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Perspectives on Rethinking and Reforming Education Jian Li Comprehensive Global Competence for World-Class Universities in China Context, Concept, Model and Evaluation Perspectives on Rethinking and Reforming Education Series Editors Zhongying Shi, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China Shengquan Yu, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China This book series brings together the latest insights and work regarding the future of education from a group of highly regarded scholars around the world It is the first collection of interpretations from around the globe and contributes to the interdisciplinary and international discussions on possible future demands on our education system It serves as a global forum for scholarly and professional debate on all aspects of future education The book series proposes a total rethinking of how the whole education process can be reformed and restructured, including the main drivers and principles for reinventing schools in the global knowledge economy, models for designing smart learning environments at the institutional level, a new pedagogy and related curriculums for the 21st century, the transition to digital and situated learning resources, open educational resources and MOOCs, new approaches to cognition and neuroscience as well as the disruption of education sectors The series provides an opportunity to publish reviews, issues of general significance to theory development, empirical data-intensive research and critical analysis innovation in educational practice It provides a global perspective on the strengths and weaknesses inherent in the implementation of certain approaches to the future of education It not only publishes empirical studies but also stimulates theoretical discussions and addresses practical implications The volumes in this series are interdisciplinary in orientation, and provide a multiplicity of theoretical and practical perspectives Each volume is dedicated to a specific theme in education and innovation, examining areas that are at the cutting edge of the field and are groundbreaking in nature Written in an accessible style, this book series will appeal to researchers, policy-makers, scholars, professionals and practitioners working in the field of education More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/14177 Jian Li Comprehensive Global Competence for World-Class Universities in China Context, Concept, Model and Evaluation 123 Jian Li Faculty of Education Beijing Normal University Beijing, China This study funded by Beijing Education Science Planning (Key project) Research on Internationalization Development Strategy and Evaluation Index System of Capital Universities under the Background of “Double First-Class” (Grand No AAAA19009) ISSN 2366-1658 ISSN 2366-1666 (electronic) Perspectives on Rethinking and Reforming Education ISBN 978-981-15-1639-9 ISBN 978-981-15-1640-5 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1640-5 © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore Preface The cultivation of comprehensive global competence has become an increasingly pivotal part of the higher education system worldwide The initial idea of comprehensive global competence tends to explore universities’ and colleges’ cross-cultural capacities at institutional levels The concept of global competence at an institutional level is inherently embedded in the interplay of the globalization and internationalization of higher education institutions, which focus on gaining cross-cultural knowledge, cross-cultural skills, cross-cultural attitudes, and cross-cultural habits The increasingly urgent quests of constructing comprehensive global competence stimulate various higher education institutions to pursue for creating world-class universities in a globalized world In recent decades, cultivating global competence is frequently mentioned in various universities and colleges worldwide This book tends to explore and propose a framework for conceptualizing and measuring comprehensive global competence at an institutional level Based on such framework, the context, concept, model, and evaluation are systematically and empirically examine the rationale and validity This study is also contextualized by the globalization and internationalization of contemporary higher education systems for advocating world-class universities The idea of comprehensive global competence is initially identified and elaborated through both conceptual and methodological dimensions The conceptual definition of comprehensive global competency is synthesized as an institutional cross-cultural capacity in the multidimensional learning domain for valuing cultural diversity Along with this conceptual definition of comprehensive global competency, the methodological dimensions of comprehensive global competency are characterized as four institutional cross-cultural learning dimensions, including institutional global attitude and perceptions; institutional acquired, integrated, extended, and refined global knowledge; institutional global practical skills; and institutional habits of global mind for valuing cultural diversity These four dimensions are derived from literatures of competency and dimensions of global competency, and Marzano’s (1992) Dimensions of Learning Model This study also provides both theoretical and practical implications for advocating comprehensive global v vi Preface competency for Chinese universities and colleges in the context of global higher education systems worldwide Specifically, this book also contributes to defining the idea of “comprehensive global competence” through examining the context, concept, model, and evaluation Specifically speaking, the context related to identifying comprehensive global competence for creating world-class universities includes three major parts: international higher education: retrospective and prospective; Chinese higher education context; strategical goal of creating world-class universities The concept associated with constructing comprehensive global competence focuses on investigating the definitions of comprehensive global competence, global competence at student level, global competence at faculty level, global competence at institutional level The model linked to creating comprehensive global competence concentrates on constructing model of comprehensive global competence through conducting sub-model of global competence for faculty members, and sub-model of global competence for institutions The evaluation associated with identifying comprehensive global competence involves creating evaluation types of comprehensive global competence, indicators of comprehensive global competences, and dimensions of comprehensive global competence All these four stages contribute to identifying comprehensive global competence from different perspectives (see Fig 1) Fig The outline of constructing comprehensive global competence for world-class university Preface vii In response to the intensive discussion on exploring the globalization and internationalization of higher education system worldwide, this book aims to exploring, analyzing, and conceptualizing an initial concept of “global higher education shared community” locally, regionally, nationally, and globally The introductory chapter involves examining a historical perspective on the Chinese international higher education landscape It investigates the comprehensive national strategy on examining Chinese international higher education, institutional strategies, and action ideas that influenced the efforts of Chinese higher education institutions to strive for creating world-class universities It also shed light on analyzing the global development for constructing World-class universities, the challenges, and countermeasures on the difficulties to achieve the comprehensive development of Chinese international higher education institutions, contextually Chapter aims to examine Chinese citizenship education in a globalized world from an academic micro context The idea of citizenship education serves as foreign product that appeared in China in the early twentieth century It is interdependent with the development of the globalization and internationalization of higher education institutions in the Chinese context This chapter mainly involves exploring the developmental stages of Chinese citizenship education historically, the analysis of the connotation of citizenship education, the overview and analysis of foreign citizenship education, the practice of citizenship education in contemporary China, and the research characteristics and prospects of citizenship education in Chinese context Chapter aims to explore couples of key policies of faculty ethics since 2014 from a perspective of social identity theory In the context of constructing comprehensive global competence, faculty serves as indisputable role to shape international higher education development with Chinese characteristics Especially, faculty ethics are considered core values to influence the trends of Chinese international higher education progress In particular, with the social identity theory, “identity” is considered as a core of integrating national, regional, and institutional policies of faculty ethics into a more holistic landscape The hierarchical structure of policies of faculty ethics includes value identity, orientation identity, and behavioral identity Social identity-based model of analyzing faculty ethics’ policies at national, ministerial regional, and institutional levels mainly involves three key dimensions, including value identity, orientation identity, and behavioral identity Those three dimensions contribute to shaping a consisting rhythm of “value-orientation-behavior” to explore the inherent rationales in the formation of faculty ethics’ policies in contemporary China contextually Conclusion and remarks are offered to summarize educational policies related to faculty ethics Chapter involves internationalizing higher education for creating world-class universities in China from the perspectives of stakeholders In recent years, internationalizing higher education has been a significant activity for creating world-class universities in the Chinese mainland Initiating the internationalization of higher education institutions in the global academic market, it is of the utmost essential that most of the elite universities are pushed to rank among world-class universities Through stimulated policies and financial supports, top universities in viii Preface China devote themselves to accelerate the internationalization of universities to join the ranks of “world-class university” through conducting a series of institutional reforms Thus, this study focuses on investigating different stakeholders’ attitudes toward the ongoing educational reforms and present barriers of such top-down policies at Chinese top universities The in-depth interviews have been conducted Chapter describes the trends of globalization of higher education in contemporary China and the related importance of developing the emerging idea of comprehensive global competence among various higher education institutions The idea of global competence for Chinese undergraduate students is examined through the statement of purpose and problem definition, illustrates the significance of the study, defines the key terms, and describes some of the limitations of the study related to identifying comprehensive global competence, systematically and contextually Chapter concentrates on examining the literature on comprehensive global competence for an individual in contemporary China The idea of comprehensive global competence for an individual includes both students and faculty members in various higher education institutions It was mainly organized into six sections, providing a comprehensive literature review of global education, illustrating Chinese global education, offering summaries and remarks on global competency, examining the proposed conceptual definition, providing a theoretical framework of global competency, and describing the methodological dimensions of global competency Chapter involves exploring the theoretical model of constructing comprehensive global competence at the individual level It focuses on introducing and analyzing the theoretical framework of Dimensions of Learning (Marzano 1992), including the definition, content, implications, and justification of the model Specifically, the Dimensions of Learning Model (Marzano 1992) is a comprehensive research-oriented framework on learning cognition and learning process It focuses on improving the quality of teaching and learning in any content area The most important reason why I apply this model is that the dimension of learning model provides a practical approach to create curriculum and instruction for cultivating global competency In this sense, the definition of the dimensions, content, and implications are examined to investigate and measure a global multidimensional learning domain for valuing cultural diversity Thus, this chapter proposes a framework for conceptualizing and measuring comprehensive global competence at the individual level Chapter involves investigating the methodological model of constructing comprehensive global competence at the individual level Along with the previous chapter focusing on conceptualizing theoretical model, it concentrates on exploring critiquing current assessments of global competence and proposing a set of dimensions corresponding to the conceptual framework for assessing global competency Along with the critiques on current assessments and proposed methodological dimensions of global competency, the similarities and differences of dimensions of global competency, structural relations among global competency, Preface ix and implications regarding the proposed measure are examined to clarify, enrich, and shape this methodological approach to measuring global competency Chapter concentrates on examining the assessment questions for measuring global competence at the individual level As guided by the proposed conceptual and methodological models, sets of items are proposed for each of the four proposed dimensions of global competence: global attitude and perception; acquired, integrated, extended and refined global knowledge; global practical skills; and global habits of mind Chapter 10 concentrates on analyzing measurement validity for each scale of competence at an individual level Measurement validity refers to the “best available approximation to the truth or falsity of a given inference, proposition or conclusion” The idea of validity focuses on an informed judgment of how strongly theory and evidence support the interpretations and decisions based on the measure In this regard, this section considers discriminant validity, focusing on the distinctions between what is expected to be associated with the proposed four-dimensional measures of global competency Hence, in this section, the validity argument for each scale is articulated to examine the expected association between student background characteristics (i.e., geographical origin, parental education, study or travel abroad experience, majors, class levels, and academic performance) and the four-scale sets (global knowledge; global practical skills; global attitudes and perceptions; and global habits of mind) Beijing, P R China Jian Li Acknowledgements In the realization of this book, our contributors have been supportive and willing to share their opinions on how to explore the context, concept, model, and evaluation of comprehensive global competence I am definitely grateful for the generosity and positive spirit of collegiality While most of the chapters in this book are original and several chapters are adopted from my previously doctoral dissertation and articles related to conceptualizing and measuring global competence at different contexts and editors are grateful for the kind permissions granted to facilitate this Reference Marzano, R J (1992) A different kind of classroom: Teaching with dimensions of learning Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1250 North Pitt Street, Alexandria, VA 22314 (ASCD stock no 611-92107, $15.95, plus $2.50 handling) 10.3 The Relations Between Six Background Characteristics … 139 10.3 The Relations Between Six Background Characteristics and Interaction Effects Major and Class Level For the combination of Major and Class Level, Class Level is expected to make a larger difference for social science majors than for science majors in terms of Global Knowledge and Global Practical Skills For students from social science majors, they are more likely to take courses that impart more global knowledge and skills from freshmen to senior Senior students from social science majors are more likely to learn more about how to examine and address a range of social, cultural, economic, and political issues related to the interconnected global world than others from freshmen or sophomores For example, senior students majoring in linguistics or sociology are more likely to learn more global knowledge and global practical skills, focusing on how people communicate through foreign languages and intercultural skills or how to make a better understanding of the processes of contemporary global world and interconnected society than others from freshmen or sophomores In contrast, for senior students from science majors, they are more likely to participate in different projects or senior designs to solve specific tasks or goals than freshmen or sophomores They are less likely to attend social or cultural courses for cultivating their global knowledge or global practical skills than freshmen or sophomores For example, senior students majoring in math or statistics are more likely to learn how to solve equations, functions, polynomials or normal distributions than freshmen or sophomore Thus, for the scales of Global Knowledge and Global Practical Skills, Class Level is expected to be positively associated with the two scales for social science majors, but not for science majors Grade Performance and Major By the same logic, Grade performance is expected make a difference in their Global Knowledge and Global Practical Skills for social science majors, but not for science majors For Global Knowledge and Global Practical Skills, students in social science majors with high grade performances are expected to have cultivated more Global Knowledge and Global Practical Skills, since that is likely a key component of the curriculum and their grades demonstrate mastery of the curriculum For example, students from history or sociology majors with high grade performances are more likely to acquire diverse foreign cultural or historical knowledge and skills than students in the same majors with low grade performance Thus, for social science majors, the grade performance is positively expected to be associated with students’ Global Knowledge and Global Practical Skills Conversely, students from science majors with high grade performances are expected not to improve their Global Knowledge and Global Practical Skills Specifically, students from chemistry or physics majors with high grade performances are more likely to acquire more knowledge or skills about elements, atomic number, 140 10 Measurement Validity for Each Scale of Global … compounds or Newton’s Law, conservation of energy, special relativity than others with low grade performance Their high grade performances will not necessarily be associated with improving their cross-cultural knowledge or practical communicative skills on the increasingly globalized campuses, since that is not a focus of the science curriculum Thus, for student from science majors, grade performance is not expected to be associated with Global Knowledge and Global Practical Skills Geographic Origin and Parental Education For the combination of Geographic Origin and Parental Education, I argue that Parental Education Status matters more for rural students than for urban students for cultivating students’ Global Knowledge, Global Practical Skills, Global Attitudes or Perceptions and Global Habits of Mind For students from rural areas, those with highly educated parents (non-first generation status) are expected to acquire more Global Knowledge, Global Practical Skills, Global Attitudes or Perceptions and Global Habits of Mind than rural origin student whose parents are not college educated (first generation status) Many researchers have demonstrated that parental education has direct or indirect impacts on students’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits The positive correlation between parental education and rural students’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits is well established Despite the deficits of rural upbringing, highly educated parents are expected to encourage and cultivate their offspring to participate in international matters For urban origin students, it is expected that parent’s educational status is less important, because of the richness of opportunities offered within the urban environment The Geographic Origin provides much more pivotal impact on students’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits than Parental Education Status For example, first generations students from urban areas are more likely to receive invitations from international exchange programs or foreign internship They are also more likely to participate in these international learning opportunities to enhance their global knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits than others as non-first generations from urban areas Thus, Geographic Origin provides urban students’ more external impetus to influence their knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits toward the global world than rural students Along with the illustration from internal acquired incentive (Parental education) and external support (Geographic origin), we conclude that, for rural students, Parental Education matters more than geographic origin for cultivating students’ cross-cultural knowledge, skills, attitudes or habits For urban students, the Geographic Origin matters provides for more external motivation than Parental Education for their intercultural knowledge, skills, attitudes or habits in the interconnected society The expected interactions are summarized in the following Table 10.2 To sum up, this section of validity arguments elaborates the hypothesized main effects and interaction effects between for each four scale and students’ background characteristics In order to confirm whether the four scales are justified, factor analysis, scale reliability tests, and tests of group differences are explored to test the previous validity argument References 141 Table 10.2 Expected interaction between background characteristics and four scales of global competency Variables Scales Expected interaction Major X class level Major X academic performance Global knowledge Global practical skills The interacting variable (class level and academic performance) will be positively associated with each scale for social science majors but not for science majors Geographic origin X parents’ education status Global knowledge Global practical skills Global attitudes and perceptions Global habits of mind Parents’ education status will have a greater positive association with the four scales for rural origin students than for urban origin students References Baker, W E (1990) Market networks and corporate behavior American Journal of Sociology, 96(3), 589–625 Bourdieu, P (1984) Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste Harvard university press Hill, N E., & Craft, S A (2003) Parent-school involvement and school performance: Mediated pathways among socioeconomically comparable African American and Euro-American families Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 74 Hull, C L (1943) Principles of behavior: An introduction to behavior theory Kolb, D A., Boyatzis, R E., & Mainemelis, C (2001) Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions Perspectives on Thinking, Learning, and Cognitive Styles, 1(2001), 227–247 Lally, P., Van Jaarsveld, C H., Potts, H W., & Wardle, J (2010) How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(6), 998–1009 Melby, J N., & Conger, R D (1996) Parental behaviors and adolescent academic performance: A longitudinal analysis Journal of Research on Adolescence Miller, S A (1988) Parents’ beliefs about children’s cognitive development Child Development, 259–285 Rollins, B C., & Thomas, D L (1979) Parental support, power, and control techniques in the socialization of children In: W R Burr et al (Eds.), Contemporary theories about the family: Research-based theories Sander, T H (2002) Social capital and new urbanism: Leading a civic horse to water? National Civic Review, 91(3), 213–234 Appendix Global Competency Survey for Undergraduate Students Do you agree with the following statement? (Experience) I have taken formal or informal foreign language training courses at colleges or institutions within five academic years Yes No I have studied in or visited in foreign countries in the last five years No Yes, for less than months Yes, for months or longer Over the past year, I have read foreign language books, articles, newspapers, or other foreign language publications Never Rarely Occasionally Frequently What is your proficiency in English? No proficiency Elementary/limited proficiency Professional working proficiency Full professional proficiency Native or bilingual proficiency To what extent you agree with the following statement? I enjoy interacting with students from other countries on campus Strongly disagree; Disagree; Neutral; © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2020 J Li, Comprehensive Global Competence for World-Class Universities in China, Perspectives on Rethinking and Reforming Education, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1640-5 143 144 Appendix: Global Competency Survey for Undergraduate Students Agree; Strongly agree Survey Questions I enjoy learning about how people live in different countries with various cultures Strongly disagree; Disagree; Neutral; Agree; Strongly agree I would like to establish friendly relationships with students from other countries on campus Strongly disagree; Disagree; Neutral; Agree; Strongly agree I enjoy helping international or foreign students and faculty and respond positively to them Strongly disagree; Disagree; Neutral; Agree; Strongly agree During the current academic year, how often have you done the following? Studied a foreign language Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 10 Learned about foreign politics through my studies or attending extracurricular activities Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never Appendix: Global Competency Survey for Undergraduate Students 145 11 Learned about foreign economic, or culture through my studies or attending extracurricular activities Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 12 Learned about foreign culture through my studies or attending extracurricular activities Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 13 Read Global Times, World News Journal, or CAN KAO XIAO XI Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 14 Learned about global climate or global warming issues by myself Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 15 Learned about global environmental or global ecosystem issues by myself Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 16 Given presentations or speeches about issues related to other countries or cultures Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 146 Appendix: Global Competency Survey for Undergraduate Students 17 Whether have attended such an international academic conference Yes No 18 Included diverse perspectives (international politics, global economics, cultural diversity, etc.) in course discussions or assignments Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 19 Learned something new about another country or culture Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never Which of the following have you done or you plan to before you graduate? 20 Participated in an international internship Have already done so Have set plan to so No set plans, but I hope to so I have not and not plan to so 21 Participated in an international student organization or group Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 22 Participated in a study abroad program (long-term) Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 23 Participated in an international exchange program (short term) Frequently Very often Often Appendix: Global Competency Survey for Undergraduate Students 147 Sometimes Never 24 Worked with foreign faculty on an international research project Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 25 Taken online international MOOCs courses Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 26 Taken bilingual courses at different departments Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never During the current academic year, how often have you experienced the following? 27 Reviewed information about an international topic to understand better the world outside China Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never During the current academic year, to what extent have you done the following? 28 Explained a global issues or problems (e.g., global climate change, global ecosystem) in a class assignment or for an outside class activity Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 148 Appendix: Global Competency Survey for Undergraduate Students During the current academic year, how often have you done the following? 29 Thought critically and analytically about global issues to become a more informed and active global citizen Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never 30 Identified and summarized cross-cultural issues or problems from multiple perspectives and experiences Frequently Very often Often Sometimes Never Basic Information Why we ask about your personal background? 31 What is your gender identity? A Female B Male C I prefer not to respond 32 What is your ethnic identification? A Han B Mongol C Hui D Another racial identity, please specify: E I prefer not to respond 33 What type of university or college you attend? (Institutions classification) A Project 985 B Project 211 C Others 34 Score of College Entrance Examination (in total) Please enter Current GPA (in total), please enter 35 What is your major? A Philosophy B Economics C Law D Education E Science F Art G Language and Culture H History I Agriculture J Engineering K Public Health L Political Science M History N Sociology 36 What is your class level? A Freshman B Sophomore 37 Family geography A Rural C Junior B Urban D Senior Appendix: Global Competency Survey for Undergraduate Students 149 38 Parental Education 8.1 Father’s education A High school or lower B Vocational colleges/institutions; C Research Universities/colleges (public or private); 8.2 Mother’s education A High school or lower B Vocational colleges/institutions C Research Universities/colleges (public or private) 39 Family income (Monthly) A Less than 1000 Yuan C 3000 and above B 1000–2999 Yuan Thanks so much for your participation! 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Contents Part II Comprehensive Global Competence for World-Class Universities in China: Concept Exploring the Emerging Idea of Comprehensive Global Competence in Contemporary China ... China Striving for innovation for creating world-class universities Zhejiang University Conducting strategy of “internationalization 4S strategy” for promoting international reputation and influences
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