 What Is Thermal Stress? Protected Cultivation: Methods of Thermal Regulation Thermal Stress Heat Stress: Core Effects on Plant Growth Frost Stress: Plant Sensitivity and Effects on Plant Growth Controlled Environment Case Studies References 100 100 102 102 106 108 109 10Wounding 113 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Jasmonic Acid Methyl Jasmonate Salicylic Acid Food Safety References 116 116 117 117 118 11Mycorrhiza 121 11.1 11.2 11.3  Interaction Between Mycorrhizal Fungi and Host Plants Beneficial Effects of Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi Association Improving Crop Quality by Mycorrhization with Regard to Human Health References 122 122 125 126 XI Contents 12Microbial and Plant-­Based Biostimulants 131 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Chitosan Protein Hydrolysates Humic Substances Seaweed Extracts Botanicals References 134 135 136 137 138 138 13Mineral Biofortification 145 13.1 13.2  Penetration of Exogenously Sprayed Minerals into the Leaf 147 Improving Quality of Plant-Based Food by Mineral Fortification 148 References 149 14CO2 Enrichment 151 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Introduction Improving Crop Yield and Quality by Preharvest CO2 Exposure in Greenhouses Changes of Quality by Postharvest CO2 Exposure Effects of Climate Change-Driven Free-Air CO2 Enrichment on Crop Growth and Quality References 152 152 154 156 160 15Hormones 163 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 Introduction Abscisic Acid Auxins Cytokinins Ethylene Gibberellins References 164 164 165 165 167 167 170 16Intercropping 175  What Is Intercropping and Why Is It Done? Intercropping Patterns and Plant Cultivation Measures Affecting Plant-Plant Interactions 16.3 What Happens to the Plant When Plants Are Intercropped? 16.4 How Can Intercropping Be Used to Improve the Quality of Horticultural Crops Without Decreasing Yield? 16.4.1Improving Quality of Greenhouse Tomato Plants by Intercropping 16.4.2Improving Essential Oil Quality and Yield of Peppermint Intercropped with Soybean 16.4.3Improving Quality by Intercropping Ethiopian Kale and African Nightshade References 16.1 16.2 176 177 180 182 183 183 183 184 ... Produced mass (t) Tomatoes 17 7,0 4 0,0 00 Onions, dry 9 3,1 7 0,0 00 Cucumbers and gherkins 8 0,6 2 0,0 00 Cabbages and other brassicas 7 1,2 6 0,0 00 Eggplants 5,1 2 9,0 00 Carrots and turnips 4 2,7 1 0,0 00 United... Rasilla M, Lalueza-Fox C, Huguet R, Bastir M, Santamaría D, Madella M, Wilson J, Fernández Cortés A, Rosas A (2012) Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in.. .Controlled Environment Horticulture Christoph- Martin Geilfus Controlled Environment Horticulture Improving Quality of Vegetables and Medicinal Plants Christoph- Martin Geilfus Division of Controlled
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