Conceptions of knowledge creation, knowledge and knowing, 1st ed , yuh huann tan, seng chee tan, 2020 1810

197 0 0
  • Loading ...
1/197 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 08/05/2020, 06:57

Yuh Huann Tan Seng Chee Tan Conceptions of Knowledge Creation, Knowledge and Knowing A Phenomenography of Singapore Chinese Language Teachers Conceptions of Knowledge Creation, Knowledge and Knowing Yuh Huann Tan Seng Chee Tan • Conceptions of Knowledge Creation, Knowledge and Knowing A Phenomenography of Singapore Chinese Language Teachers 123 Yuh Huann Tan Yusof Ishak Secondary School Ministry of Education Singapore, Singapore Seng Chee Tan National Institute of Education Nanyang Technological University Singapore, Singapore ISBN 978-981-15-3563-5 ISBN 978-981-15-3564-2 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3564-2 (eBook) © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore Dedicated To The most beloved members of the YH family Yonghui, Yehan & Yeheng and The dearest wife and daughter of the second author Aik Ling Tan & Grace Tan Preface Our attempt in trying to examine in-depth the phenomena described in this book began back in 2012–2013 as promising, yet fragmented ideas These ideas were later crystallised, and became the topic of the first author’s doctoral thesis research, under the advice and guidance of the second author Five years later, the study was completed, passed the several layers of examinations, and the hard-bound thesis now sat on a library shelf As we looked back at the findings of the research, we thought the voices of our teacher participants could contribute to the knowledge already existing in the field of the conception of knowledge and personal epistemology Unique to this study is that our teacher participants belonged, lived and taught in a context where the Eastern and Western cultures meet This thought motivated us to put together this book in hope to share the key findings to fellow researchers and perhaps inspire further studies in the process This project gives us a chance to revisit the entire manuscript to make it more concise and readable The invaluable comments from the reviewers also prompted us to include some new ideas, such as the Collaborative Innovation Networks (CoINs) as a model of knowledge creation, an elaboration on the differences between phenomenology and phenomenography, and the use of social theory of knowledge proposed by Berger and Luckmann (1966) to discuss the possible cultural influence of the findings Set against the backdrop of education in the Knowledge Age, the empirical study in this book aims to answer the calls in the literature to further advance knowledge creation in K-12 schools Various research scholars have lamented that education in schools is not changing fast enough to prepare our young to meet the demands of the changing landscape brought about by the advent of the knowledge economy, Industry 4.0, and rapid advancement in technologies Teachers are the key people educating students in schools, and scholars have highlighted a need to investigate their understanding of what education means in this new era Sixteen Chinese Language teachers from Singapore participated in this research as language teachers are primarily responsible for the basic literacies that form students’ foundation for lifelong learning Positing that people’s cultural beliefs and the language(s) used are inseparable, Chinese Language teachers may possess an understanding of the vii viii Preface different phenomena that reflect the influence of the Chinese culture by virtue of the language they speak and teach Yet, these teachers work in Singapore, a metropolitan society that is subjected to Western influences To carry out the investigation, the study reported in this monograph adopted phenomenography—a methodology aims at finding and systematising how people interpret the world around them—to learn about and to describe Chinese Language teachers’ conceptions of the phenomena Through the phenomenographic processes, four separate outcome spaces representing what the Chinese Language teachers understand of knowledge, knowing, knowledge creation in general and knowledge creation in education, emerged Each outcome space, which represents the outcome of phenomenography, reveals the qualitatively different, albeit limited, understanding of teachers on a phenomenon The critical variations in teachers’ understanding were presented in the different categories of an outcome space hierarchically Critical variations aside, non-critical variations that have emerged from teachers’ conception were also captured The findings show that the Chinese Language teachers’ understanding of various phenomena shows some differences from the current conceptions reported in the literature For example, the understanding of a shared outcome in knowledge creation had not emerged although theories of knowledge creation commonly described some form of shared outcomes as a key component of knowledge creation Other aspects included community-related and process-related differences In the understanding of knowledge and knowing, the emergence of direct definitions and types of knowledge during interviews and the non-emergence of descriptions on the structural simplicity of knowledge were examples of the differences between theoretical and people’s conception Some of these Chinese Language teachers’ conception may be attributed to the influence of cultural beliefs For instance, some of the Chinese Language teachers highlighted the non-receptive attitudes to changes as possibly an inhibitor to knowledge creation; their understanding of knowledge creation implied impending changes However, change, when seen as a disruption to an existing harmonious state of things, is deemed culturally undesirable to many Chinese Similarly, the omnipresence of authorities of knowledge and the different ways of interpreting these authorities by different teachers reflected, on the one hand, the influence of hierarchy-conscious Confucian-heritage culture and on the other hand, the possible moderating effect of English language and Western culture on the Singaporean Chinese Language teachers’ personal epistemology This book consists of nine chapters Chapter introduces the background of the study, leading to the relationship between teachers and knowledge creation, and the significance of conducting the research Chapter presents a literature review on the concepts of knowledge creation, including the theoretical models related to the field of education and these theories’ connection to K-12 school education Chapter presents a literature review on the theoretical models of personal epistemology and the concept of cultural specificity Chapter provides an in-depth description of phenomenography—the methodology of the study, followed by how the 5-stage phenomenographic study was carried out, including the design of the phenomenographic interview with an in-depth discussion of the rationale and the Preface ix use of phenomenography Chapters 5–7 present the findings from the analysis Chapter focuses on describing the Chinese Language teachers’ conceptions of knowledge and knowing Chapter leads on to describe the Chinese Language teachers’ conceptions of knowledge creation as a phenomenon in general before Chapter turns to describe these teachers’ conceptions of knowledge creation in the education context Chapter puts together the conceptions described in the previous three chapters to first compare the findings with the existing theories of knowledge creation, followed by comparisons of the categories of conceptions across the phenomena; the implications of the study are presented towards the end of the chapter Finally, the book is concluded with a review of the study’s significance, concerns, limitations and strength in Chap Ironically, as we are finalising the manuscript for this monograph, the US–China trade tension seems to be escalating Living in a metropolitan city, we value the integration of various cultures and perspectives, which have enriched our understanding of this world, and provided a fertile context for advancing knowledge We hope the readers will benefit from our findings and join us in the endeavour to explore the kaleidoscopic multi-coloured landscape brought about by the co-presence of multiple cultures and viewpoints Singapore Yuh Huann Tan Seng Chee Tan Acknowledgements We would like to take this space and opportunity to thank Prof Marlene Scardamalia of the University of Toronto, Prof Kai Hakkarainen of the University of Helsinki, and Prof Chris Cope of the La Trobe University for granting permission to use their published figures in our book We would also like to thank Mr Lawrence Liu, Ms Grace Ma Liyan, Ms Ang Lay Peng, Ms Ritu Chandwani, Mr Subodh Kumar and their colleagues at Springer for facilitating the entire editorial and publishing process Without their support, it would not have been possible to publish this book Lastly, we would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for giving their precious time to provide comments and suggestions to our drafts We are very encouraged by their kind words xi Contents Why a Study on Teachers’ Conception of Knowledge Creation 1.1 The Advent of Knowledge Age and Knowledge Economy 1.2 Exploring Knowledge Creation Among Teachers 1.3 Contributions of the Study 1.4 Organisation of the Chapters in This Book References 1 7 Understanding Knowledge Creation 2.1 What Is Knowledge Creation? 2.2 Theoretical Models of Knowledge Creation in Education 2.2.1 Organisational Knowledge Creation Theory 2.2.2 The Theory of Expansive Learning 2.2.3 The Knowledge Building Theory 2.2.4 Collaborative Knowledge Creation 2.2.5 Collaborative Innovation Networks (CoINs) 2.3 How Are the Theories of Knowledge Creation Connected to K-12 School Education References 13 13 14 14 18 21 24 26 28 29 Understanding Personal Epistemology 3.1 What Is Personal Epistemology? 3.2 Personal Epistemology as a Developmental Trajectory 3.3 Personal Epistemology as a System of Epistemic Beliefs 3.4 Personal Epistemology as Epistemological Resources 3.5 Cultural Specificity in Personal Epistemology 3.5.1 Traditional Chinese’ Epistemology References 35 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 xiii 8.5 Implications 175 of personal epistemology theoretical models in the field (Hofer, 2010, 2016; Wong, Khine, & Chai, 2008) Further studies could also examine the relationship between Chinese language teachers of different cultural contexts and their practice in teaching the subject Second, the practical implications The findings discussed in the preceding section suggest some inhibitors to realising knowledge creation in students’ learning of Chinese Language These potential barriers need to be overcome to increase the chances of teachers designing knowledge creation activities for their students A total of four potential barriers have emerged from some Chinese Language teachers’ understanding The first barrier stems from a general lack of focus on collaboration as a community for knowledge creation in these teachers’ understanding, especially in the education context As discussed, the understanding of knowledge creation in the context of Chinese Language appears not to discuss the processes in terms of collective interest, shared responsibility and recursive discourse; the outcomes in terms of advancement in community knowledge or shared objects As such, Chinese Language teachers’ conception of knowledge creation in education largely reflects an understanding akin to the knowledge acquisition approach to learning (Sfard, 1998) In relation to the first barrier, the second barrier is a lack of understanding of the affordances of ICT to create and host virtual shared space for collaboration The virtual ICT space not only enables pervasive knowledge creation discourse as it bridges the formal school context and after-school context, but it reifies the discourse that represents the advancing knowledge of the community The third barrier is the lack of understanding of findings from empirical studies that have already suggested that knowledge creation can lead to increased competence in basic literacies The last barrier is perhaps the influence of Confucian beliefs of the teachers which may make them uncomfortable to disrupt the existing state of harmony As all the barriers are understanding or beliefs related, professional development programme for in-service teachers is perhaps a direct route to further develop their understanding These programmes could be designed to engage teachers in creating knowledge based on some shared purpose and goal For teachers to experience and appreciate the extended amount of time and effort required to take part in knowledge creation discourse, the overall duration of such a programme would likely be months or years instead of days The integration of ICT in the programme would allow teachers to participate in the virtual workspace that enables pervasive knowledge creation discourse In the process, teachers will inevitably be disrupting the existing harmonious state of things as they identify problems and create new knowledge to overcome these issues Researchers have provided evidence to support professional development as effective in fostering teacher change (Borko, 2004; Guskey, 2002; Kennedy, 2016) Particularly, Fives and Buehl (2012) have identified two salient features of a professional development programme that could encourage change in teachers’ beliefs—a focus on task or strategy, and the development of a community of practice among participants These recommendations can be effected by designing professional development with knowledge creation as the focus and practice; the processes are inherently collaborative and community-based Apart from in-service teachers’ professional development programme, pre-service teacher education programme can 176 Discussions on Teachers’ Conceptions on the Phenomena … be designed with similar principles for these teachers to start creating knowledge in this early phase of their careers To better customise the education for pre-service teachers, a study of pre-service teachers’ conceptions of knowledge creation can be carried out Lastly, the policy implications As discussed, the concern of some Chinese Language teachers over the national curriculum and examination was evident during their interviews To allow knowledge creation to proliferate in Singapore schools, policy makers in the education ministry could integrate knowledge creation pedagogy and knowledge creation activities into the Chinese Language centralised curriculum Related to this, textbooks and other resources would be developed to aid Chinese Language teachers in their design of knowledge creation activities for students As the ministry also oversees both the professional development of in-service teachers and pre-service teacher education, a policy decision to encourage knowledge creation as the underlying approach would help Chinese Language teachers to create knowledge with a shared purpose of advancing the fraternity’s knowledge References Bauters, M., Lakkala, M., Paavola, S., Kosonen, K., & Markkanen, H (2012) KPE (knowledge practices environment) supporting knowledge creation practices in education In A Moen, A I Mørch, & S Paavola (Eds.), Collaborative knowledge creation: Practice, tools, concepts (pp 53– 74) Rotterdam: Sense Publishers Bendixen, L D., & Corkill, A J (2011) Personal epistemology change due to experience? A cross-sectional analysis of preservice and practicing teachers In J Brownlee, G Schraw, & D Berthelsen (Eds.), Personal epistemology and teacher education (pp 100–113) New York: Routledge Bendixen, L D., & Feucht, F C (Eds.) (2010) Personal epistemology in the classroom: Theory, research, and implications for practice New York: Cambridge University Press Bereiter, C (2002) Education and mind in the knowledge age Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M (2003) Learning to work creatively with knowledge In E De Corte, L Verschaffel, N Entwistle, & J van Merriënboer (Eds.), Powerful learning environments: Unraveling basic components and dimensions Advances in learning and instruction series (pp 55–68) Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M (2010) Can children really create knowledge? Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 36(1) Retrieved from http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/ view/585 Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M (2014) Knowledge building and knowledge creation: One concept, two hills to climb In S.-C Tan, H.-J So, & J Yeo (Eds.), Knowledge creation in education (pp 35–52) Singapore: Springer Science + Business Media Berger, P., & Luckmann, T (1966) The social construction of reality New York: Penguin Books Retrieved from http://perflensburg.se/Berger%20social-construction-of-reality.pdf Borko, H (2004) Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain Educational Researcher, 33(8), 3–15 Bromme, R., Kienhues, D., & Porsch, T (2010) Who knows what and who can we believe? Epistemological beliefs are beliefs about knowledge (mostly) to be attained from others In L D Bendixen & F C Feucht (Eds.), Personal epistemology in the classroom: Theory, research and implications for practice (pp 163–193) New York: Cambridge University Press References 177 Chai, C S (2010) Teachers’ epistemic beliefs and their pedagogical beliefs: A qualitative case study among Singaporean teachers in the context of ICT-supported reforms Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(4), 128–139 Chai, C S., Wong, B., & Teo, T (2011) Singaporean pre-service teachers’ beliefs about epistemology, teaching and learning, and technology Teacher Development, 15(4), 485–498 Chan, C K K (2008) Pedagogical transformation and knowledge-building for the Chinese learner Evaluation & Research in Education, 21(3), 235–251 Chan, K.-W., & Elliott, R G (2000) Exploratory study of epistemological beliefs of Hong Kong teacher education students: Resolving conceptual and empirical issues Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 28(3), 225–234 Chan, K.-W., & Elliott, R G (2002) Exploratory study of Hong Kong teacher education students’ epistemological beliefs: Cultural perspectives and implications on beliefs research Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(3), 392–414 Chan, K.-W., & Elliott, R G (2004) Epistemological beliefs across cultures: Critique and analysis of beliefs structure studies Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 24(2), 123–142 Chen, B D., & Hong, H.-Y (2016) Schools as knowledge-building organizations: Thirty years of design research Educational Psychologist, 51(2), 266–288 Chen, G.-M., & Chung, J (1994) The impact of Confucianism on organizational communication Communication Quarterly, 42(2), 93–105 Cheng, Y.-C., & Tam, W.-M (2007) School effectiveness and improvement in Asia: Three waves, nine trends and challenges In T Townsend (Ed.), International handbook of school effectiveness and improvement (pp 245–268) Netherlands: Springer Choi, J., & Kwon, N Y (2012) The general and domain-specific epistemological beliefs of Korean preservice mathematics teachers The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 21(2), 353–364 Cole, M (2011) Introduction: Combining longitudinal, cross-historical, and cross-cultural methods to study culture and cognition (special issue) Mind, Culture, and Activity, 12(3–4), 169–170 Culture (2017) In Cambridge English dictionary Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/ dictionary/english/culture Engeström, Y (1987) An activity-theoretical approach to developmental research Helsinki Engeström, Y (2001) Expansive learning at work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133–156 Engeström, Y., Engeström, R., & Suntio, A (2002) Can a school community learn to master its own future? An activity-theoretical study of expansive learning among middle school teachers In G Wells & G Claxton (Eds.), Learning for life in the 21st century: Sociocultural perspectives on the future of education (pp 211–224) Oxford: Blackwell Engeström, Y., & Sannino, A (2010) Studies of expansive learning: Foundations, findings and future challenges Educational Research Review, 5(1), 1–24 Englehart, N A (2000) Rights and culture in the Asian values argument: The rise and fall of Confucian ethics in Singapore Human Rights Quarterly, 22(2), 548–568 Fives, H., & Buehl, M M (2012) Spring cleaning for the “messy” construct of teachers’ beliefs: What are they? Which have been examined? What can they tell us? In K R Harris, S Graham, T Urdan, S Graham, J M Royer, & M Zeiden (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (Vol 2, pp 471–499) Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association Gloor, P (2006) Swarm creativity: Competitive advantage through collaborative innovation networks New York, NY: Oxford University Press Gumperz, J J., & Levinson, S C (1996) Introduction: Linguistic relativity re-examined In J J Gumperz & S C Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp 1–18) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Guo, Y F (2008) Dui zhongguo chuantong shehui zunshiguan de zaisikao [Rethinking the respect of teachers in traditional Chinese society] Journal of Inner Mongolia Normal University (Educational Science), 21(3), 140–142 178 Discussions on Teachers’ Conceptions on the Phenomena … Guskey, T R (2002) Professional development and teacher change Teachers and Teaching, 8(3), 381–391 Guven, M (2009) The epistemological beliefs of distance education students Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 10(3), 217–246 Guven, M (2012) Epistemological beliefs and metacognitive strategies of ELT pre-service teachers in distance and formal education Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 13(2), 346–369 Hofer, B K (2000) Dimensionality and disciplinary differences in personal epistemology Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(4), 378–405 Hofer, B K (2004) Introduction: Paradigmatic approaches to personal epistemology Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 1–3 Hofer, B K (2010) Personal epistemology in Asia: Burgeoning research and future directions The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 19(1), 179–184 Hofer, B K (2016) Epistemic cognition as a psychological construct: Advancements and challenges In J A Greene, W A Sandoval, & I Bråten (Eds.), Handbook of epistemic cognition (pp 19–38) New York: Routledge Hofer, B K., & Pintrich, P R (1997) The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 88–140 Hofstede, G., & Bond, M H (1988) The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth Organizational Dynamics, 16(4), 5–21 Jin, L N (2004) Lunyu yizhu [A translation and annotation of the Analects of Confucius] Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Works Publishing House Kennedy, K J (2007) Barrier to innovative school practice: A socio-cultural framework for understanding assessment practices in Asia Paper presented at Redesigning Pedagogy—Culture, Understanding and Practice Conference, May 28–30, Singapore Retrieved from http://www.ied.edu.hk/fpece_project/QEF/Work/Papers%20prepared%20for% 20the%20Symposium_edited.pdf#page=4 Kennedy, M M (2016) How does professional development improve teaching? Review of Educational Research 0034654315626800 Retrieved February 1, 2016, from https://doi.org/10.3102/ 0034654315626800 Khine, M S (Ed.) (2008) Knowing, knowledge and beliefs: Epistemological studies across diverse cultures Netherlands: Springer Science + Business Media B.V Kim, K H (2007) Exploring the interactions between Asian culture (Confucianism) and creativity Journal of Creative Behavior, 41(1), 28–53 Lee, K.-F (2018) AI superpowers: China, silicon valley and the new world order Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Li, J., Ngin, P M., & Teo, A C Y (2007) Culture and leadership in Singapore: Combination of the east and the west In J S Chhokar, F C Brodbeck, & R J House (Eds.), Culture and leadership across the world: The GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies (pp 947–968) Yahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Liu, J (2006) An introduction to Chinese philosophy: From ancient philosophy to Chinese buddhism Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Marton, F (1981) Phenomenography: Describing conceptions of the world around us Instructional Science, 10(2), 177–200 Marton, F., & Booth, S (1997) Learning and awareness Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers Ministry of Education (2004a) Speech by Mr Tharman Shanmugaratnam, Minister for Education, at the MOE work plan seminar Retrieved from https://www.moe.gov.sg/media/speeches/2004/ sp20040929.htm Ministry of Education (2004b) Opening address by Mr Heng Swee Keat, Minister for Education, at the International Conference of Teaching and Learning with Technology Retrieved from https://www.moe.gov.sg/news/speeches/opening-address-by-mr-heng-swee-keat–minister-foreducation–at-the-international-conference-of-teaching-and-learning-with-technology-ictlt-at- References 179 the-suntec-international-convention-and-exhibition-centre–at-900am-on-wednesday–9-april2014 Ministry of Education (2011) Opening address by Mr Heng Swee Keat, Minister for Education, at the Ministry of Education (MOE) work plan seminar Retrieved from https://www.moe gov.sg/news/speeches/opening-address-by-mr-heng-swee-keat–minister-for-education–at-theministry-of-education-moe-work-plan-seminar–on-thursday–22-september-2011-at-1000-amat-ngee-ann-polytechnic-convention-centre Moen, A., Mørch, A I., & Paavola, S (Eds.) (2012) Collaborative knowledge creation: Practice, tools, concepts Rotterdam: Sense Publishers Mou, Z S (1997) Zhongxi zhexue zhi huitong shisi jiang [Fourteen lectures on mastering Chinese and Western philosophy] Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Works Publishing House Nisbett, R E (2004) The geography of thought: How Asians and westerners think differently … and why New York: The Free Press Nonaka, I (1994) A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation Organizational Science, 5(1), 314–37 Nonaka, I., & Konno, N (1998) The concept of ‘ba’: Building a foundation for knowledge creation California Management Review, 40(3), 40–54 Nonaka, I., Konno, N., & Toyama, R (2001) Emergence of “ba”: A conceptual framework for the continuous and self-transcending process of knowledge creation In I Nonaka & T Nishiguchi (Eds.), Knowledge emergence: Social, technical, and evolutionary dimensions of knowledge creation (pp 13–29) New York: Oxford University Press Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H (1995) The knowledge creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation New York, NY: Oxford University Press Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., & Hirata, T (2008) Managing flow: A process theory of the knowledgebased firm New York: Palgrave Macmillan Paavola, S., & Hakkarainen, K (2014) Trialogical approach for knowledge creation In S C Tan, J Yeo, & H.-Y., So (Eds.), Knowledge creation in education (pp 53–73) Singapore: Springer Science + Business Media Paavola, S., Lakkala, M., Muukkonen, H., Kosonen, K., & Karlgren, K (2011) The roles and uses of design principles for developing the trialogical approach on learning Research in Learning Technology, 19(3), 233–246 Paavola, S., Lipponen, L., & Hakkarainen, K (2004) Models of innovative knowledge communities and three metaphors of learning Review of Educational Research, 74(4), 557–576 Parry, R (2014) Episteme and techne In E.N Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2014 ed.) Retrieved from Perry, W G (1968) Patterns of development in thought and values of students in a liberal arts college: A validation of a scheme Cambridge, MA: Bureau of Study Counsel, Harvard University Retrieved from ERIC database (ED024315) Perry, W G (1970) Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Polanyi, M (1966/2009) The tacit dimension Illinois: University of Chicago Press Pust, J (2016) Intuition In E N Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring 2016 Edition) Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2016/entries/intuition/ Reasoning (2016) In Oxford Dictionaries Oxford University Press Retrieved from http://www oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/reasoning Scardamalia, M (2002) Collective cognitive responsibility for the advancement of knowledge In B Smith (Ed.), Liberal education in a knowledge society (pp 67–98) Chicago: Open Court Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C (1999) Schools as knowledge building organizations In D Keating & C Hertzman (Eds.), Today’s children, tomorrow’s society: The developmental health and wealth of nations (pp 274–289) New York: Guilford Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C (2006) Knowledge building: Theory, pedagogy, and technology In R K Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp 97–118) NY: Cambridge University Press 180 Discussions on Teachers’ Conceptions on the Phenomena … Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C (2014) Knowledge building and knowledge creation: Theory, pedagogy, and technology In K Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (2nd ed., pp 397–417) New York: Cambridge University Press Schommer, M (1990) Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3), 498–504 Schommer, M (1993) Epistemological development and academic performance among secondary students Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 406–411 Schommer, M., Crouse, A., & Rhodes, N (1992) Epistemological beliefs and mathematical text comprehension: Believing it is simple does not make it so Journal of Educational Schommer, M., & Walker, K (1995) Are epistemological beliefs similar across domains? Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 424–432 Schraw, G., & Olafson, L (2002) Teacher’s epistemological worldviews and educational practices Issues in Education, 8(2), 99–148 So, H.-J., Lee, J.-Y., Roh, S.-Z., & Lee, S.-K (2010) Examining epistemological beliefs of preservice teachers in Korea The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 19(1), 79–97 Sfard, A (1998) On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4–13 Steup, M (2014) Epistemology In E N Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring 2014 Edition) Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2014/entries/ epistemology/ Tamney, J B (1996) The struggle over Singapore’s soul: Western modernization and Asian culture Berlin: Walter de Gruyter Tan, S C (2014) Transfer and scaling of knowledge building practices: A journey from diffusion approach to situative knowledge creation community approach Research & Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 9(1), 107–121 Tan, S C., Hung, D., & So, K L (2005) Fostering scientific inquiry in schools through science research course and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) International Journal of Learning Technology, 1(3), 273–292 Tan, S C., & Seah, L H (2011) Exploring relationship between students’ questioning behaviours and inquiry task in an online forum through analysis of ideational function of questions Computers & Education, 57, 1675–1685 Tan, S C., & Yeo, J (2012) Teachers’ perceived challenges of knowledge building pedagogy In B Chang, S C Tan, T Matsui, G Biswas, L.-H Wong, T Hirashima & W Chen (Eds.), Workshop Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp 721–728) Singapore: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education Tsai, C.-C., Chai, C S., Wong, B., Hong, H.-Y., & Tan, S C (2013) Positioning design epistemology and its applications in education technology Educational Technology & Society, 16(2), 81–90 Virkkunen, J., & Newnham, D S (2013) The change laboratory: A tool for collaborative development of work and education The Netherlands: Sense Publishers Whorf, B L (1956) Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf New York: Technology Press of MIT Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/ languagethoughtr00whor Wilson, A., & Myhill, D (2012) Ways with words: Teachers’ personal epistemologies of the role of metalanguage in the teaching of poetry writing Language & Education: An International Journal, 26(6), 553–568 Wong, B., & Chai, C S (Eds.) (2010) Asian personal epistemologies [Special issue] The AsiaPacific Education Researcher, 19(1) Wong, B., Khine, M S., & Chai, C S (2008) Challenges and future directions for personal epistemology research in diverse cultures In M S Khine (Ed.), Knowing, knowledge and beliefs: Epistemological studies across diverse cultures (pp 445–456) Netherlands: Springer Science + Business Media B.V References 181 Yadav, A., & Koehler, M (2007) The role of epistemological beliefs in preservice teachers’ interpretation of video cases of early-grade literacy instruction Journal of Technology & Teacher Education, 15(3), 335–361 Ye, J Y., & Lu, N G (2012) Zhongguo chanting shehui zunshi zhidu de xingcheng [An analysis on the institutionalization of “respect for teachers” in traditional Chinese society] Teacher Education Research, 24(3), 54–62 Yeo, J., & Tan, S C (2014) Redesigning problem-based learning in the knowledge creation paradigm for school science learning Instructional Science, 42(5), 747–775 Zeng, K (1999) Dragon gate: Competitive examinations and their consequences London, UK: Cassell Zhou, J (2003) Remaking China’s public philosophy for the twenty-first century Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers Chapter Conclusions Abstract This chapter concludes the book with a review of the study’s significance, concerns, limitations and strength 9.1 An Overview of the Study The current study sets out to answer calls within existing literature to further advance knowledge creation in schools as scholars observed that education in schools is not changing fast enough to prepare our young to meet the demands of the Knowledge Age As teachers are the key people educating students in schools, scholars have also highlighted a need to investigate teachers’ understanding of the phenomena— knowledge creation, knowledge and knowing against the backdrop of education in the Knowledge Age Chinese Language teachers are examined in this research as language teachers are primarily responsible for the basic literacies that form students’ foundation for lifelong learning Positing that people’s cultural beliefs and the language(s) used are inseparable, Chinese Language teachers may possess an understanding of the different phenomena that reflect the influence of the Chinese culture by virtue of the language they speak and teach To answer the calls, the current research uses phenomenography—a methodology aimed at finding and systematising how people interpret the world around them—to learn about and to describe Chinese Language teachers’ conceptions Through the phenomenographic processes, four separate outcome spaces representing what Chinese Language teachers understand of knowledge, knowing, knowledge creation in general and knowledge creation in education have emerged Each outcome space consists of the qualitatively different, albeit limited understanding of teachers on a phenomenon The different categories in an outcome space form a hierarchical representation of the critical variations in teachers’ understanding Besides the critical variations, other non-critical variations that have emerged from teachers’ conception are also recorded Based on the findings of the current study, it is shown that Chinese Language teachers’ understanding does exhibit various differences from scholarly conceptions © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2020 Y H Tan and S C Tan, Conceptions of Knowledge Creation, Knowledge and Knowing, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3564-2_9 183 184 Conclusions For instance, the understanding of working towards a shared outcome in knowledge creation has not emerged although theories of knowledge creation commonly described some form of shared outcomes as a key component of knowledge creation Other aspects include community-related and process-related differences In the understanding of knowledge and knowing, the emergence of direct definitions and types of knowledge during interviews, and the non-emergence of descriptions on structural aspects of knowledge are also examples of differences of theoretical and people’s conception In addition to demonstrating differences, some of the Chinese Language teachers’ conception may be attributed to the influence of cultural beliefs For instance, some Chinese Language teachers highlighted the non-receptive for changes as an inhibitor to knowledge creation as they believe knowledge creation implies impending changes Change, when seen as a disruption to an existing harmonious state of things, is culturally undesirable Similarly, the omnipresence of authorities of knowledge and the different ways of interpreting these authorities by different teachers reflect on one hand the influence of hierarchy-conscious Confucianheritage culture; and on the other hand, the possible moderating effect of English language and Western culture on Singaporean Chinese Language teachers’ personal epistemology 9.2 Significance of the Study For the field of knowledge creation, this study likely represents the first study to examine in-service teachers’ conception of knowledge creation Based on the findings, it is confirmed that people’s understanding of knowledge creation may indeed be different from scholarly conceptions This could perhaps shed light on why knowledge creation’s uptake by school teachers is slow As previously discussed, some Chinese Language teachers understood that students and teachers are already creating knowledge during Chinese Language lessons If these teachers believe that they or their students are already creating knowledge, it is likely that they would be spending time to pursue other concepts or theories that they are unfamiliar with However, findings from this study suggest that Chinese Language teachers’ conception appears to fall short in numerous ways when compared to what scholars understand of knowledge creation For example, the dominant emphasis on the individual instead of the community or collective would limit the type and extent of knowledge creation activities Chinese Language teachers design for their students Among existing studies of knowledge creation that involve language teachers’ participation, this is also probably the first study to reveal some findings that suggest possible cultural influences in teachers’ understanding of knowledge creation While Chinese Language teachers’ designing for knowledge creation in their lesson activities may be inhibited by specific Confucian-heritage culture, it follows that teachers teaching different language subjects for students’ basic literacies may possess unique culturally influenced conception of knowledge creation Extending beyond language teachers per se, teachers of other subjects who are literate in different or multiple 9.2 Significance of the Study 185 languages could also be culturally influenced in their understanding and uptake of knowledge creation The role of cultural beliefs in knowledge creation will, however, require further studies of more teachers who are literate in different languages in order to achieve clarity For the field of personal epistemology, this study first fills a gap in existing studies on language teachers by reporting on conceptions of knowledge and knowing of in-service teachers teaching the Chinese Language in schools Secondly, the current study contributes to the discourse on cultural specificity on the construct of personal epistemology Findings from this study appear to suggest that Chinese Language teachers’ conceptions of knowledge and knowing differ from existing theoretical constructs While this may be a reflection of differences in personal epistemology under the influence of East Asian Confucian-heritage culture versus Western culture, further studies could examine if people from different cultures, characterised by the different or multiple languages they are literate in, would demonstrate different construct of personal epistemology 9.3 Concerns and Limitations of the Study In the course of this study, communications with other scholars and educators during conference presentations have yielded some concerns and limitations in the present research Many comments pointed towards the need for more research by extending the range of experience of teachers examined Firstly, the focus of this study is on Chinese Language teachers only Within the Singapore school settings, Chinese Language teachers are but one of the four types of language teachers found in most government schools The experiences of Malay Language, Tamil Language and English Language teachers could also be explored to obtain respective sets of outcome spaces With the outcome spaces of different language teachers, we could identify and compare the critical variations that exist in their understanding From a cultural point of view, an understanding of teachers who are literate in four different types of languages could paint a more thorough picture of the interplay between cultural beliefs and people’s conceptions of knowledge creation, knowledge and knowing Similar to the Chinese Language teachers, Malay and Tamil Language teachers are also using English as their working language in the school context The extent of the moderating effect of Western culture brought about by exposure to English can be better understood As studies of personal epistemology of Malay, Tamil and English teachers are also few, these teachers’ conception of knowledge and knowing can also be examined to yield the respective outcome spaces for comparison Another concern raised was the relationship between the Chinese Language teachers’ conception and their actual practice of knowledge creation in their classrooms As the motivation of this study was to learn about people’s understanding of the phenomenon, the focus was set solely on examining and mapping Chinese Language teachers’ conceptions While investigating both conceptions and practices could provide other dimensions for analysis, we had designed the study within a manageable 186 Conclusions scope for a thesis study To include an in-depth investigation of practices while attempting to find a maximum variation in the qualitatively different ways of understanding the various phenomena may over-extend the manageability of the study As a result, the original purpose of the research could be diluted However, building on findings of the current study, future studies could conduct purposive sampling of teachers based on the different categories of understanding An in-depth examination of teachers’ practice of knowledge creation in relation to their conceptions could yield valuable insights towards advancing knowledge creation practices in schools During the conversations, the non-generalisability of findings has emerged as the main limitation of this study However, the intention of the study was not about generalisability Instead, phenomenography was chosen as the methodology to enable a deeper exploration of topics qualitatively Maximum variation sampling was employed in the selection of participants to ensure good variation in terms of teachers’ professional and demographics characteristics (e.g years of experience as a Chinese Language teacher, levels taught, professional status/appointments and gender) within the sample of participants In addition, contextual information is described in-depth where possible; this could allow readers to infer and make a comparison of findings in future studies involving other samples or the population It is also acknowledged that the 16 teacher participants may not necessarily represent all other Chinese Language teachers in terms of the possible variations that exist when all characteristics are considered For instance, each of the more than 350 schools in Singapore potentially represents a unique context that may influence a teacher’s experience However, this does not affect the credibility of the study’s findings as, following Marton (1986/1988), it was assumed that people’s conceptions of a phenomenon are not infinite During data collection, teachers were invited for interviews until the point where no newer concept was introduced by participants in the last three interviews, which is indicative of data saturation Based on the findings of this study, further studies can possibly make use of survey research to achieve generalisability 9.4 Strengths of the Study A strength of the study is the adoption of a qualitative methodology for the current research Phenomenography, being inductive in orientation, has given voices to participants so that they may engage in in-depth sharing of their experiences of the phenomena as they are guided into deeper thinking In knowledge creation, we found that the Chinese Language teachers demonstrated a largely individualistic understanding of knowledge creation despite them showing understanding such as students can also be knowledge creators, and knowledge creation may involve people working in groups Some teachers have also voiced the possible inhibiting factor of culture as they reflected on the barriers to knowledge creation In personal epistemology, we found that unlike scholars, Chinese Language teachers are not concerned with the structure in their understanding of knowledge Some teachers have also talked about ideas that somewhat revealed limitation related to personal epistemology’s 9.4 Strengths of the Study 187 philosophical roots in classical epistemology We also found that Chinese Language teachers always include an understanding of authorities of knowledge regardless of the sophistication of their beliefs These revelations may be missed if a deductive approach or a quantitative methodology was adopted Another strength of this study is its contribution to research on language teachers In the literature, regardless of knowledge creation or personal epistemology, research that examined language teachers were few; it was especially so for studies on inservice teachers As the languages taught in schools were many, this study added the perspective of Chinese Language teachers to the existing voices reported Lastly, this study made a contribution from an Asian context Particularly in the field of personal epistemology, scholars are interested in cultural specificity on people’s conceptions of knowledge and knowing For example, the existence of differences between Western and Asian cultures is being explored Chinese Language teachers in this study contribute to an Asian perspective; particularly a Singaporean perspective Culturally, Chinese Language teachers in Singapore are influenced by the Confucian-heritage culture by virtue of the language they speak and teach Other contexts influenced by this culture include Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Japan and mainland China Among these different contexts, Singaporean Chinese Language teachers are uniquely different in that they are also immersed in English as lingua franca in the working and living environment Possibly moderated by Western culture, Chinese Language teachers in Singapore could conceive the world differently from Chinese language teachers from the other contexts Future studies of these Chinese language teachers from other contexts could allow rich cross-cultural comparisons to be carried out Reference Marton, F (1986/1988) Phenomenography: A research approach to investigating different understandings of reality Journal of Thought, 21(3), 28–49 Reprinted 1988 in R R Sherman & W B Webb (Eds.), Qualitative research in education: Focus and methods (pp 141–161) London: Falmer Press Appendix A Interview Questions and the Translations in Chinese Experience of knowledge creation 谈知识创造 a Name someone whom you think creates knowledge What makes you think that this person creates knowledge? 您认为什么样的人创造知识, 请举例 说明。为什么您认为这个人是在创造知识呢? b Can anyone create knowledge? 是不是任何人都能创造知识? c Have you created any knowledge? Why you think that new knowledge is created? 您有创造过知识吗? 您如何断定自己创造了新的知识? d What are some experiences that contribute to your view of knowledge creation? 有哪些经历促成您对于知识创造的看法? e Could you tell me what you think knowledge creation is to you? 试说知识 创造对于您个人的意义是什么? Experience of knowledge creation in education 谈知识创造于教育 a Is knowledge creation important to you as a teacher? 身为教师, 您认为知 识创造重要吗? b How does knowledge creation relate to your teaching? 您认为知识创造和 您的教学如何挂钩? c How does knowledge creation relate to you as a teacher? 您认为知识创造 对于身为教师的您具备什么意义? d Do you think you create knowledge as a teacher? 身为教师, 您认为您本身 创造知识否? e Do you think your students create knowledge as part of CL lessons? 您认为 您的学生在您的华文课上创造知识否? f Do you think your students create knowledge beyond CL lessons? 您认为 您的学生在华文课之余创造知识否? g .2Does your professional environment (institutional, cultural, social) contribute to knowledge creation (by you and your students)? 您认为周遭的大 环境 (包括学校、文化氛围、社会因素) 是否促进您或您的学生的知识 创造? © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2020 Y H Tan and S C Tan, Conceptions of Knowledge Creation, Knowledge and Knowing, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3564-2 189 190 Appendix A: Interview Questions and the Translations in Chinese h Could you tell me what you think knowledge creation in education is to you? 试谈谈您如何看待教育与知识创造。 Experience of knowledge 谈知识 a Sometimes people talk about there being “right answers” or “truth” What are your views? 有些人说世上存在真理或所谓 “正确的答案”。您怎么看? b Some people like it when experts have different views and disagree with each other What are your views? 有些人乐于见到专家有不同的看法, 各执己 见。您怎么看? c What about the statement “Today’s truths maybe yesterday or tomorrow’s lies”? What are your views? “今天的真理或事实, 是昨天或明天的谎言。” 这句话您又怎么看? d Could you tell me what you think knowledge is to you? 您个人认为知识是 什么? Experience of knowing 谈知道 a Could you explain to me where knowledge comes from? Are these the sources of knowledge for yourself? 知识的出处有哪些? 这些是您个人知识的来 源吗? b Do you question that knowledge when you come across them? 当获取知识 时, 您会对知识有所质疑否? c Do you think that anybody’s opinion is as good as another’s? 是否所有人的 意见或看法都是同样可取的? d Do you trust the opinions of experts? How you know someone is an expert? 您信任专家吗? 您怎么知道某人是专家? e Could you give me some examples of what you know? Could you explain to me how you got to know (chosen from answers to the previous question)? 试举例一些您知道的东西。请说明您是如何懂得 (某某) 东西的。 f Could you tell me what you think knowing is to you? 您个人认为什么叫懂 或知道? Appendix B A Simple Transcription Scheme The following is a list of symbols used in the transcriptions of interview recordings Symbol Descriptions … Pause (as a result of thinking and composing thoughts) …… Part of interview truncated () Clarifying words added based on contextual meaning = Latching on to the previous utterance without any pause italics Emphasis added by researcher [sic] (Latin adverb)—sic erat scriptum; the error was transcribed exactly based on what was expressed during interview © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2020 Y H Tan and S C Tan, Conceptions of Knowledge Creation, Knowledge and Knowing, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3564-2 191 .. .Conceptions of Knowledge Creation, Knowledge and Knowing Yuh Huann Tan Seng Chee Tan • Conceptions of Knowledge Creation, Knowledge and Knowing A Phenomenography of Singapore Chinese... Brain, mind, experience, and school (Expanded Edition) Washington, D C.: National Academy Press Brinkley, I ., Fauth, R ., Mahdon, M ., & Theodoropoulou, S (2009) Knowledge workers and knowledge. .. conditions of, the sources of, the structure and the limits of human knowledge) , and the justification of human knowledge (e.g concept of justification, existence of knowledge internal or external of
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Conceptions of knowledge creation, knowledge and knowing, 1st ed , yuh huann tan, seng chee tan, 2020 1810 , Conceptions of knowledge creation, knowledge and knowing, 1st ed , yuh huann tan, seng chee tan, 2020 1810

Mục lục

Xem thêm

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn