Contested cultural heritage, helaine silverman, 2011 4011

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Contested Cultural Heritage Helaine Silverman Editor Contested Cultural Heritage Religion, Nationalism, Erasure, and Exclusion in a Global World 123 Editor Helaine Silverman Department of Anthropology University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 607 S Matthews Avenue Urbana, IL 61801, USA helaine@illinois.edu ISBN 978-1-4419-7304-7 e-ISBN 978-1-4419-7305-4 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-7305-4 Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London Library of Congress Control Number: 2010938126 © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 All rights reserved This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) Preface What a pleasure it is to write these brief remarks presenting the next volume in the publication series on cultural heritage undertaken by the Collaborative for Cultural Heritage and Museum Practices (CHAMP) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the extraordinary vision of our editor at Springer, Teresa Krauss Volume dealt with Cultural Heritage and Human Rights (Springer, 2007) Volume was concerned with Intangible Heritage Embodied (Springer, 2009) This volume, as its eponymous title indicates, considers Contested Cultural Heritage from the perspective of that which is erased, excluded, religiously laden, and politically fraught in the context of globalization today Volume 4, forthcoming under the editorship of Dr D Fairchild Ruggles, explores Heritage Cities As cultural heritage becomes increasingly (indeed, inexorably) significant across the world, the number of issues for critical analysis and, hopefully, mediation rises in tandem The literature has exploded in size and scope as my introductory essay attempts to indicate Projects are burgeoning These vary dramatically in size and scope, encompassing academic studies conducted by individual scholars or research center teams (the latter may be housed at universities or be private entities), large governmental and inter-governmental initiatives, NGOs from small and single-site or single-country-focused to regional to mega institutions such as World Monuments Fund and Global Heritage Fund, supra-governmental agencies such as UNESCO, ICOMOS, and ICAHM, and self-starting grassroots organizations The projects themselves range from theoretical to applied They may be ethnographic appraisals of a particular heritage situation (such as how people living in a particular place perceive their relationship to the local historic past), development work (such as how to rehabilitate an ancient irrigation system), politically empowering (such as assisting a historically disenfranchised group to assert land rights), religiously mediating (the work of the Department of Landscape Architecture–University of Illinois at the Indian site of Champaner-Pavagadh comes to mind), touristic (such as the multi-nation Ruta Maya and Qhapaq Ñan projects), and so on Typically, every project is challenged by the inherently contested nature of cultural heritage This volume, like the others in the series, is the product of a conference held at the University of Illinois, funded through the generosity of a number of campus sponsors, among which the Center for Global Studies is most especially thanked v vi Preface for its consistent support and encouragement since CHAMP’s founding in 2005 As with most academic conferences, not all speakers ultimately wrote up their papers for publication To the presenters at the conference leading to the present volume, I offer my sincerest thanks for their patience during the production process I trust they will be pleased with the final product Urbana, Illinois Helaine Silverman Contents Contested Cultural Heritage: A Selective Historiography Helaine Silverman The Stratigraphy of Forgetting: The Great Mosque of Cordoba and Its Contested Legacy D Fairchild Ruggles Aestheticized Geographies of Conflict: The Politicization of Culture and the Culture of Politics in Belfast’s Mural Tradition Alexandra Hartnett Blood of Our Ancestors: Cultural Heritage Management in the Balkans Michael L Galaty Re-imagining the National Past: Negotiating the Roles of Science, Religion, and History in Contemporary British Ghost Tourism Michele M Hanks Collecting and Repatriating Egypt’s Past: Toward a New Nationalism Salima Ikram National Identity Interrupted: The Mutilation of the Parthenon Marbles and the Greek Claim for Repatriation Vasiliki Kynourgiopoulou 51 69 109 125 141 155 Syrian National Museums: Regional Politics and the Imagined Community Kari A Zobler 171 Contestation from the Top: Fascism in the Realm of Culture and Italy’s Conception of the Past Alvaro Higueras 193 vii viii 10 Contents Touring the Slave Route: Inaccurate Authenticities in Bénin, West Africa Timothy R Landry 205 Carving the Nation: Zimbabwean Sculptors and the Contested Heritage of Aesthetics Lance L Larkin 233 Afterword: El Pilar and Maya Cultural Heritage: Reflections of a Cheerful Pessimist Anabel Ford 261 Subject Index 267 11 12 Contributors Anabel Ford Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA, ford@marc.ucsb.edu Alexandra Hartnett Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, a-hartnett@uchicago.edu Michael L Galaty Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Millsaps College, Jackson, MS 39210, USA, galatml@millsaps.edu Michele M Hanks Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, mhanks2@illinois.edu Alvaro Higueras Department of Arts and Humanities, American University of Rome, Rome 00195, Italy, alvarohig@yahoo.co Salima Ikram Department of Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology and Egyptology, The American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt, salimaikram@gmail.com Vasiliki Kynourgiopoulou Italy Asst Academic Dean, Cultural Experiences Abroad, University of New Haven, Rome, Italy, vicky.kynourgiopoulou@gowithcea.com Timothy R Landry Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, tlandry2@illinois.edu Lance L Larkin Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, llarkin2@illinois.edu D Fairchild Ruggles Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL 61820, USA, dfr1@illinois.edu Helaine Silverman Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, helaine@illinois.edu Kari A Zobler Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, kzobler2@illinois.edu ix Chapter Contested Cultural Heritage: A Selective Historiography Helaine Silverman Although “contested cultural heritage” has not always been specified in these words, the concept has been cogently present for at least 25 years in anthropology, archaeology, history, geography, architecture, urbanism, and tourism (to name the most obvious disciplines) and is now a framework driving much applied research in these fields internationally This is because we live in an increasingly fraught world where religious, ethnic, national, political, and other groups manipulate (appropriate, use, misuse, exclude, erase) markers and manifestations of their own and others’ cultural heritage as a means for asserting, defending, or denying critical claims to power, land, legitimacy, and so forth This introductory essay presents a selective historiography of contested cultural heritage as I perceive its development, illustrated by some of the better known cases of its instantiation and augmented by the contributions to this volume I emphasize the more tangible aspects of cultural heritage (a bias from my training as an archaeologist) [Note 1] and draw heavily from anthropological/archaeological literature where academic attention to the issues has been greatest and whose practitioners dominate the roster of authors herein Shifting the Paradigm Attention to contested cultural heritage is, fundamentally, awareness of the construction of identity and its strategic situationality and oppositional deployment—the knowledge that “self and society are not given, as fully formed, fixed, and timeless, as either integrated selves or functionally consistent structures Rather, self and society are always in production, in process .” (Bruner 1983a:2–3) This statement was revolutionary at the time it was made and came from the heart of cultural anthropology in a volume entitled Text, Play and Story: The Construction and Reconstruction of Self and Society (Bruner 1983b) Its most compelling exemplification was Bruner and Gorfain’s (1983) analysis of the dialogic narration and paradoxes of Masada, Israel’s physically dramatic and ideologically sanctified site H Silverman (B) Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA e-mail: helaine@illinois.edu H Silverman (ed.), Contested Cultural Heritage, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-7305-4_1, C Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 272 Contested cultural heritage, historiography, 1, 7–8, 9, 33–35 dynamics, intersections, 29–33 new millennium apprehensions, 10–29 heritage and politics, 24–28 illegal antiquities, 13–15 intangible heritage, 28–29 local, national, and international deployment, 20–24 manufacture, marketing, and consumption, 10–13 public outreach, 15–17 value and UNESCO, 18–20 paradigm realization, 5–9 paradigm shifting, 1–4 violence Babri Masjid/Ayodhya tragedy, Balkans War, 1991–1995, New Age Druid cultists vs site-protecting police, New Salem, Illinois, Lincoln clash, Turkish invasion of Cyprus, 1974, Contested heritage sites Babri Masjid, Ayodhya, India, Balkans, 109–122 Belfast, 69–103 Bénin, 205–229 Britain, 109–122 Cordoba, 51–65 Egypt, 141–153 El Pilar, Maya, 261–264 Greece, 155–168 Italy, 193–203 Maasai, Kenya, New Salem, Illinois, Stonehenge, England, Syria, 171–190 Zimbabwe, 233–253 Continuity IRA, 82 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 1972, 18 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage, 2003, 28 Convivencia, social harmony in Cordoba c Abd al-Rahman I, 64 al-Andalus, 64 Islamic-Christian negotiations, 65 Pact of c Umar, ca 637, 64 treaty by Ibn c As¯akir, 64 treaty of Tudmir, 713, 64 Copán, Honduras, 11, 21, 27 Subject Index Cordoba Cathedral–Mosque, archaeological remains abstract symbols, 58 aisles and apses, 57 carved column capitals, 57 crosses, 57 figural sculpture, 57 floor revealing pebble mosaic, 57 fragments of altars, 57 Islamic fragments, 58 mason’s signatures, plaster impressions, 58, 60 names inscribed, 58 Visigothic fragments, 57, 63 Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, 20 “ .Cradle of Culture, Land of Nature .”, 26 Crete, 9, 12, 27 CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship, 10 Crossroads of various cultures, see The Balkans, management of cultural heritage in Cúchulainn murals, 90, 94–96 Cultural anthropology, 1, 4, 9, 16, 28, 163, 205, 225, 249 “Cultural landscape”, Cultural objects, 14, 162, 167 Cultural patrimony, 2, 22, 162, 167–168, 171–172 Curved triangular faces, Zimbabwean artwork, 251 Cyrene, 26 D Daagbo Hounon Tomadjlehoukpon (supreme chief of Vodun), 207, 209 Dahomean kings, 210–212, 216, 229 Damascene Hall, 177–179 Dantissa (auction block), 210–211 Dark Continent, “Defending the Community”, 97 “Definitions for Cultural Heritage”, 240 Deir ez-Zor, 185–186 Demolition of churches and mosques by communist officials in Albania, 117 Department for the Repatriation of Stolen Antiquities, 145 Derry, 79, 89 De Souza, Francisco Felix (Portuguese slave trader), 208, 210–212, 214 Dhimmis, 64 Dictators, 25–26, 109–110, 116, 121, 206 Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums, Syria, 172, 179–181, 189 Subject Index Director of Arts and Crafts in the Ministry of Youth, Sport, and Culture, Zimbabwe, 241 Discovery of “Bosnian Pyramid” by Osmanagic, Semir, 117 Discovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum, 197 Disenfranchised people, 3, 5, 10, 12, 17, 23, 74, 80, 244 Disenfranchised stakeholder groups, 15–17 African Americans, 17 Australian Aboriginals, 16–17 Dissonant heritage, Divis Flat, Belfast, 100 Door of No Return, Slave Route, Bénin, 217–218, 223, 226 Doric column, Albania, 115 Drug trafficking, 80, 82, 84–85, 104 Druids, 8, 133 Dura Europus, excavations at (Syria), 176, 178 Dyrrachium, Greek colony, 115 E Easter Rising of 1916, 73, 79, 88 The Economist, 19 Ecotourism, 120–121 Edinburgh, 125–126, 131 Effendi, Hakiakine (engineer of Egyptian museum), 142 Egypt’s past, collecting and repatriating, 141–142, 152–153 iconic artifacts, 145–148 body of King Ramesses I, 145 bust of Nefertiti, 145–148 Rosetta Stone, 145–146 law and problems of trade in Pharaonic antiquities Decree of 1869, 142 Decree of 1891, 143 encouraged by Mariette, 142–143 Law 12 of 1897, 143 Law 14 of 1912, 143 Law 215 of 1951, 143 Law of 1983, 142 new law being drafted, 144 Order of 1880, 142 Ordinance of 1835, 142 repatriation of objects, 144–145 Schultz, Parry and Johnson involved in illegal trade, 144 Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Egyptian Department, 144 national identity, 150–152 connection to the past, 151–152 273 National Courthouse at Maadi, linking the contemporary to the ancient, 151 Pharaonic past used as logos in stamps, currency, newspaper mastheads, etc., 151 relocation of the statue of Ramesses II, 152 Saad Zaghloul mausoleum, 150 other artifacts calcite ducks, 144 fragments of the tomb of Seti I, 144 funerary mask, 145 mummy, 145 obelisks, 153 personal hunting ground for antiquities, 141–142 poverty and fundamentalism, arguments against restitution, 149–150 issue of fatwa, 149–150 looting via war and local/regional crisis, 150 poor museum conditions, 149 tourism, 148–149 Museum of Stolen Things, 148–149 prime source of income, 148 special displays of returned objects attracting tourists, 148–149 Ejido (Mayan national land grant system), 22 “Elgin marbles”, 157–160 Elmina Castle, Ghana, 7, 9, 206, 208, 224 El Mundo Maya, 11 El Pilar and Maya cultural heritage abundance of water, 261–262 ancient Maya region, 261–262 Chichen Itzá, 262 concept of Peace Parks, 263–264 El Pilar Archaeological Reserve for Maya Flora and Fauna, 263–264 geography, 261 iconic Castillo at Chichen Itzá (used as backdrop of NAFTA meeting in 2006), 261–262 Maya hieroglyphs connected to the present vernacular language, 263 shared cultural and natural heritage of two nations, Belize and Guatemala, 263–264 stakeholders, 263 temples, corozo palms, nuts and art, 261, 263 traditional settlements with forest gardens, 263 274 El Pilar and Maya (cont.) UNESCO’s 2001 Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, 264 UNESCO’s 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage, 264 El Pilar Archaeological Reserve for Maya Flora and Fauna, 263–264 El Salvador, 27 Ename Charter for the Interpretation of Cultural Heritage Sites (2005), 222–223, 227 English Heritage, 8–9 Eritrea, 202 Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR), 193, 202 The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property, 14 Ethnographic art, 32, 237, 239–240, 253 Euphrates River, 172, 185, 187 EUR, see Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR) European buyers of African slaves, 208, 211, 217 European Landscape Convention, Excavations, 5, 21, 56–57, 59–60, 117, 142–144, 147, 162, 165, 173, 176–180, 183, 186–187, 196–197, 199, 202–203, 215 The Excluded Past, 78 Exhibiting Cultures, F Faỗade of Qasr al-Hayr al Gharbi, Syria, 176, 178 Falls Road, West Belfast, 70, 75, 77, 81–82, 88, 90, 93, 100, 102–103 Fascism and imperial re-creation in Italy, 193–203 Fascist remodeling of classical landscapes, 201–203 Fatwa (religious legal opinion) in Egypt, 149–150 Ferdinand III of Castile, 53–54 Fine art, 32, 237, 239–240, 242–245, 247–250, 252–253 1962 First International Congress of African Culture in Rhodesia, 237 The First International Festival of Vodun Arts and Culture, 210 First “peace wall” erected, 1969, Belfast, 75 Fitzpatrick’s artwork influencing nationalist murals, 78–79, 90, 92 Flags and Emblems Act, 80 “Flow sculptures” of abstract families, 251 Fogu, Claudio, 198 Subject Index Fora of Augustus and Nerva, 202 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), 26 Forum of Trajan, 202 “Freedom Corner”, East Belfast, mural depicting Cúchulainn as an Ulster hero, 94–95 Freedom of inter-regional movement by bajraktars in Albania, 120 Free Festival, Stonehenge, 8–9 French holdings in Syria, 176 French Mandate, 1918–1946, 174, 176 French-Turkish war, 157 Frontier zone, Albania, 114–115 Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), 89 Funerary vault, 202 Futurismo, 197–198 G Gable murals, 70–71, 78, 81, 86, 100 Gaddafi, Muammar, 26 Gaelic seanachi, storytellers, 81 García, Alan, 15 General Director of Museums and Excavations, 143 General Post Office in Dublin seized, 73 Genoese traders, 24 Genographic Project, 29 Gentile, Giovanni, 197 Ghadames, 26 Ghost Cellar at Treasurer’s House, 126, 130 Ghost hunters’ narratives (Britain) conflict between Vikings and Christians, 131–133 house haunted by ghosts of the plague, 127 illicit affair between nun and monk, 134 Martindale, 130 Percy (Earl of Northumberland), 133 Reformation battles between Catholics and Protestants, 131–133 Roman ghosts, 130 Yorkshire dinner party tragedy, 127–128 Ghost hunting, 125, 127–130, 133–137 Giza Plateau, 31 Global Heritage Fund (GHF), 12–13 Global tourism industry, 12, 18, 27 God’s Crucible, 63 Gomaa, Ali, see Grand Mufti of Egypt Good Friday Agreement, 93 Gorée Island, 224 Government officials, managing and developing tourism in Albania, 121 Subject Index Graffiti, 79–80 Granada, 54–55, 57, 63 Grand Mufti of Egypt, 149–150 Grattan, Henry (Anglo-Irish elite), 73 The Great Mosque of Cordoba c Abd al-Rahman I, architect of, 51 al-Qaeda, 55–56 Andalusian Islamic culture, 54 Arab Muslims, 51 archaeology, 56 acquisition of Church of St John, 56 existence of Church of San Vicente, 56–57 Hernández’s excavations justifying legitimacy of Church’s possession, 59 Visigothic and Roman materials, 57 architectural narrative, 51–54 blue and gold glass tesserae, 53 Cities of Light: The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain (video), 63 expansion, 52–53 exterior view, 55 God’s Crucible, 63 insertion of gothic cathedral choir, 54–55 “Moorish” themes, 63 Moroccan-style tea houses, 63 mosaic mihrab, 52–53 The Ornament of the World, 63 plan of stages from 786–1010, 53 prayer hall, 52 qibla wall, 52–53 roof, 52 social harmony, 63–64 spas with zellij tile and cusped arches, Alhambra style, 63 voussoirs, 53 Ayman al-Zawahri, video release on reconquest, 55 Bishop’s directive, 2007, 59 Cathedral–Mosque, archaeological remains abstract symbols, 58 aisles and apses, 57 carved column capitals, 57 crosses, 57 figural sculpture, 57 floor revealing pebble mosaic, 57 fragments of altars, 57 Islamic fragments, 58 mason’s signatures, plaster impressions, 58, 60 names inscribed, 58 275 Visigothic fragments, 57, 63 Cathedral–Mosque of Cordoba, 52 courtyard, 61 exterior view, 55 interior of original prayer hall, 52 mihrab, 53–54 Church’s mission to safeguard and inspire culture and art, 59–60 Church–Synagogue “El Tránsito”, Toledo, 61–62 acquisition by Spanish government, 62 conversion into church, Church of San Benito, 62 Hebrew and Arabic inscriptions, 62 Samuel Halevi Abulafia, patron, 61–62 shield of Castile, 62 stucco ornament, 62 women’s gallery turned into museum explaining Iberian Jewish life, 62 concept of originality, 63 conquest by Ferdinand III of Castile, 53–54 chapels and burial spaces added, 54 conversion of mosque into church, 53–54 mudejarstyle pantheon for Castilian royalty, 54 convivencia, social harmony in Cordoba c Abd al-Rahman I, 64 al-Andalus, 64 dhimmis, 64 Islamic-Christian negotiations, 65 Pact of c Umar, ca 637, 64 treaty by Ibn c As¯akir, 64 treaty of Tudmir, 713, 64 evacuation of Muslims and Jews, 54 Franco regime, 56 Hispano-Islamic identity, 55 Hispano-Umayyad rule, 51 increasing immigrants and diversity after Spain’s entry into European Union in 1986, 60–61 Islamic Council’s petition to Pope John Paul for the right to pray, 2004/2006, 56–57 minaret demolished and replaced by larger tower, 58–59 Museo de San Vicente, 58–59 museological perspectives, 57–60 historical study overseen by Manuel Nieto Cumplido (canon-priest/archivist), 58 Pedro Marfíl (archaeologist), 58 276 The Great Mosque of Cordoba (cont.) 1985 Spanish Historic Heritage Law No 16, 57–58 stone inscription of minaret location, 58–59 owned by Catholic Church, 57–58 recent construction of mosques in Corboda, 57 Roman and Byzantine influence, 52 social and economic issues of repossession, 60–61 Great Rebellion of 1925–1927, 176 Great War, 198 Great Zimbabwe ruins, 233–234 Greek national identity, 2, 156, 158 Ground zero, 7, 17 See also 9/11 Incident influencing paramilitary murals GSA, see United States Government Services Administration (GSA) Guatemala, 13, 21, 27, 29, 33, 261–264 Guayaquil, 23 H Hague Convention, 15 Haj, 150 Hapsburg kings in Spain, 54 Harpers Ferry National Park, 16 Harry Potter, 138 Hashemite regime, 11 Haunted ghost walks, 125–127, 132–134, 137–138 Haunted (haunted house) in York, 126 Hawass, Dr Zahi (Director General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities), 145–148, 153 Herculaneum, discovery of, 197 Heritage and politics, 24–28 Egypt, 25 France, 27–28 Greece, 26 Istanbul, 24–25 Italy, 25–26 Saudi Arabia, 28 Heritage Management, 10 Heritage sites, see World Heritage Sites Heritage structure factors, in the Balkans, 110–114 agency Bodnar’s view, 111 Bourdieu’s concept of, 110–111 Subject Index distinction between doxa and opinion, 110–111 helpful in explaining individuals influence on heritage making, 110 improvising cultural rules, 111 jazz musicians’ compositions, 111 “universe of discourse”, 111 “universe of the undiscussed”, 110–111 history archaeological record, 113 built environment and landscape, 113 written documents, 113 imagination, 112 Appadurai’s concept, 112 collective sense of, 112 Giddens’ “theory of structuration”, 112 landscape, 112 new heritage tropes, 112 memory found or created, 112 landscape-centered, ethno-archaeology, 113 Shackel’s and Fewster’s argument, 112–113 national identity and ethnic origins according to Anderson, 113 dynamic experience, 113 strong dependance on the past, 113 Hernández’s excavations justifying legitimacy of Church’s possession, Cordoba, 59 Heterodoxy, 111, 113, 119, 121 High Commissioner’s decrees of 1926 and 1928, Syria, 176 Hill forts in Albania, 114–115, 122 Hindus, 8, 17–18, 135–136 and Muslims, tension, 17 See also Babri Masjid, Ayodhya, India Hispano-Umayyad rule, 51 “History is written by the winner”, nationalist mural, 70–71 Hitler, Adolf, 147 Holy Cross Primary School, Ardoyne, Belfast, 89 Home rule in 1880s, 73 Honduras, 21, 27 Howard University, Hoxha’s “bunkerization”, 116–117 Hunger strike, Belfast, 79–81, 104 Hybrid cultures, 19, 114–115, 157–158, 160, 164, 168 Hypogeum of Yarhai from Palmyra, 178 Subject Index I ICCROM, see International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) ICOMOS, see International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) Idlib Regional Museum, 181 Illegal antiquities, 10, 61, 80, 93, 101, 142–145, 143, 163, 168, 261 Illegal antiquities, ownership, and nationalism, 13–15 Bamiyan Buddhas, destruction by Taliban, 15 Egypt, 14 Greece, 14 Iraq National Museum, 15 Machu Picchu, Peru, 14 refusal to return cultural objects, 14–15 St Lawrence Island, 14 Illicit Trafficking of Antiquities, 13, 163 Illyrian tribes, 114–116 The Imperial Fora, 199, 202 Inca heritage, 15, 23, 25 Incarceration, Belfast, 80–81, 85, 104 9/11 Incident influencing paramilitary murals in Belfast, 95 The Independent, 70, 93 Indigenous peoples, 3–4, 11, 14, 16–17, 19–21, 23, 253 INLA, see Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) Inscription of Enver Hoxha’s first name on a hillside in Albanian town of Berat, 116 Intangible heritage, 28–29 conundrums of UNESCO convention, 29 Maya of Guatemala, 29 UNESCO’s promulgation, 28 Intangible practices, 2, 10, 14, 23, 28, 34, 162, 240–241, 241, 250, 253, 264 Interior of original prayer hall, Great Mosque of Cordoba, 52 International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), 222 International community, 15, 163, 207, 215, 222–223, 236 International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), 21, 222, 227, 240–241 International Journal of Cultural Property, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 277 International Journal of Intangible Heritage, 28 Interpol, 145 Invented tradition, 2, 160, 223, 241 See also Intangible practices Invention, 2, 35, 63, 241 IPLO, see Irish People’s Liberation Organization (IPLO) IRA, see Irish Republican Army (IRA) Iraklio Museum, 12 Iraq Museum, 150 Irish Famine of 1845–1849, An Gorta Mór, 87 Irish National Liberation Army (INLA), 79, 82 Irish People’s Liberation Organization (IPLO), 82 Irish Republican Army (IRA), 79–80, 82, 85, 87, 89, 91, 97, 100, 103 Islamic-Christian negotiations, 65 Isolation, Shala’s primary survival mechanism in Albania, 75, 119–120 Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 180–181 Italy, the past and cultural heritage in, 193–194 ancient heritage and origins, 196–197 archaeological area of Rome, illustration, 200 discovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum, 197 fascism, and philosophies at the birth of, 197–198 Attualismo, 198 Futurismo, 198 management, 198–203 phase I, liberal period and integration of past landscapes, 199–201 phase II, fascist remodeling of classical landscapes, 201–203 nationalism, 195–196 objects found during looting-like sprees in Roman villas, 199 Pope’s lack of significance, 199 Rome, as case study sample in valuing cultural heritage, 194–195 valuation of, 194–195 Italy–Syria initiative, 180–181 J Jam‘iyyat al-‘Adiyyat (Archaeological Society in Syria), 182 Jews, 25, 54, 62, 64 Jokhang Temple, 26 Jordanian heritage bureaucracy, 11 Jordanian policy, 11 278 Journal of Field Archaeology, 13 Journal of Social Archaeology, 10 Journal of the World Archaeological Congress, 10 K Kahlo Museum, 19 Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit (oral customary law code), 118, 121 Kelly, Gerard (Mo Chara) and Devenney’s paintings, 90–92 Kennewick Man, Kérékou rule, 206–207 Khmer Rouge regime, 22 Kill All Taigs (KAT), 104 King Adandozan, 210–211 King Akhenaten, 147 King Gezo (king of Dahomey), 210–211 King of Italy, 195, 199 King of Savoy, 195 King Ramesses I, 145 King Ramesses II, 152 Knossos, 12 Korean War in 1950, 186 Kosova, Albania, 114, 119–120 Kuhnian paradigm shift, L La Paz, 23 La Ruta Maya, 11, 27 Lefebvre, Gustave, 147 Legitimation of Irish culture, 93–95 Lenca, western Honduras ethnic group, 27 Leptis Magna, 26 Liberal period and integration of past landscapes in Italy, 199–201 Libya, 25–26, 202 Lincoln, Abraham, Living TV, 126 Local/local–national disputes, 17 Local, national, and international deployment, 20–24 Angkor, 22 disparity in Cuzco, 23 Hassan Fathy’s plan for Gournis, 20–21 interconnectedness, 24 issue of land rights, 22 2001 Land Law, 22 local–national conflict in Bolivia, 23 San Biritute, carved monolith, 23 tourist massacre at Temple of Hatshepsut, 20 Long Kesh, prison, 80, 91–93 Subject Index Looting and trafficking, 10, 13–15, 15, 20–21, 85, 118, 142, 144, 150, 163, 199, 261 Looting in Apollonia’s necropolis, 118 Lord Rama, Louvre Museum, France, 14, 144, 153, 173, 175–176, 176 Lovemore, James (Zimbabwean sculptor), 245–247 Lower Shankill mural dedicated to Oliver Cromwell, Belfast, 99–100 Lowland Scottish “undertakers” cruelty, 72–73 Loyalist murals of balaclava-clad gunman, 83 depicting a Scottish piper, 94 depicting William of Orange defeating King James at the battle of the Boyne, 78–79 of “Eddie”, 84 in Lower Shankill, Belfast, 97 Loyalists vs unionists, Belfast, 77 Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF), 82, 85 Luxor, 20, 145 LVF, see Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) M Maasai, Kenya, “Macedonia—Timeless”, TV promotional ad, 26 Machu Picchu, Peru, 14, 26 Madrasa al ‘Adiliya, 175 Maison des Esclaves, Sénégal, 206, 228 Mallakastra Regional Archaeological Project (MRAP), 115, 117–118 The Mandate, 173–174, 176–186, 189 Manifesto Futurista, 198 Manufacture, marketing, and consumption of heritage sites, 11–12, 12, 18 “creating Copán”, 11 Crete, 12 Cuzco, Peru, 12 Ireland, 11–12 Jordan road signage, 11 Maya communities, 10–11 Mochica Village, Lambayeque, Peru, 11 Pharaonic Village, Cairo, Egypt, 11 Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China, 11 Marfíl, Pedro (archaeologist), 56, 58 Mari, excavations at (Syria), 176–177 Marinetti, Filippo, 193, 197–198 Market & Opinion Research International, Ltd (MORI), 167 Markets of Trajan, 202 Subject Index Masada, 1–2, 34 Mass Grave Memorial, Slave Route, Bénin, 214, 220 Mausoleum of Augustus, 202 Maya communities, 10–11, 21, 27, 35, 263 hieroglyphs, 263 landscape, 11 and non-Maya, dichotomy, 27 tours, 11, 27, 262–263 Mayers Ranch, Kenya, The Maze, 80–81 McEwen, Frank, 234–235, 237–239, 241, 248–250 McGuinness, Martin (Deputy First Minister), 80 “Men-with-guns” paramilitary archetype, depicting violence of the past, 70 Mercenaries Albania, 119–120 Belfast, 72 Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Egyptian Department, 144 Mexico, 19–21, 27, 35, 262–263 Michael Carlos Museum, Atlanta, 144 Mihrab, Cordoba, 53–54 Ministry of Religious Endowments, Syria, 176–177 Misconceptions of murals, 101–102 Mochica Village, Lambayeque, Peru, 11 Montenegro, 114, 119 Monument to the Unknown Soldier, 151 “Moorish” themes, Cordoba, 63 MORI, see Market & Opinion Research International, Ltd (MORI) Moroccan-style tea houses, Cordoba, 63 Most Haunted, TV program, 138 MRAP, see Mallakastra Regional Archaeological Project (MRAP) Multi-ethnic states, 26–27 Mural(s) in Ardoyne, 85 of balaclava-clad gunman, 83 of Bobby Sands, 81–82 Cluan Place, 98, 101 commemorating deceased IRA volunteers, 87 Cúchulainn, 95 of “Eddie”, 84 for Frank Gillen Community Centre, 91 Guernica, 103 in Lower Shankill, 97 Mo Chara, 92 279 Red Hand of Ulster, 99 replication of Guernica by Devenny and Ervine, 102–103 in the temple of Dagun, 210 of William of Orange, 78 Musée de l’Homme, 27 Musée des Arts d’Afrique et d’Océanie, 27 Musée du Quai Branly, 27–28 Museo de San Vicente, 58–60 masons’ signatures, plaster impressions, 58, 60 plan of mosque, 59 Museums and Communities, Muslims, 11, 51, 54, 56–57, 61–62, 64, 149, 152 Mussolini, Benito, 25, 31, 194–195, 197–198, 201–203 Mythico-history, 132–133 N NAGPRA, see Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) Naples, 196–197 “The Nara Document on Authenticity”, 222 National Art Gallery, Zimbabwe, 241 National Courthouse at Maadi, linking the contemporary to the ancient, 151 National Gallery of Zimbabwe, 234, 237, 241, 245 National Geographic Society, 27, 29 National Geographic Traveler, 126 National Historic Landmark, National identity of Egypt, 150–152 connection to the past, 151–152 National Courthouse at Maadi, linking the contemporary to the ancient, 151 Pharaonic past used as logos in stamps, currency, newspaper mastheads, etc., 151 relocation of the statue of Ramesses II, 152 Saad Zaghloul mausoleum, 150 Nationalism in Italy, 195–196 Nationalist murals, 69–71, 76, 80, 88–90 Nationalist Party approach, 179 National Museum of Aleppo, Syria, 172, 182–185 Aleppo housing the Archaeological Society (Jam‘iyyat al-‘Adiyyat), 182 architectural design and renovations, 183184 faỗade replica of the Tell Halaf/Guzana portico, 183 280 National Museum of Aleppo, Syria (cont.) first curated by Ploix de Retrou, 182 focus on excavated materials from the north alone, 183–185 location, 182 the Mandate, 182–183 prehistoric, pre-Islamic, Hellenistic, and Islamic material, 183 National Museum of Damascus, 172, 174–183, 189 National museums of Syria, map, 172 National Trust, 126, 130 National Vodun Day, 207, 209, 218–219 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 3, 6, 13–14 Native American Indian, 6, 13 Natural beauty of Albania, 120 Nazca, Peru, 25 Nazi death camps, Nedlaw Sculpture Forum, 241 Neo-Pagans, 133 New Acropolis Museum, 31, 159, 164–167 blend of neoclassical and ancient architecture, 167 designed by Tschumi and Fotiadis, 164 entrance, 165 mirroring ancient and contemporary architectural praxis, 164–165 Parthenon gallery, 165–166 New direction in mural art, 85 New millennium apprehensions, 10–29 heritage and politics, 24–28 illegal antiquities, 13–15 intangible heritage, 28–29 local, national, and international deployment, 20–24 manufacture, marketing, and consumption, 10–13 public outreach, 15–17 value and UNESCO, 18–20 New World, 7, 72, 213, 215, 218 New York City, 5, 7, 141, 153, 239, 248 The New York Times, 14–15 Niagara Falls, 145 Nile River, 21 Nine Years War, 1594–1603, 73 “Nofri”, cultural symbol of Berlin, 147 Norbulingka, 26 Northern Albanian tribes, 118–120 Northern vs southern Albanian tribes, 119–120 Subject Index O Obama, Barack, 26 Oblivion, 2, 18 O’Connell, Daniel, 73 Orange Order, 78 Ordinance of 1835, 142, 153 The Ornament of the World, 63 Orthodoxy, Albania, 111, 114–117, 119–121 Orti (gardens), 196 Ortiz-Torres, Rubén, Mexican muralist, 86, 104 Ottoman Empire, 24–25, 115, 119, 141, 157 “Ouidah ’92”, 210, 212, 229 Ouidah, Bénin, 206–215, 217–226, 228–229 Outline of a Theory of Practice, 110 P Pact of c Umar, ca 637, 64 The Palatine Hill, 196, 199, 202 Palestinian intifada, 2001, 11 Palmyra, excavations at (Syria), 176, l 178 Pan-Indian activism, 27 Papal States, 194–196 Parade routes, Belfast, 78–79 Parade season, 77–79, 83, 85, 100 Paradigm shift, 1–9 Bruner and Gorfain analysis of Masada, 1–2 dissonant heritage, Elmina Castle, evidence, abused minority group claims, African burial ground, Colonial Williamsburg, 5–6 Kennewick Man, Handler’s study on Quebec, Herzfeld’s study on Greece, Lowenthal’s study on Western past, museums, Nazi death camps, Paramilitary murals, 70, 72, 83–85, 95–96, 100–101 Paranormal activity, see British ghost tourism, re-imagining the national past Paranormal Channel, 126 Parnell, Charles Stewart, 73 “Partage”, 143–144, 147 Parthenon Gallery, 165 Parthenon Marbles, 155, 166–168 aquired by Lord Elgin, “Elgin Marbles”, 157–158 canons of artistic supremacy, 158 colonial hubris, 159–162 Subject Index depicting European knowledge of ancient art and architecture, 158 folk stories of spirits living in sculptures as human beings petrified by magicians, 157–158 frieze, caryatid, metopes, parts of columns, pedimental figures, etc., 157 Greece now actively committed to limit antiquity theft, 163 Butrint return, statues of Artemis and Apollo, 163 return of five other classical pieces in 2003, 163 Greek claim for restitution, 158–159 Britain’s refusal, 159 diplomatic negotiations, 158–159 Wilson’s arguments defending against, 160–161 Greeks considered unworthy of cultural heritage, 160–161, 163 historical consciousness and national identity, 156–157 “missing link” of cultural past, 158 nations, stakeholders, and memory, 162–163 New Acropolis Museum, 164–166 blend of neoclassical and ancient architecture, 167 designed by Tschumi and Fotiadis, 164 entrance, 165 mirroring ancient and contemporary architectural praxis, 164–165 Parthenon gallery, 165–166 reflection of the Parthenon on the main gallery, 166 Parthenon marbles, 157–158 promoting co-operation between British and Greek curatorship vs claims of ownership, 166–168 re-creation of classical Greek with neoclassical architecture in Athens, 159 reverse archaeology, 163 sacred and essential symbols, 160 The Past Is A Foreign Country, Peace Parks initiative, 33, 263–264 Pearse, Patrick, 73 Pedro I (Pedro the Cruel), 61–62 Penal Laws, 73, 79, 87 Pera/Beyoglu district, Istanbul, 24–25 Permanent Committee of Antiquities, 143 Petty, William, 1623–1687, 76 281 Pharaonic antiquities law and problems of trade Decree of 1869, 142 Decree of 1891, 143 encouraged by Mariette, 142–143 Law 12 of 1897, 143 Law 14 of 1912, 143 Law 215 of 1951, 143 Law of 1983, 142 new law being drafted, 144 Order of 1880, 142 Ordinance of 1835, 142 repatriation of objects, 144–145 Schultz, Parry and Johnson involved in illegal trade, 144 Pharaonic past used as logos in stamps, currency, newspaper mastheads, etc., 151 The Phoenicians, 26, 234 Piano di Sistematizzazione della Zona Monumentale Riservata di Roma (Management Plan for the Reserved Monumental Area of Rome), 199 Piano Regolatore Generale (PRG), 199–200, 202 Piazza del Popolo, 199 Piazza Venezia, 194–195, 200 The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display, Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI), 86 The Politics of Public Culture, Pompeii, discovery of, 197 Popularity of ghosts, 125–126 “The Portland Vase”, 159 Potala Palace, 26 Prayer hall, Cordoba Cathedral–Mosque, 52 Prevalence of Irish language in republican murals, 92–93 PRG, see Piano Regolatore Generale (PRG) Primitivist art, 244–245, 248 Protestants, 30, 73–74, 93, 96–97, 100, 131, 133 Protestants vs Catholics, 30, 74–75 Protestant Ascendency shaken in early twentieth century, 73–74 Protestant “theatrical calendar”, 79 Provisional IRA, 80, 82 Pseudoscience, 32, 130 PSNI, see Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) Public Archaeology, 10 282 Public outreach, cultural heritage, 15–17 African Americans, poorly served, 17 Australian Aboriginal stakeholders, 16–17 old, mud-coated sign, Harpers Ferry National Park, 16 Q Qasr al-Hayr al Gharbi, Syria, 176, 178 Qibla wall, Cathedral–Mosque, Cordoba, 52–53 The Queen as an ultimate national symbol, 93, 135 Queen of Sheba, 234 R Raqqa Museum, 172, 185–188 chronologically organized, 187 evidenced by Tell B¯ı’a, 185 exterior view, 186 focuses on future growth and development, 187–188 Korean War in 1950, resulting in cotton cultivation, 186 location, 185 material being usurped by Aleppo or Damascus Museums, 186–187 migration of Syrians from Deir ez-Zor, 185–186 model of future, 188 origin and hierarchical establishments down the ages, 185–186 Raqqa, trading-post between Bedouin and townspeople, 187 Tabqa Dam Project, 186 Real IRA, 82, 103 Re-contextualization, 171, 173, 189 Red Hand Commandos, 82, 99 Red Hand Defenders, 82 “Red hand of Ulster”, mural, 98–99 Reformation battles between Catholics and Protestants, 131–133 “Re-Imaging Communities Programme”, Belfast, 95–96, 102 Religion and nationalism contestation, 29–30 Bénin, West Africa, 30 Catholics vs Moslems, Spain, 29–30 Catholics vs Protestants, Ireland, 30 Religion and politics, Belfast, 75–77 Religious conflicts in Britain, 131–133 Religious prohibition and death penalty in Albania, 117 Relocation of physical structures in Albania, 115 Relocation of the statue of Ramesses II, 152 Subject Index Removal of the Velia Hill for construction of via dell’Impero, 1932, 201 “Renovation and Reorganization of the National Museum of Damascus and Rehabilitation of the Citadel of Damascus”, Italy–Syria initiative, 180–181 Repatriation, 14, 23–24, 31, 95, 144–147, 149–150, 153, 155–168 Repatriation requests by Africa for the Bénin bronzes, 163 by Egypt for Rosetta Stone and bust of Nefertiti, 163 Greece’s claim for Parthenon Marbles, 158–159 by Hungary for the Crown of St Stephen, 163 Repository of ghosts (England), 136 Republican graffiti, 80 movement, 73, 86, 104 murals/muralists, 73, 77, 80–81, 85–92, 96, 98, 104 Republic of Macedonia, 26 Restitution, see Repatriation Retribalization and radical reorientation in Albania, 121 Reverse archaeology, 163 Revolutionary War-era Virginia, Rhodesia, see Zimbabwean sculptors Rhodesia Herald, 238 Rhodes National Gallery, see National Gallery of Zimbabwe “The Rokeby Venus”, 159 Roman and Byzantine influence in Cordoba, 52 Roman Forum, 199, 202 Roman ghosts, 130 Rosetta Stone, 14, 30–31 debate of ownership, 146 discovered and taken by Napoleon’s soldiers, 145 request for repatriation, 146 seized and shifted to the British Museum after French defeat, 145 translation of scripts written on, 145–146 “Route of the Maya” tours, 27 Royal palace of Daagbo Hounon, 207 Royal Tombs of Sipán Museum, Peru, 11 Royal Uester Constabulary (RUC), 86 Ruta Maya, 11, 27 Subject Index S SAA Bulletin, Saad Zaghloul mausoleum, 150 Sabratha, 26 Sadat, President Anwar, 151 Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, 233, 240, 253 San Biritute (precolumbian Ecuadorian carved monolith), 23 Sarajevo, Albania, 117 Saudi Arabia, 28 “Saving Sites By Transforming Lives”, 20 Scots–Ulster Presbyterians, 77 Sculpture at Tengenenge on pedestals, forest artwork, 236 Sculpture industry and politics (Rhodesia), 237–239 Sectarian military activity, Belfast, 82 Select Committee of the House of Commons, 157 Selective erosion, September 11 attack, 11, 95 Service des Antiquités, 1920, 176, 183 Settlers attracted by industrial revolution, Belfast, 74 Seville, 54–55, 57 Shala people, Albania, 118–120 Shala Valley Project (SVP), 118, 122 Shambles, York, 127, 134, 138 Shankill Road, 75, 80, 83–84, 94, 99 Shipment of Catholics as slaves, 72 Shkodër, Albania, 119–120 Shona sculpture, 31–32, 234, 237, 241–242, 245, 248–250, 252–253 Siege of Derry, 1689, 77–78 Slave coast, 206 The Slave Route, Bénin, West Africa authenticity, 223–227 authority, 226–227 originality, 225–226 verisimilitude, 224–225 memory, social constructions of, 205–208 African American tourists exploring through “roots tourism”, 206–207 “Black Atlantic”, 206 enslaved Africans at Elmina Castle, 208 Kérékou rule discouraging tourists, 206–207 National Vodun Day, 207 Ouidah, formerly the largest slaving port, 207 royal palace of Daagbo Hounon, 207 slave sites, 206 283 slaves ported mainly to Brazil, 208 slave traders, 208 trans-Atlantic slave trade, 207 Vodun, attracting tourists, 207 past events and present disruptions, 221–223 heritage ownership, 222 tourist-guide frustrations, 222–223 performing the Slave Route, 210–219 “auction block”, 211–212, 220 Dantissa, auction block, 211–212 de Souza’s barracoons, 214, 220 Door of No Return, 217–218 emotional rememberings of the past, 218–220 Mass Grave Memorial, 220 sculptures, 212–214 Tree of Forgetting, 213 Tree of Return, 215–217, 220 village of Zoungbodji, 213–214, 220–221 Zomaï, 214–215, 220–221 Slave Route Project, 208–210 local government and UNESCO support, 208–209 Vodun, tourist attraction, 209–210 Slave Route Project, Bénin, West Africa, 208–210 Soapstone bunker ashtrays in Albania, 116 The Social Life of Things, 223 Society for American Archaeology, Spas, 63 “Spirit Ancestor”, sculptural artwork, 242 Spoliation, 52, 173, 189 St Lawrence Island, 14 St Louis Art Museum, 145 St Margaret of York, 134 Stone houses (zimbabwes), 233–234, 240 Stone sculpture industry, 234, 236, 240, 252 St Patrick’s Cathedral, Belfast, 100 Superiority of science over religion, 128–129 Supreme Council of Antiquities, 144–145, 145, 151, 153 Sventramenti (gutting), 201–202 SVP, see Shala Valley Project (SVP) Sykes–Picot agreement, 171 Symbolism in murals, 96 Synagogue of Dura Europus, 178 Syria, national museums in, 171–172 future progress and modernity, 188–190 history of, 171–174 colonization by the Ottomans and French, 171 284 Syria, national museums (cont.) declared as sovereign nation in 1946, 171, 174 foreign expeditions tapping Syria’s antiquities, 172 museums, vehicle of knowledge and identity, 174 museum system originated by nationalist intellectuals, 171 map showing locations of national museums, 172 National Museum of Damascus al-majma‘al-‘ilmi al-‘arabi (Arab Academy), 175 Ba’th Party, 180 Bloc Party and Nationalist Party approach, 179 Classical and Byzantine material, 177, 179–180 community outreach activities, 180–181 Damascene Hall, 177, 179 Damascus, one of world’s oldest cities and capital of Syrian Arab Republic, 174 discovery and excavation, 176 focus on Islamic material, 175–176 French Mandate, 1918–1946, 174, 176 Great Rebellion of 1925–1927, 176 High Commissioner’s decrees of 1926 and 1928, shifting control of Arab Academy under French direction, 176 Italy–Syria initiative, 180–181 location, 175 Madrasa al ‘Adiliya, 175 printed guide, 1952, 179 sculpture garden, café, and gift shop, 180 Service des Antiquités, 1920, 176 spatial inadequacy resulting in construction of new building, 176–177 synagogue of Dura Europus, 178 tourist audiences, 180–181 regional museums, 181–188 National Museum of Aleppo, 182–185 Raqqa Museum, 185–188 Sykes–Picot agreement, 171 T Tabqa Dam Project, 186 Tadrart Acacus, 26 “Taigs”, 104 Subject Index Technoscience spirituality, 137 Tell el-Amarna, 147 Tell Halaf/Guzana portico, faỗade replica of, 183 Temple of Dagun, wall mural, 210 Temple of Hatshepsut, 20 Temples in Albania, 115 Terrorism, 30, 55, 70, 81, 83, 85–87, 95, 101 Text, Play and Story: The Construction and Reconstruction of Self and Society, Theth, Albania, 120 Tiber River, 199 Tiwanaku, 23, 26 Tolerance, British, 134–135 Tomb of Seti I, 144 Tone, Theobald Wolfe, 73 Totalitarian dictatorship in Albania, 116, 121 Tourist art, 242–245, 247–249, 253 “Tourist/tribal art”, 244–245 Trading of guns and ammunitions in Albania, 120 Traditional art, 32, 121, 178, 189, 237, 240, 242, 244–245, 250, 263 Trajan, 199, 202 Trans-Atlantic slave trade, 206–207, 209–210, 214, 217, 219–220, 224–225, 227–229 Treaty by Ibn c As¯akir, 64 Treaty of Tudmir, 713, 64 Tree of Forgetting, Slave Route, Bénin, 213, 215–216, 223 Tree of Return, Slave Route, Bénin, 215–217, 220, 225 Tribal councils in Albania, 121 Tribal oral customary law code, Albania, 118, 121 Tribal system in Shala, almost extinct due to communism, 120 “Triumph of defeat”, 80 “The Troubles”, 69, 74, 77, 79–80 Tuatha de Danann, 90 Tudor and Cromwellian reconquests, 72 Turkey, 2, 8, 24–25, 157, 161, 176, 185 U UCLA, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) UDA, see Ulster Defense Association (UDA) UDR, see Ulster Defense Regiment (UDR) UFF, see Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF) Ulster Defense Association (UDA), 82, 84–85, 89, 94, 98–99, 101, 104 Subject Index Ulster Defense Regiment (UDR), 82, 97 Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), 79, 82, 84, 99 “Ulster People Take Stand Against Republican Tyranny”, 97 Ulster Scots, 93–95, 99 Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), 82, 85, 94, 98–99 Ulster Young Militants (UYM), 82, 99 Umayyad dynasty, 51–52, 174, 177, 185 UNESCO, 4, 7, 10, 13, 15, 18–20, 22, 24, 26–30, 33–35, 58, 147, 158, 162–163, 182, 208–209, 217, 222–224, 226–229, 233, 240–241, 250, 253, 264 UNESCO’s promulgations 1970 Convention for the Protection of Antiquities, 163 1972 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 18 2001 Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, 28, 264 2002 Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, 162 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage, 28, 264 Unionists, 77, 98, 100 Union Jack, 78, 80, 93, 100 United Irishmen, 73, 104 United States Congress, United States Government Services Administration (GSA), Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, 2001, 28, 162, 264 University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), 20 UVF, see Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) UYM, see Ulster Young Militants (UYM) V Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt, 20 Value and UNESCO, 18–20 Mexico, heritage sites, 19–20 Pressouyre’s contradiction, 18 protecting buildings vs human values, 19 “universal” authority, contestation, 20 World Heritage Convention, 18 World Heritage List, 19 World Heritage Sites, 18–19 Vatican museum, 196–197, 202 Via dei Fori Imperiali, 201–202 Via della Conciliazione, 202 Via dell’Impero, 200–201 285 Vikings, 99, 131–133, 135–136 Village of Zoungbodji, Bénin, 213–217, 220–222 Visigothic and Roman materials, Cordoba, 57 Visoko, Bosnia, 32, 117–118 Vodun, 30, 207, 209–212, 218–219, 229 Vodun Dagun, priest, 211 Voussoirs, Cathedral–Mosque of Cordoba, 52–53 W WAC, see World Archaeological Congress (WAC) Walk of Repentance, Bénin, 209–210 Wall mural, temple of Dagun, 210 Wiccans, 133 Wierdos, William III of Orange (King Billy), 1650–1702, 73, 78 “Witchdoctor”, sculptural artwork, 242 World Archaeological Congress (WAC), 2–4, 35 World Heritage Centre, 19 World Heritage Convention, 4, 18–19, 34 World Heritage List (WHL), 7, 18–19, 26, 34 World Heritage Sites, 8, 18–19, 22–23, 25–26, 59, 222, 240 World Monuments Fund, 20 World-systems theory, 119 World War I, 144, 173–174, 197 World War II, 116, 147, 179, 201, 203 Y Yale University, 14 YCV, see Young Citizens’ Volunteers (YCV) York, most haunted city in the world (BBC report), 125–127, 129–134, 136, 138 York Minster, 127, 138 Young Citizens’ Volunteers (YCV), 82 Yucatán Peninsula, 21 Z Zellij tile and cusped arches, spas Alhambra style in Cordoba, 63 Zimbabwean sculptural heritage art market complications, 242–244 codified cultural heritage, 240–241 fine art vs ethnographic art debate, 239–240 cultural heritage linking modern and ancient artwork, 239–240 McEwen’s support and failings, 239 heritage not carved in stone, 250–253 286 Zimbabwean sculptural heritage (cont.) historical background, 233–236 British colonial period, 234–235 called Rhodesia before independence, 234–236 flourishing center, 233–234 Shona civilization, 234 soapstone birds stolen by Europeans, 234–235 struggle for indigenous nationalism, 236 Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), 235–236 UN sanctions, 235–236 modernism vs postmodernism, 248–249 modernism vs tradition, 244–248 ruins of Great Zimbabwe, 233–234 Subject Index sculpture industry and politics, 237–239 artistic battle for legitimacy, 238 criticism of contemporary stone sculpture, 238 1962 First International Congress of African Culture in Rhodesia, 237 key component, 237 McEwen’s support and failings, 237–239, 241 Parliamentary debates over closure of National Gallery, 238 Zimbabwean stone sculpture movement, 233, 238, 240–243, 250 Zimbabwe: Talking Stones (TV documentary), 237 Zomaï, 214–215, 220 Zomaï enclosure, 214–215 .. .Contested Cultural Heritage Helaine Silverman Editor Contested Cultural Heritage Religion, Nationalism, Erasure, and Exclusion in a Global World 123 Editor Helaine Silverman... Illinois Helaine Silverman Contents Contested Cultural Heritage: A Selective Historiography Helaine Silverman The Stratigraphy of Forgetting: The Great Mosque of Cordoba and Its Contested. .. IL 61801, USA, kzobler2@illinois.edu ix Chapter Contested Cultural Heritage: A Selective Historiography Helaine Silverman Although contested cultural heritage” has not always been specified
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