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PALGRAVE STUDIES IN ECONOMIC HISTORY CONTRACTS AND PAY Work in London Construction 1660–1785 Judy Z Stephenson Palgrave Studies in Economic History Series editor Kent Deng London School of Economics London, UK Palgrave Studies in Economic History is designed to illuminate and enrich our understanding of economies and economic phenomena of the past The series covers a vast range of topics including financial history, labour history, development economics, commercialisation, urbanisation, industrialisation, modernisation, globalisation, and changes in world economic orders More information about this series at http://www.palgrave.com/gp/series/14632 Judy Z. Stephenson Contracts and Pay Work in London Construction 1660–1785 Judy Z Stephenson Bartlett, University College London London, UK ISSN 2662-6497 ISSN 2662-6500  (electronic) Palgrave Studies in Economic History ISBN 978-3-319-57507-0 ISBN 978-3-319-57508-7  (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57508-7 Library of Congress Control Number: 2017943661 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Acknowledgements This book was researched during my doctoral studies in the Department of Economic History at the London School of Economics and Political Science 2012–2015 If it were not for the intellectual generosity and loyal stewardship of Patrick Wallis, my supervisor and mentor, the evidence and ideas within would not have got very far Overturning established ideas in scholarship is arduous and anxiety inducing at the best of times Through some quite hard ones his disciplined support made it possible Gerben Bakker, Chris Minns, Oliver Volckart, Max Stefan Schulze, Michael Aldous, Tobias Vogelsang, John Gent, Pat Hudson, Stephen Broadberry, Kent Deng, Peter Sims, Tim Leunig, and Linda Sampson all provided mentorship, encouragement, camaraderie, or advice that helped a controversial idea become reality, and I am very grateful for all their help Bruno Blonde, Heidi Deneweth, James Campbell, and my longsuffering examiners, Jane Humphries and Jeremy Boulton, did much to improve the arguments and presentation All errors, typos and misconceptions are mine I thank the staff of the London Metropolitan Archive, The National Archives, Christine Reynolds at Westminster Abbey, Lesley Whitelaw at Middle Temple and Jennifer Thorp at New College, Oxford for v vi      Acknowledgements their time and insight, and the privilege of viewing and handling their immaculately maintained and, often, very beautiful records I am indebted to the Economic History Society who provided me with a badly needed Ph.D bursary in 2013 and a wonderful fellowship at the IHR in 2015–2016 Colleagues at the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure helped me improve some of the context and arguments, whilst those at Wadham College, Oxford provided a happy intellectual home in the latter stages, and I thank Carol Richards and her family for endowing the David Richards fellowship in economic history there My children, Belle and Arthur, provided the best discipline and distraction any author could ask for It is, of course, dedicated to them, with the wish that they may one day find as much professional fulfilment and support as I have in researching and writing it Contents A Short History of Builders’ Wages in Economic History The Market for Building 35 3Contractors 65 Contracts and Ways of Working in the Building Trades 79 What did Bosses (in London Construction) do? 107 Contracts and Pay at St Paul’s Cathedral, and at the Office of the King’s Works 141 Pay at Bridge House, Westminster Bridge, and Middle Temple 173 Contracts and Pay in Construction in the Long Run 201 vii viii      Contents Conclusions and Further Notes on Understanding Early Modern Contracts and Pay 223 Bibliography 239 Index 253 List of Figures Fig. 1.1 Fig. 1.2 Gilboy’s wage series for London 1700–1787 11 Schwarz’s craft and labour wage series for London 1700–1800 13 Fig. 1.3 Boulton’s wage series for London 1661–1721 16 Fig. 1.4 Comparison of three series, craft d per day 16 Fig. 1.5 Comparison of three series, labourers d per day 17 Fig. 1.6 Allen and Gilboy, London craftsman’s d per day 24 Fig. 1.7 Allen and Schwarz, London craftsman’s d per day 25 Fig. 1.8 Allen and Boulton, London craftsman’s d per day 25 Fig. 1.9 Allen and Gilboy, London labourer’s d per day 26 Fig. 1.10 Allen and Schwarz, London labourer’s d per day 26 Fig. 1.11 Allen and Boulton, London labourer’s d per day 27 Fig. 2.1 Middlesex deeds registered by year 48 Fig. 5.1 Likely roles under large mason contractor off-site 117 Fig. 5.2 Likely roles under large mason contractor on-site 117 Fig. 5.3 Discount of Edward Strong’s Bills Greenwich Hospital 1698–1708 showing actual percentage discount on each bill and 10 bill MAV 133 Fig. 6.1 Amount of day bills and task/measure/other bills at Westminster Abbey 1713–1715 in £ 164 ix Bibliography     247 Marglin, S ‘What Do Bosses Do? 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Interdisciplinary History 15 (1985), pp 683–728 Yeomans, David ‘Managing Eighteenth-Century Building’, Construction History (1988), pp 3–20 Yeomans, D ‘Managing Eighteenth-Century Building’, Construction History (1988), pp 3–21 Young, A A Six Months Tour Through the North of England: Containing, an Account of the Present State of Agriculture, Manufactures and Population, in Several Counties of This Kingdom (London: W Strahan, 1771) 252     Bibliography van Zanden, J.-L ‘Wages and the Standard of Living in Europe, 1500–1800’, European Review of Economic History (1999), pp 175–197 ——— ‘The Skill Premium and the Great Divergence’, European Review of Economic History 13 (2009), pp 121–153 Archival Sources London Metropolitan archive (LMA) St Paul’s Cathedral: CLC/313/I/B/003/MS25473/19–43; CLC/313/I/E/005/ MS25485; CLC/313/I/B/014/MS25483/001 Records of Edward Strong: CLC/B/227/MS00233 Bridge House Estates: CLA/007/FN/04/09–21, and CLA/007/FN/03/021 to 29; City of London various sites: COL/SJ/09/02, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10; COL/SJ/OF/ 05/173; COL/SP/05/073; COL/CC/MRK/02/01 City Churches: CLC/313/J/018/MS25541/003, The National Archives (TNA) Exchequer and Chancery: C 106/145 Admiralty/Greenwich Hospital: ADM 67/2, and 4; 80/2 Office of the King’s Works: WORK 5/9 to 88 Westminster Bridge: WORK 5/194, 5, 6, 7,8; WORK 6/46–49 Westminster Abbey Muniments (WAM) Fabric Committee accounts: 1712–1722 Cat no’s 34513, 34514, 35417, 35418 Vouchers 1703–1783 Middle Temple Treasurers accounts, abstracts and bills: ACCVOUBI; MT.2/TUT; MT2/ TRB/No 5.; MT2/TOT/3/2 LSE Archive Beveridge Price History: D:3/4/5, E:7b/8/9/10/24a/25 F:1/8/9 LMA COL CC MRK/02/01 New College Oxford Archive vouchers 11367, 11372, 11368 Index A accounts 1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13, 14, 19, 20, 28, 30, 35, 37, 38, 44, 48, 50, 52–61, 68, 70, 74, 92, 94, 97–100, 103, 104, 109, 114, 117, 120, 121, 123–129, 133, 135, 137, 139, 142, 143, 146, 156, 159, 160, 162, 163, 165–170, 174, 184, 186, 191, 194–197, 199, 202–207, 209–211, 220, 221, 228, 231, 233 accounts, building 3, 46, 50, 52, 159, 166, 209, 224 Allen, Robert C 6, 23, 235, 236 Amsterdam 29, 235, 236 apprenticeship 31, 49, 50, 73, 75, 124, 138, 210, 211, 214, 231 informal 49 mason’s 31 arithmetic mean 18 Atterbury, William 181, 182 average earnings 179 average pay 155, 183, 186, 188, 191, 201 B Barker, John 148, 150, 152 Bayley, Thomas 149 bias 10, 22, 38, 60–62, 216 of data 235 of sources 38 of wage series 11, 235 Bird, Francis 148 Blissard, Roger 149 Blitz 36 Blonde, Bruno 18 Boulton, Jeremy 7, 8, 14, 15, 17, 22, 24, 30, 34, 56, 57, 60, 145, 147, 156, 167, 175, 177, 186, 198 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2020 J Z Stephenson, Contracts and Pay, Palgrave Studies in Economic History, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57508-7 253 254     Index Bowley, Arthur 4–6, 21, 30, 54, 224 Bridge House 59, 60, 62, 74, 75, 98, 105, 112, 120, 123, 128, 135–137, 142, 173–177, 179, 181, 182, 185, 188, 190–194, 203, 205, 206, 208, 218, 219, 234 building materials 3, 14, 15, 19, 32, 36, 42, 46, 49, 51, 52, 57, 60, 70, 74, 77, 80, 82, 83, 87, 88, 93, 94, 101, 110, 115, 116, 118, 119, 126–129, 135, 137, 147, 155, 156, 167, 174, 176, 179, 181, 195, 203, 208, 209, 212, 213, 215 brick 42, 93 lead 204 timber 43, 48, 127, 204, 213 stone 69 C call books 54, 55, 122, 144, 145, 184 Cambridge 3, 20, 195, 197, 198, 207, 233 Campbell, James W 32, 57, 87, 90, 110 Campbell’s (Robert) ‘London Tradesman’ 12 carpenters 1, 3, 13–15, 22, 31, 39, 40, 43, 49, 53, 59, 68, 74, 77, 83, 90, 93, 102, 104, 105, 110, 113, 122, 128, 131, 144–146, 160, 163, 166, 168, 175, 177, 178, 183–186, 188, 191, 192, 194, 195, 203, 205, 212, 214, 215 Cartwright, Thomas 44, 68, 74 carving 11, 51, 74, 85, 103, 104, 126, 147, 148, 150, 156, 198 Cass, Christopher 53, 74, 76, 120, 196 charge out rates 29, 34, 51, 54, 55, 103, 110, 135, 137, 142, 156, 159, 162, 167, 169, 176, 179, 181–183, 191, 192, 195, 199, 202, 205, 215, 218, 219, 226, 232 Chartres, John church 38, 41, 44, 45, 52, 75, 76, 126, 206, 212, 213 City Churches 37, 42, 44, 52, 65, 67, 74, 75, 96, 114, 174, 175, 179, 229 spires 42 City artificers 62, 114 mason 101, 128 of London 44, 230 position 101, 108, 128 surveyor 86, 101, 120, 188, 206 Clark, Gregory 6, 110 ‘clerk-of-the-works’ 53, 58, 96–98, 103, 120, 146, 165, 213 consumption baskets 21, 192, 219 contract 2, 30, 31, 34, 38, 44, 46, 48–51, 53–55, 58–60, 62, 65–68, 70, 71, 73–100, 102– 105, 108, 109, 112, 113, 115, 116, 118–121, 123, 125–127, 131–135, 137–139, 142–144, 148, 149, 163, 165, 168, 170, 175, 179, 180, 182, 190, 193, 194, 196, 199, 206, 213, 214, 217, 226–231, 233 Index     255 theory 81, 87 Cooper, William 148–150 corruption 60, 61, 136, 174, 230 Covent Garden 39 craftsmen 7, 9–12, 14, 15, 18–20, 22, 29, 30, 53, 65, 66, 78, 79, 103, 109, 114, 135, 141–143, 145–148, 156, 157, 162, 165, 168–170, 173, 174, 179, 182, 192, 194, 196, 201, 203, 204, 206, 211, 213, 214, 216, 218–221, 226, 228, 230, 231, 233–237 skill of 22, 211, 214 training See apprenticeship credit 6, 31, 61, 88, 97, 129–131, 202, 205, 207, 226, 229, 232 costs of 46, 98, 111, 115, 131, 132, 136, 229 delayed payment 132, 165 custom 2, 27, 33, 85, 105, 202, 203, 211, 237 day work 29, 54, 58, 85, 87, 101– 105, 110, 114, 133, 144, 145, 149, 156, 163, 165, 228 demand side explanations 1, 9, 30, 32 de Vries, Jan 23, 29, 157, 209, 235, 236 direct payments 56, 103, 165, 177, 205 discount 56, 91, 118, 130, 133, 134, 203 dockyards 37, 44, 193, 202, 204 Duncombe, Nicholas 101, 206 E Etheridge, William 59, 195, 207 exchange entitlements 203, 237 extraordinary work 61, 62, 115, 119, 128, 174 F D Dance, George 120, 188 Day, Richard 151–153, 197 day rates 9, 11, 12, 15–17, 20–23, 30, 50, 51, 54, 56, 59, 61, 87, 100, 101, 103–105, 109, 112, 121, 123, 142–145, 149, 151, 153–157, 162, 166–169, 174, 176–178, 186, 191–196, 198, 201, 202, 207, 209–211, 216, 217, 219, 221, 228, 231, 233 days worked 30, 75, 151, 157–167, 171, 181, 194, 197, 205, 207, 217, 219, 233 factor prices 28, 225, 226, 234, 236 Fell, John 71, 84 finance 31, 32, 34, 45, 61, 76–78, 80, 105, 106, 109, 110, 138, 193, 229–231 fire Fire Acts Fire Court 42 Great, Of London 36 firm 2, 31, 34, 37, 65, 68, 69, 74, 75, 82, 105, 110–112, 115, 116, 123, 125, 132, 163, 169, 191, 219, 220, 226, 227, 230 boundaries of 78, 108 Fitch, John 44, 121 256     Index Fletcher, Joshua 72, 74, 124, 149, 151 Fulkes, Samuel 69, 73, 76, 78, 144, 145 industrious revolution 157 interpolation 9, 21 J Gerbier, Balthazar 82 Gibbons, Grinling Gibson, Edmund 150 Gilboy, Elizabeth W 7–12, 14–17, 21, 22, 24, 26, 29, 33, 34, 50, 52, 54, 55, 112, 113, 147, 163, 173, 195, 234 great, work by 51, 87, 100 Greenwich 7, 13, 14, 40, 48, 54, 55, 67, 76, 94, 95, 97, 98, 101, 103, 116, 118, 129, 132, 134, 204, 206 Grove, James 93, 110 Jelfe, Andrews 48, 59, 73, 74, 76, 78, 116–119, 123–125, 131, 173, 194, 196, 197, 207, 208, 227 Jenings, Richard 110, 113, 114, 142, 146, 176, 205 Jenings case 110, 112 journeymen 11, 15, 22, 31, 128, 146, 156, 199, 206, 211, 227, 228 Jones, Inigo 39, 54, 57 Jones, G.P 30, 31, 42, 44, 49, 65, 66, 73, 78, 108, 122, 123, 147, 173, 227 H K Hampstead Marshall 82 Hanus, Jord 18 Healing, Edmund 150 ‘high-wage-economy’ 223 Hill, Thomas 76, 93, 94, 119, 144 Historical data sets prices and wages 3, 23, 109, 233 Hopkins, Sheila 6, 7, 12, 20, 21, 23, 28, 234 Howe, William 181, 182 Hutchins, B.L 7, 61, 168, 169 Kempster Christopher 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 76, 84, 144, 233 Kempster, William 58, 72, 94, 117, 123–125, 141, 143, 144, 147, 173, 208, 231 Kensington Palace 61 Kinleside, Joseph 183 Knight, Thomas 101 Knoop, Douglas 30, 31, 42, 44, 49, 65, 66, 73, 78, 108, 122, 123, 147, 173, 227 I L industrial revolution 27, 108, 202, 226, 232 industriousness 158, 237 labour economics 30 labour market 30, 32, 33, 36, 155, 193, 210, 214, 221 G Index     257 labourers 1, 3, 7, 9–11, 14, 15, 18–20, 22, 24, 26, 27, 29, 50, 51, 53, 54, 57, 60, 77, 79, 93, 102, 112, 122, 123, 135, 142–147, 151, 152, 154–157, 159, 160, 162–169, 173, 175–177, 182, 184–186, 188, 192, 195, 196, 198, 199, 201, 204–206, 209, 210, 212, 213, 216, 218–221, 226, 232–235 role of 213 skill of 22, 170 Land carpenter 136, 174–176, 178–180, 183, 186, 190–192, 203, 206 Latham, Mark 60, 136, 174 law of one price 4, law of one wage 5, 33 Lesow, William 182, 183, 186 Lindert, Peter 8, 12, 22, 234 living standards 1, 2, 6, 8, 12, 17, 18, 23, 27, 28, 34, 169, 171, 192, 202, 203, 207, 219, 234 logistics 79, 138 Loller, Thomas 149–152 London 1, 5–9, 12, 13, 17–19, 21–23, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34–37, 39–41, 43, 45, 47, 50–52, 55, 57, 59, 61, 62, 68, 70, 73–75, 78, 92, 110, 119, 124, 126, 127, 135, 141, 142, 145, 157, 166, 167, 170, 173, 174, 176, 182, 192, 194, 197, 202, 206, 207, 209, 211, 214, 219, 226, 227, 230, 232–237 bridge 58, 62, 68, 89, 159, 173, 216, 219–221, 228, 231 Corporation expansion of 39 M Magnus, Thomas 148, 151 maintenance 3, 22, 34, 37, 38, 49, 52, 54, 55, 60–62, 74, 98, 105, 115, 126, 135, 171, 173, 174, 176, 179, 183, 188, 191, 193, 199, 235 management 53, 67, 81, 90, 99, 105, 108, 111, 115, 116, 118, 124, 128, 138, 165, 174, 229, 230 strategy 85 margin 29, 32, 93, 99, 100, 105, 109–112, 114, 115, 118, 126, 128, 132, 134–136, 138, 146, 147, 151, 156, 163, 169, 176, 180, 204, 207, 228 Marglin, Stephen 107, 108, 139, 210, 228 market 9, 10, 20, 27, 28, 32, 33, 36, 37, 39, 43, 45, 47, 49, 61, 62, 70, 81, 82, 105, 108, 147, 171, 202, 203, 210, 211, 215, 216, 217, 219, 226, 231 competition in 32 for construction services 36, 41 frictions in 33, 162 search costs 33 Marshall, Joshua 66–68, 73, 76, 91, 94, 126, 144, 148 masercrowers masons 1, 3, 30, 31, 39, 44, 48, 51, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 66–68, 70–77, 83, 84, 90, 93–96, 101, 102, 104, 105, 109, 118, 120, 122–124, 126, 128, 133, 136, 141, 143–149, 151, 153–156, 158, 163, 166, 168, 174, 176–178, 181–183, 186, 258     Index 196–199, 203, 206, 210, 212–215 master workmen 82, 115 measured contract 85, 86, 92, 99, 105, 116, 135, 227 measured work 51, 85, 87, 100, 120, 122, 144, 147, 169, 209 measurers 86–88, 100, 102, 123, 134 training 87 median worker 19 Middle Temple 8, 14, 56, 57, 62, 73, 133, 142, 158, 173, 198, 199 monitoring 80, 85, 87, 92, 99, 105, 106, 108, 111, 116, 120, 123, 202, 221, 227, 229, 230 organisational management 36, 60, 107 overheads See margin Oxford 3, 20, 21, 68, 70, 71, 84, 233 P narrative 2, 30, 58, 224, 237 national output 1, 4, 225 neoclassical economics non-pecuniary pay 27, 202, 203, 209 Paine, William 46, 83 payment schedules 78, 132, 204, 205 Pearce, Edward 69, 73, 94, 126, 144 perquisites 15, 203, 204 Phelps Brown, E.H 6, 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 21, 23, 28, 33, 234 piece rate 51, 85, 197, 198 population 36, 39, 40, 45, 62 of London 35, 36, 40, 45 porters 124, 197 ports 235 price books 5, 13 prohibitions on building 41 purveyor(s) 53, 98, 127, 128, 137, 176, 205, 207 O R Office of the King’s Works 7, 40, 44, 47, 53, 59, 61, 62, 75, 77, 89, 90, 98, 101, 130, 135, 142, 165, 167–169, 199, 203, 205, 206, 208, 219 ordinary work 37, 136 organisation 2, 3, 10, 14, 19, 30–34, 37, 38, 44, 49, 50, 56, 61, 62, 76, 79, 81, 105, 108, 109, 111, 121, 135, 173, 186, 199, 224, 225, 227, 230, 236 Rappaport, Steve 7, 17–19, 22 Rawlins, Nathaniel 69, 94, 144 Rebuilding Act 42 Reddaway, T.F 36, 42, 43, 45, 96 Restoration 34–36, 41, 43, 44, 62, 165, 194, 226, 237 N S scatter diagrams 14 Schuckford, Peter 190 Index     259 Schwarz, Leonard D 7, 8, 12–15, 22, 24–28, 30, 34, 35, 55, 186, 195, 203, 204, 211, 214, 224, 234 search costs 33, 100, 161, 217 sectors (of the building market) 37 semi-skilled 19, 22, 171, 212, 214, 216 labourers 231 Sen, Amartya 203 sessions house 55 sessions (Quarter) records 'silver' wage 20, 28, 29, 220 Sims, Ralph 53, 77, 98, 163, 164, 212 skill 1, 5, 6, 9–11, 14, 15, 18, 20, 22, 29, 30, 32–34, 36, 42, 62, 80, 86, 88, 90, 94, 98, 100, 103, 108, 109, 114, 123, 124, 135, 138, 141, 147–149, 151, 154–156, 160, 162, 168, 170, 182, 194–196, 198, 210, 211, 213–216, 221, 223, 224, 227, 228, 230–232, 236 skilled wage 6, 8, 23, 33, 36, 49, 114, 146, 170, 216, 237 Sparruck, Bartholomew 123, 136, 176, 185, 186, 188, 190 specialist skill 103, 123, 156, 214, 231 Spencer, Lawrence St Andrew Holborn 73, 148 St James’s Garlickhill 143 St Martin’s in the Fields 96, 98, 120 St Mary Somerset 71, 143 St Paul’s Cathedral (St Paul’s) 32, 45, 47, 51, 57, 65, 68, 70, 76, 79, 80, 84, 89, 91, 96, 101, 103, 134, 210 construction of 79, 80, 89, 147, 229 geometric staircase 141 labourers 211 South West tower 141, 156 West front 57, 141, 148, 156 statistical analysis Strong, Edward 55, 67, 70, 72, 74, 76, 93–95, 101, 102, 104, 118, 119, 125, 132, 133, 148, 151, 204 Strong, Thomas 68, 100, 103 subcontracting 31, 108, 111, 225, 228, 230 subsistence 19, 27 summer rates 23 supply and demand 1, 30, 32, 33, 162, 216, 228, 238 supply chain 37, 42, 59, 65, 95, 118, 119, 131, 138, 142, 226, 229, 231 surveyor(s) 30, 39, 53, 54, 57, 81–83, 86, 93, 96–98, 100, 103, 114, 116, 120, 121, 125, 132, 137, 165, 195, 206, 227 T Thompson, John 68, 71, 94, 111, 112, 123, 144, 145, 147, 202 Thorold Rogers, J.E 3, 7, 20 Thurland, Charles 150, 151, 154, 211 Tillison, John Tide carpenter(s) 136, 174, 175, 177, 179, 183–185, 193, 203, 206, 207 tide rates 60, 105, 176, 177, 193, 194, 219 260     Index tidesmen 184–186, 194 tide work 184, 186, 189, 190, 193 Tom Tower 68, 71, 84, 233 Tower of London 7, 61, 166 trade 2, 5, 9–11, 31, 34, 40, 43, 46, 49, 66, 98, 103, 108, 114, 119, 130, 139, 143, 146, 167, 169, 175, 180, 194, 201, 206, 209, 211, 214, 215, 217, 229, 232 international 12 London 31, 194 Treasury 37, 47, 125 Tuffnell, Edward 68, 70, 72, 112, 120, 129 Tufnell, Samuel 59, 118, 194 U unskilled men 18, 19, 22, 36, 149, 154, 156, 170, 174, 192, 215, 218, 219, 232 wage 6, 22, 23, 33, 36, 210 V Van Zanden, Jan Luiten 1, 8, 27, 28, 210 Veasey, Thomas 176, 182 Voth, Hans Joachim 131, 157–159, 229 W wage(s) annual earnings 2, 23, 237 charge out rates 145, 149 custom 30, 33, 103 custom rates 30 dispersion of 33 food and drink 18 formation 158, 193, 194, 202, 210 model 155 Nominal London series rates in Northern England 20 real 2, 4, 6, 12, 13, 16, 17, 20–23, 27, 28, 34, 105, 219, 232–234 regulation of representativeness 4, 12, 29 seasonal rates 23 series 4, 6, 11–13, 16, 19, 20–22, 28, 33, 34, 147, 169, 201, 215, 219, 224, 235 seventeenth and eighteenth century 110 sixteenth century 17 stability of 9, 12, 194 trends 1, 2, 10, 218, 234 uniformity 103 variance in 14 ways of working 84, 85, 89, 105, 236 Westminster Abbey 3, 7–9, 22, 39, 50–53, 56, 68, 72, 73, 76, 89, 90, 96–98, 101, 102, 109, 112, 119–121, 125, 127, 129, 131, 132, 142, 149, 163, 164, 173, 203, 205, 207, 212 Westminster Bridge 37, 44, 48, 58, 59, 73, 74, 76, 116, 118, 127, 131, 173, 194, 196, 207 Whitechapel 40 Index     261 Whitehall 37, 40, 47, 61, 74, 166, 167 Williamson, Jeffrey 8, 12, 22, 234 Wilmor, William 191 winter and summer rates 209 Wise, Thomas 68, 75, 76, 92, 94, 127, 128, 144, 175, 176, 179–181 Woodward, Donald 12, 19, 20, 30, 31, 160, 211, 227, 233 working year See days worked Wren, Sir Christopher 10, 44, 50, 52–54, 56–58, 62, 65, 67–71, 81, 84, 85, 89–91, 95, 98, 100, 104, 105, 113, 114, 130, 133, 141, 142, 144, 163, 173, 199, 205, 227, 233 relationship with clients and suppliers 81, 90 ... standards, ‘welfare ratios , GDP and national output, economic growth rates, human capital or skill levels, and associated labour supply and demand.1 1By way of current example see; Van Zanden,... to projects designed and managed by Sir Christopher Wren These were large, fine, stone-built, publicly funded 25Ibid 26Ibid Also see pp 10–1 1, and pp 18–1 9, 25 0, and note p 1 3, “There can be little... with recorded wages, and no accounts.39 36McCulloch, A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical and Historical of Commerce and Commercial Navigation 37Schwarz, ‘Standard of Living , p 2 6, I surmise
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