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Consuming Extreme Sports Psychological Drivers and Consumer Behaviours of Extreme Athletes Francesco Raggiotto Consuming Extreme Sports Francesco Raggiotto Consuming Extreme Sports Psychological Drivers and Consumer Behaviours of Extreme Athletes Francesco Raggiotto University of Udine Udine, Italy ISBN 978-3-030-40126-9 ISBN 978-3-030-40127-6 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-40127-6 (eBook) © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations Cover illustration: © Harvey Loake This Palgrave Pivot imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Contents The Extreme Sports Phenomenon Introduction: An Exploration of Extreme Sports from a Consumer Perspective Extreme Sports: From Dust to Glory 2.1 Defining Extreme Sports 2.2 Evolutionary Trajectories of Extreme Sports 2.3 The Popularization of Extreme Sports 2.4 Postmodernity and the Consumption of Extreme Sports Psychological Perspectives on Extreme Sports 3.1 Sensation-Seeking Theory 3.2 Reversal Theory 3.3 Edgework Theory 3.4 Flow Theory Conclusion References 5 10 11 13 15 17 21 24 25 26 v vi Contents Live (and Spend?) to Tell: An Investigation of Drivers of Consumer Upgrading in Extreme Sports Introduction Theoretical Background Hypothesis Development 3.1 Cognitive Adaptation-Based and Edgework-Based Drivers of Upgrade 3.2 Loyalty-Based Drivers of Upgrade Method Results 5.1 Multigroup Model for Age General Discussion Managerial Implications Limitations and Future Research Executive Summary References 39 42 45 46 47 48 50 51 52 54 Thrill Me! Advertising Effectiveness in Extreme Versus Traditional Sports Introduction Theoretical Background and Hypotheses 2.1 Active and Passive Sports Participation Empirical Studies 3.1 Stimuli Selection and Testing 3.2 Study Design 3.3 Results of Study 3.4 Results of Study 3.5 Ruling Out Explanations Based on Congruency Qualitative Study 4.1 Study 4.2 Analysis 4.3 Results Discussion 63 64 66 69 70 70 72 73 74 75 76 76 78 78 80 33 34 36 39 Contents Managerial Implications Limitations and Future Research Executive Summary References vii 81 82 82 84 The Heat Is (Always) On? Intentions to Revisit Extreme Personalities and Extreme Sporting Events Introduction Theoretical Background and Hypotheses 2.1 Sensation-Seeking Tendency and Event Satisfaction 2.2 Event Satisfaction and Intentions to Revisit 2.3 Event-Image Fit 2.4 Inclination Towards Sensation-Seeking and Intentions to Revisit Research Setting and Sample Description Analysis and Results 4.1 Measurements and Instrumentation 4.2 The Moderated Mediation Model General Discussion Conclusions Executive Summary References 97 98 100 100 101 101 102 103 105 Conclusions References 113 121 Index 89 90 93 93 94 95 125 List of Figures Chapter Fig The conceptual model 35 Chapter Fig The theoretical model 97 ix The Extreme Sports Phenomenon Abstract This book explores extreme sports—a highly profitable business—as a novel consumption phenomenon The behaviors of active participants in extreme sports is examined from the perspective of consumer behaviors denoted by a strong managerial relevance—for instance, determinants of intentions to repurchase, perceptions related to marketing communications centered on extreme sports, and the determinants of the intention to revisit extreme sports events In examining such managerially relevant behaviors, this book develops a novel theoretical background based on established psychological theories about the behavior of extreme individuals (edgework theory, cognitive adaptation theory, sensation-seeking theory) to apply and translate them into the marketing-related contexts that are taken into consideration The book adopts this perspective in an attempt to account for the impacts of the specific psychological drivers of “extreme” individuals on their consumption behavior The present chapter delineates the aims and the scope of the book, and describes the setting of extreme sports, tracing their evolution from their origins to their emergence as a consumption © The Author(s) 2020 F Raggiotto, Consuming Extreme Sports, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-40127-6_1 F Raggiotto phenomenon Furthermore, the present chapter reviews the major theoretical perspectives in psychology that have addressed the psychological uniqueness of extreme sports participants Keywords Extreme sports industry · Psychology Introduction: An Exploration of Extreme Sports from a Consumer Perspective Since the early 1980s, extreme sports has surged from a niche, mostly subcultural phenomenon to become one of the most profitable industries in the sports business, generating exceptional revenue every year and attracting millions of participants and spectators worldwide What are the reasons for this phenomenon? An accepted explanation suggests that the emergence of extreme sports results from the interplay of various sociological, psychological, cultural and economic factors (e.g., Bennett & Lachowetz, 2004; Breivik, 2010; Raggiotto & Scarpi, 2019) Complex and multifaceted, extreme sports appeared as a subcultural phenomenon, subsequently evolving into a mass phenomenon and, mostly recently, into a consumption phenomenon From the point of view of academic research, they have long represented a relevant phenomenon for psychology and sociology (e.g., Lyng & Snow, 1986; Zuckerman, 1994) However, recently they have increasingly become a relevant domain for management and marketing research (e.g., Raggiotto & Scarpi, 2019) Such growing interest is primarily justified by the impressive growth and extent of extreme sports as a business For instance, it has been estimated that more than 22 million consumers are actively involved in extreme sports (Triathlon Business International, 2014); extreme sports events are able to attract massive sponsors such as Red Bull, Monster Energy and Mercedes-Benz, and gather hundreds of thousands spectators (Forbes, 2014) Furthermore, the marketing strategy of some brands, such as GoPro, strongly associates their product with the domain of extreme sports However, despite the apparent managerial relevance of extreme sports and the recent, growing interest therein, marketing and management The Heat Is (Always) On? Intentions to Revisit … 111 Shonk, D J., & Chelladurai, P (2008) Service quality, satisfaction, and intent to return in event sport tourism Journal of Sport Management, 22, 587–602 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.22.5.587 Stylos, N., Bellou, V., Andronikidis, A., & Vassiliadis, C A (2017) Linking the dots among destination images, place attachment, and revisit intentions: A study among British and Russian tourists Tourism Management, 60, 15– 29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.11.006 Thorpe, H (2017) Action sports, social media, and new technologies: Towards a research agenda Communication and Sport, (5), 554–578 https://doi org/10.1177/2167479516638125 Triathlon Business International (2014) Breaking down the U.S triathlon marketplace Retrieved August 16, 2017, from http://www.triathlonbusinessintl com/market-research-survey.html Tsuji, Y., Bennett, G., & Zhang, J (2007) Consumer satisfaction with an action sports event Sport Marketing Quarterly, 16 (4), 199–208 United States Parachute Association (2017) Skydiving Safety United States Parachute Association Usakli, A., & Baloglu, S (2011) Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory Tourism Management, 32(1), 114–127 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.06.006 Walker, M., Kaplanidou, K., Gibson, H., Thapa, B., Geldenhuys, S., & Coetzee, W (2013, August) “Win in Africa, With Africa”: Social responsibility, event image, and destination benefits: The case of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa Tourism Management, 34, 80–90 https://doi.org/10 1016/j.tourman.2012.03.015 Wirtz, J (1994) Consumer satisfaction with services: Integrating recent perspectives in services marketing with the traditional satisfaction model Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, 1, 153–159 Xtremesports (2008) Extreme sport growing in popularity Retrieved August 16, 2017, from http://xtremesport4u.com/extreme-land-sports/extreme-sportgrowing-in-popularity/ Xu, S., Barbieri, C., Stanis, S W., & Market, P S (2012) Sensation-seeking attributes associated with storm-chasing tourists: Implications for future engagement International Journal of Tourism Research, 14 (3), 269–284 https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.860 Yoshida, M., & James, J D (2010) Customer satisfaction with game and service experiences: Antecedents and consequences Journal of Sport Management, 24 (3), 338–361 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.24.3.338 112 F Raggiotto Zuckerman, M (1994) Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Zuckerman, M (2015) Sensation seeking: Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Conclusions Abstract This chapter provides a summary of the potential relevance of the consumer-based examination of extreme sports developed in this book, from the point of view of both theory and managerial practice Furthermore, this chapter discusses the major limitations of this book; for instance, addressing its theoretical limits The chapter closes with proposed directions for future research Keywords Extreme sports consumers · Consumer psychology · Extreme sports consumer behavior Extreme sports are definitely a marketing phenomenon, feeding a multibillion-dollar business that involves an impressive number of active participants and passive participants Extreme sports challenge traditional sports in terms of popularity and profitability through its international stars and international brands, as well as with its attractiveness with respect to global mass media and international sponsors (Forbes, 2014) Hence, from being mostly a socio-psychological phenomenon, extreme sports has now turned into a highly profitable consumer phenomenon As such, its relevance for marketing and consumer research has also increased, becoming a unique field in which to acquire new © The Author(s) 2020 F Raggiotto, Consuming Extreme Sports, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-40127-6_5 113 114 F Raggiotto insights on extreme forms of consumption in the postmodern consumer era, and simultaneously acquiring relevant insights to help practitioners decipher participants’ complex motivations and needs Nevertheless, theoretical frameworks provided so far by marketing and consumer research still appear limited regarding the capture of the key components of active participation in extreme sports and relating them to consumer related impacts (Brymer & Mackenzie, 2016; Lyng, 2014; Raggiotto & Scarpi, 2019; Raggiotto, Scarpi, & Moretti, 2019) To contribute to filling this gap, the present book considered two fundamental premises: the intrinsic limits of the frameworks proposed through to study extreme consumption behaviors; the need to consider the individual perspective concerning active participation in extreme sports To overcome the limits of extant research on extreme consumers, the present book took the perspective of a relevant stream of psychological literature suggesting that the motivation triggering participation in extreme sports and, more broadly, the voluntary taking of risks mainly originates from individual specificities qualifying certain individuals as “extreme individuals” Based on these assumptions, the present book developed a novel theoretical perspective combining insights from established psychological theories on extreme sports participation (i.e., edgework theory, sensation-seeking theory) and on individual approach to risk and danger (e.g., cognitive adaptation), as well as from marketing and consumer literature, as the backbone of its theoretical and empirical enquiry into extreme sports consumption behavior The theoretical perspective was developed and subsequently tested in an attempt to maximize the managerial relevance of its results The empirical settings and managerial outcomes examined in the book were selected to resemble the industry structure In this sense, this book embraced a specific perspective concerning the concept of sports marketing A traditional definition of sports marketing considers activities, products and services to be tightly related to sports; for example, selling tickets and acquiring fan bases However, this definition of sports marketing appears limited in light of the complexity of many contemporary sports industries, in which marketing plays a holistic role “as an integral component of the industry” (Fullerton & Merz, Conclusions 115 2008, p 90) This form of sports marketing has a dualistic nature On the one hand, it entails “marketing through sport; that is using sport as a promotional vehicle or sponsorship platform for companies that market consumer, and to a lesser extent, industrial products” (Gray & McEvoy, 2005, p 229) On the other hand, this form of sports marketing entails “the application of marketing principles and processes to market goods and services directly to sports participants and spectators” (Gray & McEvoy, 2005, p 229) In other words, the most profitable sporting industries typically not market sports alone; rather, they employ sports as a powerful marketing tool to imbue products, services and brands with compelling meanings In this sense, sports marketing becomes “the anticipation, management, and satisfaction of consumers’ wants and needs through the application of marketing principles and practices” (Gray & McEvoy, 2005, p 229) Extreme sports is one of the most profitable examples of the implications of this perspective on sports marketing On the one hand, most of industry revenues come from merchandising sales to active participants: sports themselves are thus a key determinant for the industry profitability On the other hand, as already emphasized, extreme sports hold a highly symbolic power that is typically grounded in their historical, cultural and sociological heritage In this sense, extreme sports are a powerful marketing platform This perspective on sports marketing has thus guided the selection of managerially relevant outcomes empirically examined in this book An abundant number of contributions from psychology suggest that individuals engaging in the voluntary taking of risks have specific, unique psychological drivers that lead them to behave and think in a different way than non-extreme consumers This book has extended this established psychological view into the domain of consumer and marketing research, providing empirical measurement of the magnitude of such specific psychological drivers in determining managerially relevant outcomes The link between the psychological dimension and the management-related dimension consistently established throughout this book have showed that individual uniqueness reflects on how such extreme individuals react to marketing stimuli in terms of their consumption behavior Robustness of results and insights provided in this 116 F Raggiotto study is supported by a multi-method perspective; moreover, generalizability of results is further supported by the heterogeneity of settings in which the empirical investigations were set This book has certain limitations that may inspire future research initiatives First, the general perspective adopted in this book—which considered voluntary risk-taking and, thus, engagement in extreme sports— is mostly ascribable to individual specificities Research has shown that engagement in out-of-the-ordinary, high-risk activities such as extreme sports is also driven by socially related motives concerning, for instance, the intrinsic individual need to feel part of a group In extreme sports, groups such as these may be shaped differently according to different individual perspectives: for instance, the concept of the group may refer to gaining membership to an elite group of individuals feeling “blessed” by an innate survival instinct (e.g., Laurendeau, 2006), or may simply refer to rebel youth subcultures (Beverland, Farrelly, & Quester, 2006) This dualistic dimension of consumption activities, concerning both an individual and a dimension of social-interactional is not new in literature (e.g., Holt, 1995), but assumes renewed significance in light of considering extreme sports as a postmodern consumption behavior In this sense, a perspective based on the individual, such as the one embraced in this book, appears limiting; further research efforts could complement this perspective by shedding more light on the socially related motives underlying extreme consumption behaviors The present book is based on established theoretical frameworks in psychology, and in marketing and consumer research Further research efforts may provide further evidence on extreme sports consumption behavior adopting the same, underlying rationale of this book (i.e., developing a cross-field theoretical perspective), but embracing different theoretical perspectives Another possible limitation of the present book concerns the lack of discussion of the role of media technologies in defining the extreme sporting experience The action of mainstream media has provided a crucial contribution to the development of extreme sports and its global rise as a market phenomenon Hence, unsurprisingly, new media such as social networks, in addition to media technology such as smartphones and mobile imaging Conclusions 117 devices (e.g., GoPro cameras, RC drones), are currently playing a major role in sustaining the popularity of extreme sports, especially among younger generations (Thorpe, 2017) The power of social media and of media technologies is systematically harnessed by brands, such as Red Bull, that focus their communication strategy on extreme sports In this sense, major events are primarily consumed over the web, creating huge visibility rather than just producing effects in terms of positioning, or related to marketing communications strategies Actions of brands involved in the world of extreme sports, communicated through social media, fuel the interest in such sports, as well as their diffusion, especially among younger generations such as Generation Z (Medium, 2019), encouraging their participation and fueling the development of their sports competences and skills Furthermore, the increasingly widespread usage of digital technologies by members of the extreme sports community further reinforces the sense of belonging of the community itself, as well as their subcultural dynamics Through media technologies, the offline (i.e., the sporting experience) and the online experiences complement and reinforce each other Media technology also plays a crucial role in “contributing to a transnational imaginary in which many feel a sense of belonging to a larger community beyond their immediate social groupings” (Thorpe, 2017, p 562) Notably, the diffusion and the combined usage of multiple media experiences has affected a key component of extreme sports experiences: the body In this sense, for instance, technological devices such as the GoPro camera become a part of an extended body, which becomes manifest during the extreme sports performance (Evers, 2015) The emergence of such an extended, technological body makes apparent the role of the inclusion of new media technologies in reshaping the key dimensions of extreme sporting experiences, dimensions that have been explicitly addressed in psychological research and consumer research addressing extreme sporting experiences: a personal, individual dimension For instance, using GoPro filming is useful in post-performance debriefing, as well as affording a collective dimension of the experience; 118 F Raggiotto that is, sharing performance with other members of the same subculture, gaining respect, or improving A perspective on the role of new media—and, more generally, new technologies—in the shaping of extreme sports experiences would exceed the focus of the present book However, such a perspective represents one of the major avenues for future research on extreme sports consumption, as testified by the recent, growing interest of scholars regarding extreme sports communication and media management (e.g., Wheaton & Thorpe, 2019) Future research may consider the influence of the extensive commodification of extreme sports on consumer engagement—in other words, on the intrinsic meanings that characterize extreme sports Scholars have noted that the increasing global diffusion of extreme sports, followed by an almost uncontrollable growth in related commercial demand, has fueled a debate within the extreme sports community concerning the massive selling of the fundamental values developed in the originating extreme sports subcultures (Giannoulakis, 2016) In other words, scholars noted that the increasing marketization of the extreme sporting disciplines—which strongly leveraged the traditional, core significances of extreme sports (e.g., resistance to societal values, fearlessness, and so forth) —produced not only a positive effect in terms of consumer attraction (especially in relation younger generations), but also triggered resistance processes with respect to members of extreme sports subcultures—particularly from established members—directed at the preservation of the authenticity that marks extreme sporting experiences (Honea, 2013) Future research may consider the effects of the massive entry of mainstream participants into the traditional extreme sports subculture In other words, the entry into subcultures of an increasing number of consumers replacing subcultural members perceived by other subcultural members as authentic may justify the assessment of the role of authenticity in delivering extreme sports participation This point may appear quite compelling, especially when considering high-potential, emerging consumer segments such as Generation Z, which makes authenticity a core determinant in the selection process of products, brands and experiences (McKinsey, 2018), and for which Conclusions 119 alternative sports, including extreme sports, appear a highly attractive market (Medium, 2019) The rapid, dynamic evolution of extreme sports has stimulated the emergence of new methodologies and theoretical lenses with which to examine the behavior and the motivational drivers of extreme sporting participants A highly promising prospect relates to the inclusion of neuroscience techniques with which to consider the driving forces determining consumer engagement in extreme sports, as this could provide new psychological insights corroborating traditional theoretical views on voluntary risk-taking In this sense, neuroscience has been employed to investigate the neurocognitive determinants of the inclination towards sensation-seeking (Fjell et al., 2007), using, for instance, neuroimaging techniques (Kruschwitz, Simmons, Flagan, & Paulus, 2012) In a similar vein, the inclination to seek flow experiences has been investigated from a neurologic standpoint, with studies highlighting the existence of a linkage between this tendency and specific dopaminergic neural systems (de Manzano et al., 2013) Extreme sports participation has also been examined to consider the effects participation in flow experiences may have in terms of brain reactions (Zanchi et al., 2017) In general, the inclusion of a multidisciplinary perspective such as this in the psychological investigation of motivation to engage in extreme sports appears relevant to further extending the investigation of extreme motivation to engage in extreme sports A new perspective such as this may hold specific relevance for consumer research, especially in relation to specific domains such as, for instance, the domain of emotions (Buckley, 2018) Other studies note that a thorough investigation of neural determinants of extreme sports participation appears crucial, especially when considering participation in extreme sports and, more generally, actively seeking risky and dangerous activities as a form of psychological addiction (Heirene, Shearer, Roderique-Davies, & Mellalieu, 2016) The extreme sports industry is a particularly dynamic industry; participants strive to develop an increasingly appealing, exciting offering in order to maintain a high level of interest by an audience strongly focused on the need to feel increasing levels of novelty and challenge, and strong sensations The present book is based on a fundamental assumption: that is, crucial differences in terms of psychology strongly differentiate 120 F Raggiotto “extreme” consumers from the “non-extreme” These inner, psychological differences determine, to a great extent, individual participation in extreme sports However, this view should be read also in light of other recent insights on extreme sports regarding the meanings of the extreme sporting experience For instance, Scott, Cayla, and Cova (2017) developed a study concerning Tough Mudder event participants Such events, which are increasingly popular among consumers, concern “a series of obstacle course competitions” (Bellezza & Keinan, 2014) that are not performed individually but, rather, in groups (Tough Mudder, 2019) In their investigation of Tough Mudder, Scott et al (2017) suggested that extreme sports is currently undergoing a new, crucial shift in its meaning, in that risk and danger, while still maintaining a central dimension in the consumption experience, are increasingly becoming an expression of an inner, individual need to escape from ordinary life Furthermore, CrossFit—another increasingly popular sporting discipline involving a highly demanding physical experience—encompasses “body weight training, high-intensity interval training, strength training, functional fitness, and group personal training” (Bailey, Benson, & Bruner, 2017, p 1) CrossFit stresses authenticity, emphasizing group belonging and a strong sense of community (Bailey et al., 2017; Whiteman-Sandland, Hawkins, & Clayton, 2018) Even if the topics of escapism and the importance of community is not new in extreme sports, what appears relevant is that the need for escapism makes participation in extreme sports increasingly appealing to non-extreme individuals In this sense, it is worth noting that the primary market target for Tough Mudder event managers is not extreme individuals but, instead, ordinary individuals who are not only looking for escape from their daily routine (i.e., “white-collar professionals”, Scott et al., 2017, p 34), but are also to seeking strong sensations as a response to their ordinary, predictable lifestyles In this sense, key components of extreme psychology, such as edgework orientation and the sensation-seeking trait, may not be “natively” present in individuals Rather, their emergence may result from the drawbacks of postmodern society, as the ultimate effort of individuals to regain their own individuality, develop authentic relationships and regain control over their own lives Conclusions 121 Considering the complexity of extreme sports settings, a more systematic effort is needed to develop an organic understanding of extreme consumption behavior An effort such as this appears compelling, especially in light of the extremely fast pace at which the industry is growing and the popularity of such sports for new generations of consumers (Medium, 2019) The extreme sports industry is intrinsically dedicated to continuous development and innovation Products, brands and services are constantly evolving Employing, for instance, cutting-edge technological and marketing development, they deliver constant novelty, thrill and engagement to consumers, by providing participants with the tools to achieve superior performance, or providing safer and broader access to risk and thrill A dynamic industry needs dynamic theoretical frameworks and empirical tools to be able to penetrate the hidden, deep meanings of the innate human fascination with the extreme, the challenge of human limits and of conditions that seem incapable of conquer A constant challenging state that reflects consumers’ need for novelty, risk and danger in 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70, 73, 76, 77, 80–84 Attractiveness 16, 69, 72–75, 83, 113 Authenticity 10, 118, 120 Edgework theory 4, 21–25, 41, 47, 49–51, 53, 65, 66, 81, 83, 114 Events 5–8, 11, 20, 23, 34, 36, 39–42, 44–51, 53, 54, 90, 91, 93–97, 100–105, 117, 120 Extreme sports 2–7, 9–22, 24–26, 34–42, 44–53, 64–71, 73–84, 90–93, 96, 99, 101–104, 113–121 Extreme sports events 2–5, 35, 37, 38, 44, 52, 91, 92, 96, 102, 103, 105 Extreme sports industry 8, 13, 37, 39, 90, 91, 95, 101, 103, 119, 121 B Brands 2, 4, 10, 34–38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 49, 52, 64, 65, 69–75, 80–83, 90, 95, 96, 99, 101, 113, 115, 117, 118, 121 C Cognitive adaptation 4, 37, 39, 42, 51, 53, 67, 70, 81, 83, 114 Consumer behavior 3, 12, 26, 35, 48, 102 F Flow theory 24, 25 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 F Raggiotto, Consuming Extreme Sports, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-40127-6 125 126 Index I Image fit 51, 96, 100, 101, 105 Intention to revisit 4, 90–92, 94, 96–98, 100–105 P Psychology 2–4, 13, 26, 37, 53, 66–68, 80, 82, 84, 91, 92, 97, 101, 102, 104, 115, 116, 119, 120 Sensation-seeking 5, 15–17, 72–74, 91, 93, 94, 97, 98, 100–105, 119, 120 Sensation-seeking theory 4, 15, 17, 21, 91–93, 101, 102, 104, 114 Sport marketing 6, 38, 42, 46, 48, 52, 64, 92, 94, 95, 102, 114, 115 T R Reversal theory 17–21, 25 Traditional sports 4, 7, 34, 36, 37, 40, 41, 49, 52, 64–71, 73–84, 90–92, 95, 101, 104, 113 S Satisfaction 4, 5, 35, 43, 44, 46–53, 91, 92, 94, 96, 97, 100–105, 115 U Upgrade 4, 35, 36, 38–40, 42–44, 47–53 ... the individual engagement in extreme sports (e.g ., Heirene, Shearer, Roderique-Davies, & Mellalieu, 2016; Holm, Lugosi, Croes, & Torres, 2017; Marengo, Monaci, & Miceli, 2017) Sensation-seeking... (e.g ., Gibson & Frost, 2019) Extant research (e.g ., Humphreys, 2003 ), noted that many of the activities that would later be acknowledged as extreme sports—such as surfing, skateboarding, BMX... sports was introduced and later fueled by the emergence of a globalized world, signified by globalized mass communications, entertainment industries, brands, lifestyles, and cultures Extreme sports
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