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SPRINGER BRIEFS IN ARTSBASED EDUC ATIONAL RESEARCH Adrian Schoone Constellations of Alternative Education Tutors A Poetic Inquiry SpringerBriefs in Arts-Based Educational Research Series Editor Barbara Bickel, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, USA Editorial Board Kakali Bhattacharya, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA Pam Burnard, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Mindy Carter, Department of Integrated Studies in Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Kelly Clark/Keefe, College of Education and Social Services, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA Walter S Gershon, School of Teaching Learning, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA Peter Gouzouasis, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Andrea Kantrowitz, State University of New York, Pelham, NY, USA Alexandra Lasczik Cutcher, State University of Southern Cross, East Lismore, NSW, Australia Morna McDermott McNulty, Towson University, Towson, MD, USA Richard Siegesmund, School of Art and Design, Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL, USA Arts-Based Educational Research continues to garner increased interest and debate among artists, arts writers, researchers, scholars and educators internationally Further, the methodologies and theoretical articulations associated with Arts-Based Educational Research are increasingly employed across the disciplines of social science, education, humanities, health, media, communications, the creative arts, design, and trans-disciplinary and interdisciplinary research This book series offers edited collections and monographs that survey and exemplify Arts-Based Educational Research The series will take up questions relevant to the diverse range of Arts-Based Educational Research These questions might include: What can Arts-Based methodologies (such as Arts- Based Research, Arts-Informed Research, a/r/tography, Poetic Inquiry, Performative Inquiry, Arts Practice-Based Research etc.) as a form of critical qualitative inquiry? How the Arts (such as literary, visual and performing arts) enable research? What is the purpose of Arts-based Educational Research? What counts as Arts-Based? What counts as Educational? What counts as Research? How can Arts-Based Educational Research be responsibly performed in communities and institutions, individually or collaboratively? Must Arts-Based Educational Research be public? What ways of knowing and being can be explored with Arts-Based Educational Research? How can Arts-Based Educational Research build upon diverse philosophical, theoretical, historical, political, aesthetic and spiritual approaches to living? What is not Arts-Based Educational Research? The hinge connecting the arts and research in this Arts-Based Educational Research book series is education Education is understood in its broadest sense as learning/transformation/change that takes place in diverse formal and informal spaces, places and moments As such, books in this series might take up questions such as: How perspectives on education, curriculum and pedagogy (such as critical, participatory, liberatory, intercultural and historical) inform Arts-Based inquiries? How teachers become artists, and how artists become teachers? How can one be both? What does this look like, in and beyond school environments? Arts-Based Educational Research will be deeply and broadly explored, represented, questioned and developed in this vital and digitally augmented international publication series The aesthetic reach of this series will be expanded by a digital on- line repository where all media pertaining to publications will be held Queries can be sent via email to Barbara Bickel at editor.aber More information about this series at Adrian Schoone Constellations of Alternative Education Tutors A Poetic Inquiry 123 Adrian Schoone School of Education Auckland University of Technology Auckland, New Zealand ISSN 2524-7506 ISSN 2524-7514 (electronic) SpringerBriefs in Arts-Based Educational Research ISBN 978-3-030-35494-7 ISBN 978-3-030-35495-4 (eBook) © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Series Editor’s Foreword Finding the Poetry of Tutors For almost two decades, I have watched the field of Arts-Based Educational Research (ABER) push the boundaries of what gets to count as rigorous and meaningful scholarship I have read, assigned to students, and contributed my own writing and research creations to this rich and transformative endeavor I have also witnessed the power of ABER to open audiences of readers and viewers to perspectives previously unconsidered or considered, but only from limited (and limiting) vantage points Those who follow the field are undoubtedly aware of the robust passion with which arts-based educational researchers have, since its inception, thoughtfully engaged questions (both across and within the field) about criteria for quality, built strong arguments for ABER’s theoretical value, and brilliantly showcased the unique ways in which arts-based approaches help critique narrow conceptions of knowledge’s production while also creating paths for historically undervalued wisdom and meaning-making traditions to thrive ABER as a movement has always been and continues to endure as a tour de force connecting educational research and inquiry through the arts Sometimes though, movement of and in the field of ABER takes on a subtler hue, one that asks us to move slowly and to carefully contemplate the generative spaces between, for example, words and the bodies who speak them, or to listen to ancient Māori teachings to “look to the stars to see where they are guiding us” (p 90, this volume) On occasion, we are invited to consider that some of the most telling evidence of a field’s power and promise might be coming through quieter, unheroic scholarly gifts If you have committed to reading this book, you will most certainly be treated to one such gift Just as the metaphorical container of stars and constellations that Adrian Schoone carefully crafts to bring the lived experiences of alternative education tutors from Auckland, New Zealand to life, the book as a whole offers the experience of wandering within a poet’s universe, where bits and strings of words and shadowy spaces, illumine and lead the way Deftly connecting his read on v vi Series Editor’s Foreword Heideggerian phenomenology to his own brand of poetic inquiry, Schoone cultivates a convincing critique of the ways in which the perspectives and practices of the tutors he engages in his study have historically been devalued and marginalized through a series of neoliberal reforms to New Zealand’s education system Due to his own experience working alongside tutors and eventually taking a leadership role in New Zealand’s alternative education sector, Schoone’s tone and tack swiftly gains distance from the commonly-held deficit framing of tutors as largely “unqualified” by conventional standards Instead, Schoone commits his poetic exploration to illuminating tutors’ lived experiences, including lessons learned from their own schooling, the drive they have for teaching and mentoring from a stance of cultural appreciation, and the values of compassion each work to hold and use to guide how they work with students for whom educational options were severely circumscribed Part I of Schoone’s book develops much of the social and vocational background of alternative education tutors I sketch above In this early section, the author introduces readers to the rational for his thoughtful blending of phenomenology and poetic inquiry as well as provides the specifics of the research contexts Foreshadowing Schoone’s facility with utilizing poetic structure as his central medium for creating and casting meaning for the reader throughout the text, Part I concludes with individual poems introducing each of the eight tutors participating in the research Part II of the book is where, for me, Schoone’s gifts as an artistic scholar shine Here, we are granted a tour of what Schoone describes as an ‘unfolding’ of his research methods From his description of moving through fieldwork, to initial analysis using conventional poetic inquiry techniques for developing found poetry, to then his account of engaging several highly unique approaches for bending and opening the poetic artform for further analysis, I felt an interlocuter in a skilled poet-researcher’s studio Spoiler alert: readers even have the opportunity to meet Maximus, a companion poetic inquiry robot, who, in the hands and hearts of the tutors and Schoone, has much to say and gains international acclaim In Part III., the heart of the book, we are gifted again, though differently, to Schoone’s insights and artistic skillfulness The inquiry’s findings and the process by which these insights about tutors’ lived experiences emerge, get fully revealed, taking the form of what Schoone calls “constellation poems.” The accompanying photographic archive of Schoone’s found poetry and analysis process brings three-dimensional form and interpretive force to what he describes are the “essences” of the tutors’ circumstances, beliefs, and commitments Overall, this book casts brilliant light into the less visible aspects and undervalued worlds of alternative education tutors, doing so while also gifting the field of ABER a rare and exciting glimpse into a previously uncharted poetic inquiry universe I am personally grateful for the journey Kelly Clark/Keefe University of Vermont Burlington, USA Acknowledgement My gratitude to tutors, for their heartfelt pedagogies A tutor! What a noble soul! Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1762 vii Contents Series Editor's Foreword v Acknowledgement vii About the Author xi Introduction xiii Part One: Found by the poem Alternative education in New Zealand Being found by the poem Phenomenological poetic inquiry Poetic Inquiry Research context and participants Introducing the research participants Part Two: In search for shining fragments 13 Finding the words 13 Creating found poetry from interview transcripts 14 Deepening the found poems 20 Creating Maximus 24 Maximus and the imprinting of essences 30 A pause: Considering poetry in research 34 Part Three: Constellations 39 Making sense through constellations 39 From crystallizations to performing constellations 40 Creating concrete constellation poems 41 The lines that join 43 essences of call 45 essences of love 47 essences of joy 49 essences of empathy 51 essences of grace 53 essences of mana 55 essences of watching-over 57 essences of commitment 59 essences of past experiences 61 essences of criticality 63 essences of whānau 65 essences of guidance 67 essences of poiesis 69 essences of talanoa 71 essences of holism 73 essences of thoughtful pedagogy 75 essences of inspirational pedagogy 77 essences of movement 79 essences of epiphany 81 essences of mystery 83 essences of transformation 85 The interlocking horizons of alternative education tutor essences 86 Conclusion: Making landfall 88 The inland journey for tutors 90 References 99 ix x Contents Table of Figures Figure Couplet found poem created from Amosa’s research interview transcript 18 Figure “Whoa” (Lincoln), black ink lino print; a common expression of Lincoln’s, voicing surprise 19 Figure “AE is like Facebook you post on each other’s’ walls” (Amosa), black crayon rubbing from cardboard block 19 Figure 4."We have scholars here" (Fetu), red, yellow, blue crayon rubbing from cardboard block 19 Figure Pages from my observation notebook 20 Figure Maximus, the three-dimensional concrete found poem Photo credit: Kareen Durbin 26 Figure Words and phrases pasted on Maximus 27 Figure A Philip Larkin collection of poems gifted to me at the Fourth International Symposium of Poetic Inquiry, with a written tribute to Maximus 31 Figure Te Kuaka Research Publication, 31 Figure 10 Plans to create your own Maximus 32 Figure 11 Maximus made from plans 32 Figure 12 Morpheus, the alternative education student 33 Figure 13 Polly, the culturally responsive teacher (AUT University, Auckland) created by BEd students 33 Figure 14 Healthy Be Bob, made by year and students, Auckland 33 Figure 15 Maman, the vocational educator created by Indonesian vocational teachers 33 Figure 16 Single star suspended by nylon string 42 Figure 17 Constellation of joy, the words superimposed in production for clarity 42 92 Part Three: Constellations “Backward to their sources flow the streams of holy rivers, and the order of all things is reversed” (Euripides, Medea, 410) there’s Chiron at that eternal fount “loomed o’er” (Statius, 2011, 145) his charge Achilles, who “strove to stand” in “the violence of the stream” (Statius, 2011, 145) the stream of knowledge that would issue forth through time, i find myself in its tributary Chiron, “the most righteous of centaurs” (Homer, 2008, p 256) centaur (half horse, half human-divine) son of the god Kronos whose father’s divine touch, rests in his soul a “wise and noble being” (Hard, 2004, p 73) a student of the gods Apollo and Artemis, thus Chiron was renowned for his skill in The inland journey for tutors 93 “hunting, medicine, music, gymnastics” and the art of “prophecy” (Smith, 1867, p 692) thus, worthy to be tutor to gods and heroes Hercules – son of Zeus Achilles – hero of the Trojan war Jason – leader of the Argonauts Asklepios – god of medicine Arstaios – hero of culture Dionysus – god of theatre Kokytos – god of rivers (Atsma, 2011) yea, at the cave on Mt Pelion Peleus, father of Achilles, entrusted his son unto Chiron to be “reared and educated” (Hard, 2004, p 55) in loco parentis 94 Part Three: Constellations [Adrian addresses Achilles] Achilles, “o thou progeny of heaven, tell us, thy admiring friends” readers of educational research, here in the Antipodean 2020 “tell thy admiring” Aotearoa103 “friends, of the ways in which thy spirit was trained, and as the vigour of thy youth increased what stirring themes of glory Chiron was wont to recount to thee, and how thy valour grew, by what arts he made strong thy limbs or fired them by courage” (Statius, 2011, book 2, 86) for, i wonder if indeed the waters that i swim in hold memories of ancient times quench my thirst [Achilles] i was “chased… at full gallop with headlong speed o’er the plains, and when I was exhausted by roaming over the meads he praised me joyously and hoisted me upon his back” (Statius, 2011, Book 1B, 110) [Adrian] Achilles Chiron rescued you from the challenge he set down for you yet, you are a courageous hunter 103 Māori name for New Zealand The inland journey for tutors 95 and educated with “…more peaceful skills of medicine and music” (Hard, 2004, p 458) for war and peace Chiron equipped you [Achilles] for the art of public speaking i was sent to be tutored by Phoenix (Hards, 2004) who taught me to take the precepts of Chiron, that “he implanted deep within my heart the precepts of divine justice” (Statius, 2011, 145), and made them to soar from out of my mouth, from within [Adrian] invite us to wonder at the precepts of Chiron—so that we too may soar [Achilles] yet only fragments of his precepts remain: “and now, pray, mark all these things well in a wise heart first, whenever you come to your house, offer good sacrifices to the eternal gods” (Hesiod, 1914, p 73) to the eternal gods the eternal gods eternal gods [Adrian] indeed Chiron’s precepts echo in/from/out of the cave on Mt Pelion “he himself, seated in his vast cave, awaited my exploits” (Statius, 2011, Book 1B, 110) 96 Part Three: Constellations the voices i hear echo back are strangely toned 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Pam Burnard, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Mindy Carter, Department of Integrated Studies in Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Kelly Clark/Keefe, College of Education. .. the arts, creativity, alternative education and inclusive education In 201 5, Adrian completed New Zealand’s first examined poetic inquiry PhD in Education, under the supervision of Professors... Author(s ), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 A Schoone, Constellations of Alternative Education Tutors, SpringerBriefs in Arts-Based Educational Research,
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