Comprehensive healthcare simulation interprofessional team training and simulation, 1st ed , john t paige, shirley c sonesh, deborah d garbee, laura s bonanno, 2020 175

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Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation Series Editors: Adam I Levine · Samuel DeMaria Jr John T. Paige Shirley C. Sonesh Deborah D. Garbee Laura S. Bonanno Editors Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: InterProfessional Team Training and Simulation Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation Series Editors Adam I. Levine Department of Anesthesiology Mount Sinai Medical Center New York, USA Samuel DeMaria Jr Department of Anesthesiology Mount Sinai Medical Center New York, USA More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/13029 John T Paige Shirley C Sonesh Deborah D Garbee Laura S Bonanno Editors Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: InterProfessional Team Training and Simulation Editors John T Paige Department of Surgery Louisiana State University (LSU) Health New Orleans School of Medicine New Orleans, LA USA Deborah D Garbee Associate Dean for Professional Practice Community Service and Advanced Nursing Practice Professor of Clinical Nursing LSUHSC School of Nursing New Orleans, LA USA Shirley C Sonesh Organizational Psychologist Sonnenschein Consulting, LLC New Orleans, LA USA Laura S Bonanno Nurse Anesthesia Program Director Louisiana State University (LSU) Health School of Nursing New Orleans, LA USA ISSN 2366-4479    ISSN 2366-4487 (electronic) Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation ISBN 978-3-030-28844-0    ISBN 978-3-030-28845-7 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28845-7 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020, corrected publication 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland To our families, for their support and inspiration, and to all our health professional students We hope that this work will help foster interprofessional teamwork and collaboration in order to improve the quality of care for all patients Foreword I While many simulation activities started out being addressed to participants from a single discipline, with at most cursory involvement or mention of interprofessional clinical teams, there has been growing realization of the critical importance of simulation-­based interprofessional education (IPE) for healthcare workforce development and clinical teamwork A variety of simulation curricula promote that they address IPE, but actually the term – along with others that are similar in thrust, if not identical (e.g., interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary) – can mean a host of different things In fact, IPE cuts across a huge swath of the 11 (sometimes 12) “dimensions of simulation” activities that I articulated originally in 2004 Some underlying core principles of IPE may be roughly constant across the dimensions (e.g., experiential learning theory; respect for all participant professions), but others will vary particularly depending on the participant populations’ level of experience (e.g., early clinical students/trainees vs experienced clinicians), clinical professions (e.g., nurses, physicians, allied health professionals, clergy, clerks, technicians), goals of the activity (e.g., team-building, team training, systems probing), and many others Further, these dimensions will strongly influence exactly how simulation activities will be conducted There is a saying (now attributed to Yale Class of 1882 student, Benjamin Brewster) “In theory there is no difference between theory and practice, while in practice there is.” Surely, the details of a simulation activity – the, as we like to say, “Journalism 101″ view, the “who, what, why, where, when… and how” – will greatly influence what each particular IPE curriculum or session looks like Hence, with the great and growing interest in simulation-based IPE, and the substantial variation with the simulation community of what it means and how it is conducted, it is appropriate that a textbook on simulation-based IPE should come out at this time No book, regardless of how many chapters, and indeed no batch of dozens or hundreds of journal papers or conference presentations, can cover the entire spectrum of issues concerning IPE. This book does a good job of addressing a large number of them The authors are highly qualified and experienced in the area they address Of course, the field of IPE is vast, and hearing from a finite number of experts means that there will still be more to learn from others as well To use some culinary metaphors – admittedly that I’ve also used before about some other works because the parallels seem so apt – one could describe this book as a buffet presenting dishes from a variety of skilled chefs This book is clearly not intended to be read in its entirety, and surely not in one fell swoop No one can eat vii Foreword I viii a meal consisting of every dish created by dozens of master chefs (holiday dinners notwithstanding), nor is every dish (i.e., chapter) relevant to each person’s own taste (i.e., interests) But nearly all readers will find much of interest, usually to agree with, occasionally to disagree with, or to trigger debate Overall, plenty are useful for improving the extent and quality of simulation-based IPE for the future benefit of clinicians and patients And that, in the end, is what our simulation community is really all about Bon appétit!      David M Gaba, MD Professor of Anesthesia, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine Associate Dean for Immersive and Simulation-based Learning Founding Editor-in-Chief, Simulation in Healthcare Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Foreword II Forty years ago, I entered a Bachelor of Science in Nursing program with the intention of caring for and improving the lives of the patients I would have the privilege to serve I have since gone on to complete two advanced degrees: one for an Advanced Practice Nursing role (CRNA) and the other in Public Health Upon reflection, I am struck by the “silo” nature of each of these educational programs as I pursued development of knowledge, skill, and confidence in focused areas of study I, of course, had the opportunity to interact with many other professional roles through these educational experiences and in my parallel clinical practice, but little attention was devoted toward helping me understand how my role should interface with the other professionals with whom I worked Perhaps more importantly, my understanding of how to collaborate with other professionals to improve the care of patients had to be learned on the job and through trial and error More than 25 years ago, I began my simulation career with an initial focus on skill training and anesthesia crisis resource management (ACRM) At the time, we relied on the groundbreaking simulation textbook by Dr David Gaba and coauthors which described how to manage crisis events which occur in the OR and how to think about the process and organize our efforts as a team Recognizing the importance of crisis management in the training of anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists, we created a course that we continue to offer to interprofessional anesthesia trainee teams on an annual basis at WISER. This was my first foray into interprofessional education, and over the intervening years, I have seen interest in the concept of interprofessional education (IPE), and the companion concept of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) grows from an idea germinated in the simulation and patient safety movements to an accepted “next step” in the pursuit of higher-quality patient care Professional organizations, educational institutions, healthcare leaders, and hospital systems all now agree that enhancing the function of interprofessional teams is important toward improving the healthcare working environment and the quality of care This interest and agreement is seen in the United States and across the world A primary problem that I have encountered in my national and international faculty development work is that educators at the undergraduate, graduate, and practicing professional levels struggle to overcome the challenges associated with planning and organizing interprofessional learning activities As such, the publication of Interprofessional Team Training and Simulation is especially timely and important ix x Foreword II in today’s healthcare environment Authored by an extraordinary interprofessional team of simulation and safety experts, the textbook includes theory, best practices, planning and implementation strategies, and examples of successful courses This robust resource has the potential to break down barriers and impact the development of effective and efficient simulation-based IPE courses nationally and internationally John M. O’Donnell, DrPH, MSN, RN, CRNA, CHSE, FSSH Professor and Chair, Department of Nurse Anesthesia University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing Program Director, Nurse Anesthesia Program Senior Associate Director, Winter Institute for Simulation Education and Research (WISER) Pittsburgh, PA, USA Foreword III Effective interprofessional, collaborative practice is essential to providing high-­ quality and safe surgical care Roles and responsibilities of various professionals need to be defined in this context and should form the basis for exemplary teamwork Such interprofessional, collaborative practice requires individuals from different professions to train together, and simulation can be very helpful in supporting such training Published research has demonstrated the value of simulation-based interprofessional team training in improving the quality of surgical care and enhancing patient safety This book is a major contribution to the field of simulation-based interprofessional team training It defines the underpinnings and theoretical constructs, describes specific approaches to implementing the training, and provides information on establishing a state-of-the-art simulation center Team training aimed at learners across the continuum of professional development is then addressed Finally, implementation of interprofessional training focusing on teamwork in specific settings, including the operating room, labor and delivery rooms, critical care settings, and prehospital care, is covered This book addresses a range of important topics in the field of simulation-based interprofessional team training Surgeons, members of interprofessional teams, surgical trainees, and medical students should all find this book helpful in their work Faculty at simulation centers should find the book useful in implementing effective simulation-based interprofessional team training programs Also, the approaches described could be used effectively in surgery residency training and medical student education I believe this book is a very valuable contribution to the literature on this important subject Implementation of strategies articulated in this book should help to advance both surgical care and surgical training Ajit K. Sachdeva, MD, FACS, FRCSC, FSACME Director, Division of Education Chair, ACS Program for Accreditation of Education Institutes American College of Surgeons Chicago, IL, USA xi 298 J McCarthy et al Box 19.2 Key Questions for a Needs Assessment NEEDS ASSESSMENT: To replicate the scenario as an IPE simulation activity, the educator will need to investigate the wide variety of issues that will be present through the various stages of this single call for EMS service Here is a small sample of the questions that can be asked to investigate the factors involved in an IPE simulation that involves EMS • How is the EMS system structured? • How does the dispatcher function and integrate with the responding crew? • What is the scope of practice allowed for each of the EMS crew members on scene? What are the protocols in place to support this? • Will there be an EMR on scene to assist? • How is home health care integrated? • In what ways will the team need to perform based on the different clinical decisions that are made throughout the transport? • At what stage does the hospital portion of care become a part of the care process (e.g on scene or during the transport? • What care is delivered enroute and who might be involved if the patient is ill (extra providers in the transport)? • When additional resources in the hospital environment become engaged (e.g response teams) based on the information received from the EMS unit? • How does patient care transition from the EMS unit to the Emergency Department? Who is involved? Box 19.3 Design Factors for EMS IPE Simulation DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: While the requested or desired reasons for including EMS in an IPE activity can vary widely, there are some consistent considerations related to EMS that the educator should consider for all IPE activities where they are included: • What are the communication concepts that must be addressed? • What opportunities exist to break down the silos between professions and enhance the understanding and awareness of the other professions? • How can the activity be designed to identify systems issues and challenges or to then support improving the system in the future? • Where are the common challenges faced by each of the professions involved that can be included? • What variations exist between the multiple EMS agencies that serve an individual area that create the need for design modifications dependent on participants? 19  Pre-hospital Care: Emergency Medical Services 299 Typical IPE EMS Activities The most common IPE EMS simulation activities involve an overlap with other public safety departments An EMS simulation activity may also involve a combination of public safety and hospital personnel simulating a hand-off from the prehospital to the hospital environment or hospital to a critical care transport team Responses to doctor/dental offices or surgical centers serve as an easy conduit for transfer of care in an emergency For example, transfer of care in an emergency department can be between EMS to RN, EMS to physician, EMS to an advanced practice provider, EMS to RT, or EMS to a specialized service such as neurology, cardiology or trauma services due to a specific code activation A rare overlap can include transfer of care to a healthcare provider in obstetrics, burn care, or dialysis Every EMS provider is required to complete, at a minimum, annual education competency assessments to facilitate recertification and/or re-licensure These mandatory assessments provide opportunity to enhance the amount of EMS IPE simulation activities Unfortunately, a significant challenge in EMS education is creating a realistic environment that mimics challenges in managing scene safety The growing concern is being able to simulate a high-risk environment without endangering or impacting the safety of the learners There is a balance and that balance must always weigh the importance of keeping the learners’ safe regardless of the learning objective Additionally, it is imperative that the experience involves all aspects of care to include care for the patient during movement An example of the value of IPE is when EMS providers are required to complete rotations with anesthesia providers in the operating room (OR) to develop clinical competence in managing an airway Unfortunately, this training can cause the EMS provider unnecessary stress An IPE simulation activity with anesthesia providers to provide training on airway management could improve the comfort of the EMS provider as well as prepare the EMS provider for actual hands on airway management involving an actual patient out of the hospital setting This would allow the team to learn about each other’s roles and to understand how they can work together when the EMS provider is tasked with working in the real OR environment The key is to foster capability, confidence, and competence of the student and the other healthcare team members Additionally, the learner begins to understand the environment, their role, their team members’ roles, and the processes of that unfamiliar clinical setting Long term, the effectiveness IPE simulation activities environment can be seen translated in the real world as the benefits to improving the quality of patient care become better known Most healthcare disciplines can utilize a simulation activity once as they focus solely on medical care and communication In EMS, scenarios can be modified with environmental and fidelity factors that adjust the mandatory actions, despite the patient presentation and care requirements Code Activations and Patient Flow It is important to trial an IPE simulation activity before implementation of a new policy or practice that affects patient care Using simulation to first test a new policy 300 J McCarthy et al allows for streamlining and improvement that otherwise would not occur before implementation This is especially important when such policies directly impact patient care or could alter how a patient is transferred from the prehospital setting into a hospital environment For example, a 52-year-old is experiencing chest pain and the prehospital providers determine the patient is having a heart attack Instead of transporting the patient to the emergency department, the consulting physician advises that the patient should be taken directly to Cardiac Catheterization Lab bypassing the Emergency Department An IPE simulation activity can also be used to improve the flow of information from the prehospital environment to the hospital An IPE simulation activity could include a scenario where EMS and Nursing interact, and patient hand-off is required in the activity The patient received multiple interventions before hospital arrival There are many factors that can impede a proper patient hand off High Emergency Department census, the high acuity patient being transferred, current patient care ratios, poor past experiences between providers; just to name a few The simulation activity could address each of these factors and allow the providers to practice better standard patient hand off Even less obvious simulation activities regarding the flow of information, such as EMS supply and pharmacy replenishment processes, can provide data about the time, impact, and efficiency while identifying opportunities for improvement Atypical IPE EMS Activities Medical emergencies can occur in any patient care environments Often these emergencies are rare, and the health professionals have never needed to render emergency care until the EMS arrives Practicing medical emergencies is an easy way to implement initial IPE simulation activities between EMS and other health professions For example, a dental hygiene medical emergency response integrates two professions that normally not interact but may be required to because of a medical emergency during dental treatment Facilitating patient treatments like seizure management or CPR in a dental chair can be challenging and must involve a variety of healthcare team members to ensure it is done effectively avoiding issues with unknown equipment and tight spaces The transfer of care between the dental team and the EMS crew can be confusing because of the equipment that may have been utilized during the dental procedure These atypical IPE with simulation activities are high risk, low yield activities that require a significant amount of preplanning to ensure it is an effective and safe teaching environment EMS IPE: Lessons Learned The EMS scope of practice and the complex nature of healthcare is, unfortunately, creating a natural barrier for integrating realistic IPE simulation activities Although cost associated with utilizing simulation-based education has continued to be a significant concern over the years, the technology is available within the industry EMS 19  Pre-hospital Care: Emergency Medical Services 301 programs have invested in the technology but have not provided educators with the foundational skills or time needed to effectively integrate IPE with simulation [19] It is important to optimize educational opportunities both in the planning and debriefing phases with learners By doing this early on, we hope to avoid creating a series of false assumptions which can ultimately undermine an objectively driven simulation activity By identifying staffing levels and patterns, and their respective affiliated organization, we can further highlight the complexities related to creating an IPE simulation activity Furthermore, this may help identify possible future IPE activities The design of simulation scenarios should address a need, establish a competency or competencies, enhance capability, or improve a process [20] The care provided by EMS is not just life and death decisions EMS trauma responses account for less than 20% of the overall service activation and in some areas, the percentage is much lower [21] It is less important to develop a situation where blood, guts, and gore are a significant part of the scenario [22] IPE simulation activities involving EMS providers should be structured and based on data identified by evaluating the EMS services in the local region where the simulation activity will be offered The local EMS leadership can provide a more accurate breakdown of the types of calls, amount of contact time with a patient, and the most frequently accessed destination for patient care This information can be used to design a better simulation activity that is relevant to the learning objectives and realistic for the learners As you review the potential impact and implication for developing and implementing an IPE simulation activity, it is equally imperative that the value of IPE is not forgotten The teamwork and communication needed to be successful in EMS involves the EMS team members understanding their own strengths and weaknesses An often forgotten, but unique simulation experience involves an intraprofessional simulation focused on emergency response, care, and transport that ultimately ends with the public safety team managing a complex scene and involving the local healthcare system Scenarios such as a mass casualty drill can create just such an intraprofessional and interprofessional simulation experience Scheduling EMS IPE simulation activities can be difficult If interacting with initial learners, the curricula are packed with limited opportunity for including non-­mandatory topics or activities For experienced providers, scheduling educational opportunities around their shift rotation can be difficult Optimally, offering a variety of opportunities to attend an IPE simulation experience ensures that all shifts can participate By obtaining buy-in from EMS leadership, you have a greater chance of improving participation Due to the varied EMS structures, engaging with the EMS leadership early in the process as you begin to plan your educational activity, will garner support By showing them the value of IPE with simulation, you may find a new pivotal partner Conclusion The complex varied national structure and wide-ranging level of EMS providers have resulted in a public identity problem for the EMS profession Providers are often referred to as “ambulance drivers,” yet their scope of practice allows them to 302 J McCarthy et al perform the most advanced pharmacologic administrations and invasive procedures, in some areas without consulting a physician EMS personnel interact with a wide range of other health professions Including EMS in IPE simulation activities, offers a mechanism for raising awareness about EMS patient care services while also improving communication between professions that often overlap outside of the hospital While these activities require specific questions to ensure the proper design and thus a successful activity, the EMS profession is eager to be included in IPE activities Despite the differences in system structure, personnel staffing, or scope of practice, EMS personnel are seeking ways to improve patient safety By involving them in an IPE simulation activity, patient safety and improved patient outcomes can become an important shared goal References NHTSA.  Review of National 911 Data Collection July 2013 [Online] Available from: https://www.911.gov/pdf/current911datacollection-072613.pdf NASEMSO.  National EMS Assessment December 2009 [Online] Available from: https:// www.nasemso.org/documents/National_EMS_Assessment_Final_Draft_12202011.pdf NHTSA. Safety in numbers DOT HS 812 027 May 2014 [Online] Available from: https:// www.ems.gov/pdf/ems-data/Provider-Resources/SafetyInNumbers_EMS_May2014.pdf Institute of Medicine Emergency Medical services at the crossroads Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2007 Chapter NHTSA.  National EMS Education Standards DOT HS 811 077A.  January 2009 [Online] Available from: https://www.ems.gov/pdf/education/EMS-Education-for-the-Future-ASystems-Approach/National_EMS_Education_Standards.pdf Margolis GS, Studnek J, Fernandez AR. Will work for free Are volunteerism rates falling? J Emerg Med Serv 2006;31(5):48, 51 Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services 2011 National EMS Assessment U.S.  Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 723,Washington, D.C.; 2012 [Online] Available from: www ems.gov; page 106 Martin T. Aeromedical transportation: a clinical guide Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group; 2006 Varon J, Wenker O, Fromm R Jr Aeromedical transport: facts and fiction Internet J Emerg Intensive Care Med 2006;1(1) 10 NHTSA.  What is EMS? 2007 [Online] Available from: https://www.ems.gov/whatisEMS html 11 Patel A, Waters N, Blanchard I, Doig C, Ghali W. A validation of ground ambulance pre-­hospital times modeled using geographic information systems Int J Health Geogr 2012;11(1):42 12 Roach B, Echols K, Burnett A.  Excited delirium and the dual response: preventing in-custody deaths July 2014 [Online] Available from: https://leb.fbi.gov/2014/july/ excited-delirium-and-the-dual-responsepreventing-in-custody-deaths 13 Center for Patient Safety EMS forward: the ten patient safety topics January 2016 [Online] Available from: http://aams.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/EMSFORWARD-PS-10.pdf 14 Marx JA, Rosen P.  Rosen’s emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice 8th ed Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders; 2014 p. 2507 15 Banja J.  The normalization of deviance in healthcare delivery Business Horizons 2010;53(2):139 [Online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2009.10.006 16 Reichard A, Marsh S, Moore P. Fatal and nonfatal injuries among emergency medical technicians & paramedics Prehosp Emerg Care 2011;15(4):511–7 19  Pre-hospital Care: Emergency Medical Services 303 17 Mazen ES, Kue R, McNeil C, et  al A descriptive analysis of occupational health exposures in an urban emergency medical services system: 2007–2009 Prehosp Emerg Care 2011;15(4):506–10 18 O’Daniel M, Rosenstein AH. Professional communication and team collaboration In: Hughes RG, editor Patient safety and quality: an evidence-based handbook for nurses, Advances in patient safety Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 [Online] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2637/ 19 McKenna K, Carhart E, Bercher D, Spain A, Todaro J, Freel J. Simulation use in paramedic education research (SUPER): a descriptive study Prehosp Emerg Care J 2015;19(3):432–40 20 INACSL Standards Committee INACSL standards of best practice: simulation SM Simulation design Clin Simulat Nurs 2016;12(S):S5–S12 [Online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2016.09.005; https://www.inacsl.org/INACSL/documentserver/?cfp=INACSL/assets/File/public/standards/SOBPEnglishCombo.pdf 21 MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Guidelines for field triage of injured patients January 13, 2012 [Online] Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/ rr6101.pdf 22 Blaug G, Hochner A, Portwood J. What variables affect public perceptions for EMS meeting general community needs? J Allied Health 2012;41(2):e39–43 Correction to: Applications of Simulation-Based Interprofessional Education in Labor and Delivery Colleen A. Lee, Dena Goffman, Peter S. Bernstein, David L. Feldman, and Komal Bajaj  orrection to: Chapter 17 in: J. T Paige et al (eds.), C Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: InterProfessional Team Training and Simulation, Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28845-7 The book was inadvertently published with incorrect affiliation of all the authors in Chapter 17 This has now been corrected in Chapter 17 as below: Colleen A Lee MS, RN1, Dena Goffman MD2,3, Peter S. Bernstein MD, MPH4, David L. Feldman MD, MBA5, Komal Bajaj MD, MS-HPEd4,6 Weill Cornell Medicine Physician Organization-Quality and Patient Safety New York, NY, USA Department of Quality and Patient Safety New York-Presbyterian Hospital New York, NY, USA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY, USA Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Women’s Health Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center Bronx, NY, USA Healthcare Risk Advisors, The Doctors Company New York, NY, USA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Jacobi Medical Center, NYC Health + Hospitals Bronx, NY, USA The updated version of this chapter can be found at https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28845-7_17 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 J T Paige et al (eds.), Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: InterProfessional Team Training and Simulation, Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28845-7_20 C1 Index A Accreditation Committee for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), 195, 196, 233 Accredited Educational Institutes (AEI), 205 Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), Advanced Emergency Medical Technician (AEMT), 286, 288 Advanced Life Support (ACLS), 167 Advanced practice providers (APPs), 107 Advanced practice registered nurses (APRN), 238 Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS), 167, 236, 237 After-action reviews (AARs), 11 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 41 American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA), 234 American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM), 237 American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), 233 American Board of Surgery (ABS), 236 American College of Surgeons (ACS), 204, 205 American College of Surgeons Advanced Trauma Operative Management (ATOM), 254 American Heart Association (AHA), 230 American Physical Therapy Association, 204 American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA), 235 Assessment criteria of, 123, 124 data types, 124, 125 multi-level evaluation, 123 processes and outcomes, 123 qualitative methods CIT, 126 communication analysis, 126 concept mapping, 127 protocol analysis, 125, 126 quantitative methods automated performance recording, 129–131 BARSs, 127 BOSs, 128 event-based measurement, 128 self-report measures, 129 structural knowledge assessment, 128, 129 strategies, 125 Association for Surgical Education (ASE), 204 Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS), 204 B Backward Design approach, 179 Behavioral modeling training (BMT), 12 Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARSs), 11, 39, 83, 125, 127 Behavioral observation scales (BOSs), 11, 125, 128 Best evidence in medical education (BEME) systematic review, 94 C Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 217, 287 Categorization-elaboration model (CEM), 24 Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment (CELA), 95 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 J T Paige et al (eds.), Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: InterProfessional Team Training and Simulation, Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28845-7 305 Index 306 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), 292 Certified nurse midwives (CNM), 264 Cognitive learning processes, 23 Collaborative learning, 23 Complex adaptive system (CAS) characteristics, 272 healthcare settings, 272 KSAs, 273, 274 quality and safety, 272 team behaviors, 272 team members, 272 technical and nontechnical skills, 274 treatment plan, 272 Computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), 43 Contingency teams, 253 Continuing education (CE) credits, 266 Continuing Medical Education (CME), 215 Controlled Risk Insurance Company (CRICO), 212–214, 236 Crisis Resource Management (CRM), 249–250 Critical care adherence, 278 barriers, 278–280 challenges, 278 communication and collaboration, 277 computer modelling simulations, 278 design care environments, 277 institutional-wide applications, 277 issues, 274, 275 Kirkpatrick’s framework, 275 nontechnical skills, 276 organizational levels, 277 quality improvement, 277 scalability, 277, 278 stress tests, 277 targeted teams, 276 technical skills, 276 Critical incident technique (CIT), 126 D Debriefing active self-learning, 71 culture/environment, 69 developmental experiences, 71 facilitator, 66–68 feedback, 66 information sources, 71 knowledge, skills, and attitudes, 65 Kolb’s Experiential Learning model, 67–69 measurement and tools, 67, 69 mechanisms for reporting, 70 memory recollection, 67, 69 meta-analysis, 72 non-technical skills, 69 participants, 67, 68 performance/behavior correction, 71 performance review, 71 simulation, 66 technical skills, 69 timing of, 67, 70 E Electronic health records (EHR), 43 Electronic medical records (EMRs), 100 Emergency department (ED), 107, 196 Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) criteria, 293 Emergency Medical Responder (EMR), 286 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) air medical component, 290 curriculum, 288 dispatch centers, 293 geographic locations, 293, 294 patient interactions, 294 prehospital care, 290–293 regional structure, 289 simulation, 301 atypical activities, 300 code activations, 299, 300 design of, 295–298 foundational skills, 301 intraprofessional simulation, 301 overlap of disciplines, 294, 295 patient flow, 300 planning and debriefing phases, 301 positive outcomes, 295 potential impact and implication, 301 scope of practice, 300 team performance characteristics, 295 trauma responses, 301 typical activities, 299 staffing model, 289, 290 in United States, 286–288 Emergency Medical Technician (EMT), 286–288 Event-based assessment tools (EBATs), 11 Evidence-based practice, 252 Evidence, IPE effectiveness, 23 Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO), 238 Index F Federal Department of Transportation (DOT), 286 Fetal heart rate (FHR), 264 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 43 Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS), 167, 236, 237 G Gap analysis, 251 H Harvard’s Center for Medical Simulation, 143 Healthcare ad-hoc teams, 59 EDUCA-TRAIN model acknowledging incompatibilities, 54 adaptation, 56 behavioral components, 51 behavioral modeling, 58 care for patients, 53, 54 delegation of responsibility, 52, 53 elaboration of knowledge, 52 element, 52 functional practices, 58 IMOI model, 58 norm-setting appreciation of work, 57 professional identity, 56, 57 reciprocate information flow, 55, 56 requirements, 51 simulation, 58 team resources, 55 team training, 51 team uniting, 53 e-learning and mixed learning, 59 teamwork, 50 Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), Health information technologies (HIT), 34 Health Professions Accreditors Collaborative (HPAC), 201 Hospitals Insurance Company (HIC), 262, 263 Human factors application of, 35 collaboration, 40 content development, 36, 37 core competencies, 41 definition, 34 educator/education team, 38 evaluation framework, 39, 40 health information technology, 43 HIT, 34 307 Joint Commission for Quality and Safety, 34 learning content, 38, 39 learning opportunities, 35 long-term sustainable benefits, 36 medication error, 34 misdiagnosis, 42, 43 needs analysis, 41 organizational support, 40 patient care, 40, 41 physical fidelity, 42 practice and simulation development, 37, 38 pre-existing content, 41 problem identification, 36, 37 professional development, 41 program effectiveness, 41, 42 program’s temporal lifecycle, 35, 36 psychological fidelity, 42 Human factors accident classification system (HFACs), 34 Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), 264 I Informal professional, 22 Injury severity score (ISS), 198 Input-Mediator-Output-Input (IMOI) model, 58 In situ simulation advantages, 111, 112 barriers, 106 centralized simulation center, 113 cognitive aids, 114, 115 debriefing, 114 disadvantages, 112, 113 evidence, 105, 106 high functioning team’s, 117 high-quality program, 113 investigation and standardization, 117 latent safety threats, 114 medical staff’s, 115, 116 method of instruction, 117 onboarding processes, 107 ongoing development, 110, 111 orientation curriculum, workspaces, 107, 108 physician, 116, 117 potential disruption, 117 quality improvement, 108–110 senior leadership, 115, 116 staff constituents, 114 standardized patient actors, 116 systems-based improvement, 106 308 Institute of Medicine (IOM), 286 Instructional methods, 28, 29 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care, 289 Interdisciplinary education, 22 Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS), 204 Intergroup contact theory, 24 International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Innovation, Research and Education (INSPIRE), 277 Interpositional knowledge, 142 Interprofessional Attitudes Scale (IPAS), 190 Interprofessional Education Collaborate (IPEC) core competencies, 138, 186, 201 IPEC Competency 2, 142 J Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-­ Nurse Collaboration (JSATPNC), 205 Joint Commission (JC), 239, 255 K Kirkpatrick’s model macro-level, 189 meso-level, 189 micro-level, 189–191 Knowledge, skills, and abilities, 9, 49, 55, 273, 274, 287 Knowledge, skills, and attitudes, 28, 29, 33, 78, 121 L Labor and delivery applications and benefits, 261 obstetrics comprehensive interprofessional simulation program, 265–268 emergency checklists, 268, 269 in-situ simulation, 265 off-site simulation, 265 PLI, 262–264 supporting evidence, 264, 265 Latent safety threats (LSTs), 107, 108 Leaners, 27, 28 Learning, 23 Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), 184, 201 Index Logistics initial simulation event, 141, 152–153 learner assessment, 146, 147 optimal patient care, 135 organizational planning committed educators, 136, 137 committed leadership, 136 pre-briefing activity, 145 The Basic Assumption, 143 debriefing process, 145, 146 elements, 142 event implementation, 145 interprofessional communication, 144 non-hierarchy, 142 objectives, 144 overview, 143 perceptions and experiences, 141 personal connection, 142 role identification, 142 teamwork, 143, 144 program evaluation, 147 simulation curriculum champions, 137 faculty, 137, 138 goal setting, 138 objectives, 139 professional learners, 137, 148 safe container, 137 scenario creation, 140 scheduling, 139 simulation modality, 140 space, 140, 141 template, 139 M Maintenance of certification (MOC), 111, 234–236 Maintenance of Professional Standards (MOPS), 236 Mass casualty incident (MCI), 115, 294 Medical doctors (MDs), 107 Meta-analytic evidence, 22 Miscommunication, 23 Mobile Integrated Healthcare (MIH) model, 288 Mobile Integrated Healthcare and Community Paramedicine (MIH-CP), 291, 293 Modality matching, 140 Multidisciplinary education, 22 Multiprofessional education, 22 Multivariate canonical analysis, 258 Index N National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME), 232 National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education, 96 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), 251 Non-technical content, 28 Non-technical skills (NTS), 226 Nurse practitioners (NP), 264 O Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), 158, 196, 233, 234 Operating room (OR), 299 cognitive aids, 252, 253 emotional intelligence, 258, 259 perioperative domain, 258 power failure backup generators, 256 battery powered light sources, 256, 257 battery-powered devices, 255 emergency power grid, 256 institutional leaders, 255 institutional problem, 255 laparoscopic gastric bypass scenario, 256 leadership, 255 performance/resources, 255 policy and checklist, 257 policy development, 256 protocol deficiencies, 257 protocol development team, 256 simulation training scenario, 256 surgical procedure, 255 threat assessment, 255 setting, 212 stakeholders nurses, 253 physicians, 253 simulation-based team training, 253 simulation-based training, 254 skills, competencies, and activities, 253 team training, 254, 255 teamwork ratings, 253, 254 teamwork skills, 253 team exercises and training gap analysis, 251 gap closure, 252 initial threat assessments, 251, 252 objectives, 250 organizational mindfulness, 252 pre-surgical procedure briefings, 251 309 service line vs controls, 251 stakeholder groups, 251 stress test, 251 surgical outcomes, 251 TeamSTEPPS©, 250, 251 Operating Room Management Attitudes Questionnaire (ORMAQ), 251 P Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), 198 Physical fidelity, 37 Physician Assistant Education Association, 203 Physician’s assistant (PA), 219, 264 Post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), 217 Post-graduate education ACGME, 195, 196 challenges, 201–203 debriefing, 199 emergency trauma care, 196 impact of, 206, 207 in-situ setting, 200 integrated instructional designs, 198, 199 labor- and time-intensive IPE, 198 low teamwork scores, 198 marginal gains, 199 nursing leadership, 199 optimal interprofessional participation, 198 outcomes, 196 patient safety culture, 199 pediatric residency, 199 PICU, 198 pre- and post-mock code surveys, 199 representative sample, 196, 197 resources ACS, 204, 205 AEI, 205 APDS, 204 ASE, 204 IEPS, 204 JSATPNC, 205 MedEdPORTAL Publications, 203, 204 TeamSTEPPS® 2.0, 204 safety threats, 200 service-heavy night float rotation, 200 standardized patients, 200, 201 team training, 200 teamwork and communication, 199 trauma resuscitation simulations, 197 virtual reality, 201 Practice Performance Assessment and Improvement (PPAI) element, 235 Index 310 Pre-defined learning objectives, 26–28 Prelicensure education curriculum development components, 183 macro-level, 184 meso-level, 184, 185 micro-level, 185, 186 evaluations and outcomes conceptual framework, 187 macro-level, 189 meso-level, 189 micro-level, 189–191 faculty and students macro-level, 186, 187 meso-level, 187 micro-level, 187 logistics macro-level, 177–179 meso-level, 179, 180 micro-level, 180–183 Pre-professional simulation BEME systematic review, 94 challenges, 97 collaborative care planning, 95, 96 competencies, 90, 92, 93 contemporary healthcare delivery, 93 creative solutions, 96 critical knowledge, 90 debriefing, 95 development and adoption, 97, 98 faculty and administrators, 97 financial support, 97 health professions spectrum, 90, 91 high quality simulation centers, 97 historical and societal norms, 93 institutions, 90 interprofessional instruction, 97–98 local and nation-wide institutions, 99 logistical and financial factors, 95 logistical challenges, 99 MedEdPORTAL curricula, 94, 96 military and aviation industry, 93 multiple modalities, 91 multiple organizational levels, 97 non-simulation implementation, 97 opportunities, 100 Palaganas’ review, 93, 94 patient-centered care, 94, 95 patient populations, 98 Pew recommendations, 89 positive outcomes, 93 qualitative evaluative guidelines, 95 self-assessment, 95 simulation-based activities, 90 sustainability, 96, 97 sustainable practices, 99 systemic cultural change, 90 team-based care, 93 Professional liability insurers (PLI) administrative support, 263 adverse events, 264 deficiencies, 263 HIC, 262, 263 malpractice insurance, 262 Profession-specific domains, 23 Psychological fidelity, 10, 37 Psychological safety, 25 Pulmonary embolism (PE), 217 Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) arrest, 217 Q Quality improvement (QI), 108–110 R Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS), 190 Registered nurses (RNs), 107, 264, 288 Respiratory therapists (RTs), 288 Royal College of Anaesthetists (RCOA), 234 Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), 234 S Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI), 268 Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, 206 Self-categorization theories, 24 Shared governance model, 164 Simulation assessments, benefits challenges, cost efficiency, 7, debriefing, deliberate practice, development of expertise, evidence-based best practices, 8, hospital-related events, Kirkpatrick’s evaluation framework, on-the-job behavior, patient-related outcomes, patient safety, skill acquisition, culture change, feedback, 11, 12 goal of, Index innovation and exploration, in-situ performance support, 5, learning objectives, 9, 10 macro-simulations, 14 multi-team system, 14 observational protocols, 10, 11 performance evaluation, prevalence of, scenario design, 10 system-level approach, 12, 13 team-based clinical environment, training and education, 4, Simulation-based team training (SBTT) advantages, 78 challenges debriefing, 84 feedback, 84 learner responses, 81, 82 multiple learners, 81 non-technical competencies, 79 recommendations, 79, 80 team competencies, 79–81 teamwork measurement, 82, 83 information-based training modalities, 78 Simulation-based training (SBT) clinical skills, 229 competency-based education anesthesiology, 231 assessment modalities, 227 clinician competence, 229 direct clinical observation, 228 interprofessional collaborative practice, 227 knowledge based assessment, 226 Kolb’s model, 228 Miller’s pyramid, 227, 228 social learning theory, 228 World Health Organization’s report, 227 contexts and clinical settings, 229, 230 direct patient care, 229 educational modality, 240 evidence for, 230 financial, time and logistical resources, 240 formative feedback, 230, 231 general surgery, 236 graduate medical education, 233, 234 healthcare assessment, 230 healthcare education and training, 225, 226 health professionals, 237 laparoscopic task trainer, 237 licensure, 232 MOC, 234–236 non-technical aspects, 240 311 in nursing, 237–239 participants, options for, 239 patient safety, 229 primary certification, 234 procedure-based fields, 237 for remediation, 239 resuscitation certification, 230 screen-based simulations, 240 undergraduate medical education, 231, 232 virtual reality simulations, 240 Simulation center courses and learners, 167, 168 curriculum, 166, 167 development decision, 159–161 environment-centered skills, 158 faculty development, 168, 169 features, 158 financial support capital investments, 162 monetary support, 164 operating budget, 162, 163 philanthropic donations, 162, 163 user fees, courses, 163, 164 leadership and governance structure administrative and business expertise, 164 advisory committee, 165 faculty educators and staff, 165 implementation plan, 164, 165 management committee, 165 model of, 165, 166 shared governance model, 164 organizations, 159 scholarly activity, 168 scope of, 161, 162 surgical and gynecologic departments, 157 Situation-Background-Assessment-­ Recommendation (SBAR), 264 Social identity theory, 24, 25 Standardized patient (SP), 116, 139, 200, 201, 232 Subject matter experts (SMEs), 10 Summative assessment methods, 146 Surgical Quality Improvement Program (SQIP) parameters, 251 Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model, 35, 277 T Team-based practice skills, 226 Team observed structured clinical exam (TOSCE) evaluation, 200 Team performance, 24, 26 Index 312 Team processes, 25, 26 Team training anesthesia, 217 faculty representative, 219 organizational psychologist, 219 roles, 219, 220 specialties and professions, 219 training, 220 features, 215 initial scenarios, 216 logistics participant benefits, 214, 215 participant recruitment, 213, 214 session logistics, 221, 222 materials and handouts, 218, 219 objectives, 216 PACU, 217 planning, 212, 213 specialty-specific handouts, 216 surgical specialties adjustments, 217, 218 tumor resection, 216, 217 Teamwork Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (T-MEX), 190 Technical content, 28 Training needs analysis (TNA), 12 Transactive memory system (TMS), 25, 26 U United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), 231, 232 Univariate correlation analysis, 258 V Vanderbilt Program in Interprofessional Learning (VPIL), 95 Video-assisted oral debriefing, 70 Virtual reality (VR), 237, 240 ... Switzerland AG 2020 J T Paige et al (eds.), Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: InterProfessional Team Training and Simulation, Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation, https://doi.org/10.1007/97 8-3 -0 3 0-2 884 5-7 _1... Healthcare Simulation ISBN 97 8-3 -0 3 0-2 884 4-0     ISBN 97 8-3 -0 3 0-2 884 5-7  (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/97 8-3 -0 3 0-2 884 5-7 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020, corrected publication 2020 This... http://www.springer.com/series/13029 John T Paige Shirley C Sonesh Deborah D Garbee Laura S Bonanno Editors Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: InterProfessional Team Training and Simulation Editors John T Paige Department
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