Communication and popularization of science and technology in china, fujun ren, jiequan zhai, 2014 1819

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Fujun Ren · Jiequan Zhai Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China Fujun Ren • Jiequan Zhai Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China Fujun Ren China Research Institute for Science Popularization Beijing, People’s Republic of China Jiequan Zhai Humanities and Social Science Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing, People’s Republic of China ISBN 978-3-642-39560-4 ISBN 978-3-642-39561-1 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-39561-1 Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2013953722 © China Science and Technology Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) Preface The twentieth century saw great achievements occur in nearly every important aspect of human life That century witnessed unprecedented economic prosperity, industrialization, the dawn of the information age, and the emergence of the knowledge-based economy All of these developments can be attributed to scientific and technological advances in a variety of fields These innovations have been widely applied, resulting in profound changes in the mode of economic production, economic development, lifestyle, in social values and individual psychology Due to scientific developments through the twentieth century, human society entered into a new era of technological sophistication, more rational economic structures, and general improvements in well-being The changes brought by science in the twentieth century give us confidence that scientific advances in the twentyfirst century will continue to provide impetus for social development Advances in basic scientific research will expand our understanding of nature and society, as well as promote technological and economic development; information science and technology will accelerate the communication and application of knowledge, improve industrial technology, and enhance economic prosperity; advances in biology will improve people’s health and quality of life; new energy technologies will solve the world’s energy and environmental problems; nanotechnology will lead to a new technological revolution In sum, advances in science and technology will change nearly every aspect of our lives At present, economic growth is driven by innovations in science and technology, which appear to be decisive factors in economic development and social progress Scientific and technological innovations are an increasingly important means for solving social problems and for stimulating economic growth As a consequence, intellectual resources are becoming more strategically important for national development Increasing national wealth and improving people’s quality of life increasingly depend on the innovation and application of knowledge The speed at which knowledge is created, as well as the communication, diffusion, and application of scientific breakthroughs have become increasingly important for national and global prosperity On the international stage, science and technology have v vi Preface become an increasing battleground in the constant competition between nations That’s why all countries, especially developed countries, have made scientific and technological innovation and promotion key to their national strategies As links between science and technology and the economy have become tighter, scientific, technological and intellectual innovations have also grown in the importance they hold for social development While the importance of promoting public literacy has long been known, only in the twentieth century did efforts to promote scientific and technological literacy become a major priority As early as the 1970s, the United States carried out an extensive investigation of citizens’ scientific literacy, which gave birth to a plan called the ‘2061 Project’ in the 1980s The 2061 project aimed to improve the scientific literacy of all Americans In the 1990s it was adopted as a national goal in the US to ‘help all Americans become literate in science, mathematics, and technology’ Similarly in Europe, a movement named the ‘public understanding of science’ was born in the mid-1980s This view held that scientific literacy was necessary to be a modern citizen, and emphasized promoting public understanding of science through joint efforts across different sectors of society As these policy initiatives show, Western governments have long viewed civic scientific literacy and understanding of science as high priorities The basic ways to improve civic scientific literacy are through science education and popular media In China, both more extensive developments of school science curricula as well as an increase in the use of modern media to promote and disseminate scientific knowledge is needed In recent years, developed countries have made the promotion of scientific literacy and science education key components of their strategies to increase scientific and technological innovation The value of efforts to promote public awareness of science is not limited to the promotion of citizens’ scientific literacy, but is also evident in the enhancement to scientific and technological research These efforts also are important for economic development As President Hu Jintao noted in his speech celebrating the 50th anniversary of the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), science consists of both innovation and popularization, since these processes that complement each other Building a country driven by innovation will require improvements in citizens’ scientific literacy and greater public awareness of science The promotion of science and scientific literacy are the basic conditions for nurturing talent and innovation Globally, the promotion and dissemination of scientific ideas increased greatly in the twentieth century due to social change, public demand, and growth in communications technology In recent years there have been innovations in the methods used to promote scientific understanding Large-scale efforts to promote science and scientific literacy have been undertaken jointly by governments, schools, mass media, industry, the scientific community, and organizations dedicated to promoting scientific awareness These efforts have involved a variety of actors, complex networks, and means of communication In summary, these efforts represent a new and exciting phase in the promotion of science and technology In China, efforts to promote public awareness of science have long been a government priority The phrase ‘popularize scientific and technological knowledge’ can be found in the first edition of the Constitution of the People’s Republic Preface vii of China early in 1954 Since then, the government has made efforts to promote scientific and technological literacy a major priority This has held particularly true since the 1990s, when the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council issued the Directive Opinions on Strengthening Engagement in Science and Technology Popularization, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Popularization of Science and Technology (Law of Science Popularization for short), and The Outline of the National Scheme for Scientific Literacy (2006–2010– 2020) (the Scheme for short) These laws have increased resources for promoting scientific literacy and have led to policies that have made these efforts more effective These developments suggest that the promotion of public awareness of science and technology will be increasingly successful However, despite reasons for optimism about the future, science and technology communication and popularization in China still face many challenges Although there have been theoretical advances in this field, in addition to increased funding and technological advances, there remain organizational and methodological hurdles to increasing public awareness and understanding of science and technology In response to these challenges, new efforts to increase scientific and technological literacy have emerged based on the principle of “government promotion and participation by societal forces.” Today the key objectives for the promotion of scientific literacy in China are (1) draw lessons from the experiences of developed countries, (2) adapt to modern times, (3) be in accordance with Chinese conditions, and (4) accelerate innovation Theoretical and practical research on science and technology communication and popularization in China has become particularly dynamic over the last 10 years, driven by the demands of scientific, technological, and economic development, together with the rapid development of organizations promoting public awareness of science This research has led to new concepts, answered important questions, and discovered new problems Important theoretical advances in this field have informed government policies on the promotion of science Future research on science and technology communication and popularization in China will be enhanced by greater integration of research with advanced international theories and methods, and by an increased focus on the unique problems and challenges of promoting public awareness of science in China Combining cutting-edge, international methods and theories with a deeper understanding of the unique context of modern China will allow researchers to develop better techniques to enhance public awareness of science and technology Promoting public understanding of science can only be successful if those involved are themselves guided by scientific theory and research Similarly, policies aimed at promoting scientific literacy will only be successful if they themselves are guided by science It is also worth noting that the best ways of educating the public about science will depend on the characteristics of the audience at which they are aimed In order to meet the challenge of making all citizens scientifically literate, a great deal of research will be needed This book aims to be a reference for researchers studying the promotion of scientific literacy in China, as well as a guide for those interested in promoting viii Preface scientific awareness generally This book covers advances in science and technology communication and popularization (STCP) practice and research in China and abroad Theoretical issues are discussed, and important problems in efforts to promote scientific and technological awareness are identified (e.g., basic principles, structures, channels of communication, and present needs) This book provides a summary of the progress of STCP in China in recent years (especially after the issuing of the “National Scientific Literacy Outline”) including, STCP resource and capacity construction, science popularization policies, practitioner development, infrastructure construction, and the development of the science popularization industry At the same time, this book also reviews the design, organization, monitoring, and evaluation of science and technology communication and popularization programs In addition, it highlights current trends and developments in STCP in China, and calls for a greater focus to be put into research for the promotion of scientific literacy It is hoped that this book will be useful to readers both in China and abroad by familiarizing them with the history, theory, and development of STCP Chapter briefly reviews the history of STCP Chapters 2, 3, 4, and discuss the conceptual framework, basic structure, methods of communication, and current needs of STCP Chapter introduces the principle content of programs aimed at improving Chinese citizens’ scientific literacy, while Chaps and analyze resources, capacities and conditions that have been developed for STCP in China Chapter investigates the organization, monitoring, and evaluation of science popularization practices, and finally Chap 10 summarizes important topics and trends in STCP in the China of today It should be noted that in this book, the phrase “science and technology communication and popularization,” or STCP, is used as a term to define the entire field The reason for this choice is that, in the authors’ opinion, at the present stage the field involves problems and tasks at different levels STCP is an inclusive and integrated term that better reflects the current challenges of scientific, technological, and social development This term better encompasses the field of study as well as the practice of promoting public awareness of science and scientific literacy It is our view that this term is more useful than previous ones for the discussion of different problems concerning science popularization, public understanding of science, and scientific communication The term “science popularization” is also used in the book as shorthand for “science and technology communication and popularization”, but its meaning is not limited to the popularization of practical scientific and technological knowledge (as opposed to an understanding of the scientific method and a scientific worldview) For these reasons, we feel that this updated terminology is more useful than traditional definitions of science popularization STCP is a practical and rapidly developing field Important changes have occurred in the theory and practice of STCP in recent years The views presented in this book and the predictions for the future of STCP may need to be revised based on future developments Given the scope of the topic and limitations of space, there Preface ix will be aspects of STCP that this book, like any review of the field, is bound to overlook Despite attempting to represent a wide variety of viewpoints, it is beyond the scope of the present work to include all relevant lines of thought We welcome commentary and criticism, and we hope that this book can be a platform to further both lively debate and close cooperation among those studying and implementing STCP in today’s China China Research Institute for Science Popularization Beijing, People’s Republic of China Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing, People’s Republic of China November 2011 Fujun Ren Jiequan Zhai Postscript The development of science has long been intertwined with its promotion Scientific research and innovation have benefited from efforts to promote science and to popularize scientific ideas The juncture between scientific research and the promotion of scientific ideas has led to an important field: STCP In the present context, economic and social development is ever more dependent on scientific and technological innovations The pace and scale of innovation in these areas has caused the promotion of scientific literacy among the general public to become of utmost importance This dramatic rise in the importance of STCP can be traced to the demands of modern economies in the twenty-first century and the rise of new communications technologies that facilitate the dissemination of ideas STCP has to be tailored to fit different demographics, including children and young people, farmers, city-dwellers, technical personnel, and managers STCP also has to modify its approach to appeal to people with different levels of interest in science and technology Because of the complexities of the task, promoting public engagement with science requires cooperation from government, educators, scientific professional associations, mass media, and industry, as well as organizations dedicated to the promotion of science Finally, the general public’s participation is also necessary if STCP efforts are to achieve success STCP work also faces other challenges, including responding to public fears and anxiety over technological and scientific developments In addition to these issues, STCP requires further research to help identify the most effective methods of communicating science to the public, increasing scientific literacy, and promoting science and technology as desirable fields of study and future careers STCP is an “inclusive” practical field which brings together a variety of practices and theoretical systems Thus managers, practitioners and researchers engaged in the science and technology communication and popularization enterprise should be open to a multidisciplinary approach In China, STCP has benefited from greater attention from the national government, increased resources, and research-driven improvements in methods for promoting F Ren and J Zhai, Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-39561-1, © China Science and Technology Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 347 348 Postscript scientific literacy Theoretical developments and increased public participation have also aided STCP in China Despite these promising developments, STCP in China still faces many urgent problems We should draw on lessons learned from developed countries, as well as ensure a careful analysis of the context of contemporary Chinese society is made to securely implement successful STCP policies To implement STCP will also require systematic research on both the successes and failures of previous attempts to increase scientific literacy Such research should hopefully generate useful principles for STCP practice It is hoped that such research will not only be successful in increasing the public’s engagement with science in China, but may also prove useful to those engaged in this enterprise internationally To summarize, in this book theoretical problems in science and technology communication and popularization have been probed, the development of Chinese science communication and popularization in recent years has been analyzed, and predictions have been made regarding future STCP trends In writing this book, the authors’ hope that they have provided not only a useful survey of the field, but also a work that will spark conversation and debate among scholars and specialists in both practical and academic circles It is hoped that the book may also inspire readers from outside this field to make a contribution to the development of STCP research and practice in China Index A American Association of Science Museums, 316–317 Australian awareness, enjoyment, interest, opinions or understanding (AEIOU) model, 43–45 B Bacon, F., Bader, E., 307 Bader, J., 307 Barrow, I., Berlo, D.K., 62 Berlo’s communication model, 62 Bernal, J.D., 14, 38–40, 46, 48 Bryant, J., 161 Burns, T.W., 38, 43, 47, 49 Bush, V., 10, 160 C Capacity of science communication and popularization, 32 CAST See China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), 29, 32, 78, 255–256 Chinese STCP Agricultural Cooperation Movement, 29 CAST, 29, 33 Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, 27 “Circular of Summoning National Science Conference”, 30 Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, 28 “Directive Opinions on Strengthening Engagement in Science and Technology Popularization”, 31 government departments issues, 31 May 4th Movement, 23, 24 “National science and technology Week”, 32 national scientific journals, 28 New Cultural Movement, 20–21 policies, 32 Red Soviet Area, 24–27 “Science and Civilization in China”, 21, 22 science popularization, 27, 28 science popularization books, 30 traditional cultural system, 22 “westernized new deal”, 23 Chuanjie, G., 165 Civic scientific literacy construction children and youth, 185–191 China, 283 for citizens, 251 development and, 267 farmers, 191–197 implementation program for The Outline of the National Scheme for ScientificLliteracy, 168–185 leading cadres and public servants, 203–206 national SP capability and, 265 people’s ethical conduct, 265 policy issues and scientific literacy surveys, 160–164 scientific innovation, 159 F Ren and J Zhai, Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-39561-1, © China Science and Technology Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 349 350 Civic scientific literacy construction (cont.) theoretical study and scientific literacy surveys, 164–168 urban workforce, 198–202 Communication within science community, 9, 18, 132, 136, 152, 155, 156 Community citizens’ scientific literacy action CPC and State Council, 173–174 “human development index”, 173 Japanese civic scientific Literacy ratio, 173 large-scale and systematic research project, 174 policies and measures, 174 science knowledge and scientific spirit, 173 Competence of science communication and popularization, 343, 344 Construction of popular science facilities advantages and educational functions, 102–103 hands-on experiments, 103 hardware, 104 higher-learning institutions, R&D institutes and S&T enterprises, 102 London Science Museum, 103 “science altar”, 103 social needs, 103 Construction of S&T education channels educational resources, 94–95 formal and informal education options, 93 investigation and research, scientific literacy, 93–94 national capacity, science promotion, 95 “Project of S&T Education and Training”, 94 science museums, 94 Contemporary science popularization policies funding conditions, 258 infrastructure and elementary education, 260 inter-governmental joint conference mechanism, 260–261 Law on Science Popularization, 258–259, 261 Outline based, 259–260 working team, 259 Content resource construction, STCP “Appraisal’ project, 220 high quality works and products, 219–220 incentives and fragmentation, 220 in science popularization, 223–224 science popularization resources development and sharing project, 220–222 science writing, 220 selection, 219 task, 219 Index D Daguang, L., 165 Daniels, G.H., 13 Daoyi, Z., 37 David, K., 62 Development and modern system S&T education definition, 87 flexible extra-curriculum, 89 formal and informal education program, 88 industrial revolution, 86 “New University Movement”, 87 school education, 88 twentieth century, 87 S&T museums educational resources, 96 in Europe, 97 higher-learning institutes, 98 industrial areas, 98–99 permanent and temporary exhibitions, 98 pictorial corridors, 99 policy documents, 98 protection and reformation, nature, 96 science wagons, 99 scientific knowledge and science subjects, 98 social production and life, 97 specimens and fossils, 96–97 in Western countries, 97 Directive Opinions on Strengthening Engagement in Science and Technology Popularization, 31, 32 Directive Opinions on Strengthening National Science Popularization Capacity Construction, 31 Discovery Communication Inc (DCI), 280–281 Disney World Resort, 281 Diverse mass science popularization activities 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 123 bird flu, 123 civic scientific literacy, 124, 126 countryside, 122–123 earthquake rescue, 123 interpersonal communication, 124, 125 nuclear disaster, 123 professional societies, 122 public participation, 124 rural population, 123–124 scientific literacy, 122 Index Domestic economic and social development, The Outline of the National Scheme for Scientific Literacy financial expansion and natural resources, 171 fundamental changes, 171 independent innovation, 171 industrial structures, 172 public literacy, 172 scientific and technological revolution, 172 Dongsong, L., 316 Durant, J., 163 E Edison, T., 13 Education-based S&T communication and popularization construction, 93–95 development and modern system, 86–89 scientific inquiry and personal experience, 91–93 scientific literacy, 89–91 Einstein, A., 9, 73 Engels, F.V., Enlai, Z., 29 Evaluation, science popularization activities activity contents, 312 classes, 309–310 comprehensive and in-depth research, 314 comprehensive evaluation, 310 contents, 311–312 evaluation team, 313 external evaluations, 309 feasibility assessment, 308–309 formative assessment, 309 impact assessment, 310 in-depth study, 313–314 indicator system design, 314 internal evaluation, 309 large-scale mass, 314–316 mass activity evaluation, 310 organizational capability evaluation, 311 organization and implementation, 312–313 permanent exhibitions, science and technology museums, 316–319 project proposal evaluation, 312 project theory assessment, 310 science evaluation, 310 scientific education project evaluation, 309–310 strategic planning evaluation, 311 summative assessment, 309 thematic evaluation, 310 types, 308 351 F Facility-based S&T communication and popularization Concise Encyclopedia Britannica, 99 construction, 102–104 description, 95–96 development and modern system, 96–99 interactive projects, 100 organization of public science popularization activities, 101–102 permanent and temporary thematic exhibitions, 100 science exploration activities, 101 Farmers’ scientific literacy action achievements, 196 communication and training systems, 192–193 consulting services and resolving technical problems, 196 Cultural Revolution, 191–192 demonstration counties, 196–197 development, agricultural economy, 193–194 economic development, 192 education, rural areas, 191 grass-roots, reformation, 196 leading cadres and public servants, 192 maize and beans production, 194 Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, 195–196 national survey, 193 national working conference, 191 publicity, agricultural technologies, 197 science education and training systems, 194–195 “science popularization for thriving farmers and rural areas” project, 197 “science wagons” and “science trains”, 192 “Sunshine Project”, 195 training program, 195 water and soil loss, desertification and pollution, 193 Fengfan, Z., 316 Five W Model, 56, 57 11th Five-Year Plan, civic scientific Literacy construction Beijing Olympics in 2008, 182 China Meteorological Administration, 182–183 combat diseases, 183 “disaster prevention and reduction day”, 182 domestic TV networks, radio stations, newspapers and websites, 184 energy conservation and environmental protection, 181 352 11th Five-Year Plan, civic scientific Literacy construction (cont.) forestry system, 183–184 health and safety, 180 infrastructure construction, 184–185 large-scale science promotion activities, 179–180 Ministry of Environmental Protection, 182, 183 natural resources, 180 reform and opening-up policy, 180 “safe science and technology week”, 181–182 ‘science and technology train’, 183 “science day for the general public”, 181 Fujun, R., 211, 278, 279, 283, 284 G Galileo, G., Graham Bell, A., 13 Guangyuan, Yu, 26 Guanhua, H., 260 Guoping, Z., 165, 278 H Hansheng, L., 278 Hawking, S., 109 Hong, L., 317 Huajie, L., 165 Huang, S., 45 Hu, J., 134, 135 I Implementation program for The Outline of the National Scheme for ScientificLliteracy See The Outline of the National Scheme for Scientific Literacy (2006–2010–2020) Incorporation of international perspectives, STCP deepening collaboration, 333 mutual learning, 333 strengthened international academic exchanges, 332–333 Indicator system, permanent exhibition effectivenessa, 318 International background, The Outline of the National Scheme for Scientific Literacy climate, ecology, poverty and globalization, 170 Index developed and developing countries, 170 national economic and social development, 169–170 practical demands, 171 science and society, 169 science knowledge, 170 J Jianqiang, Z., 278, 279, 283, 284 Jintao, H., 254, 260 Jize, W., 26 L Large-scale mass science popularization activities British Association for the Advancement of Science, 119 British Science Festival, 315 CAST and affiliated societies, 119 Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, 121–122 civic scientific literacy and national strategy, 120 CPC Beijing municipal committee, 120 energy resource conservation, 121 “environmental protection”, 120 evaluation criteria, 315–316 films and hands-on activities, 315 government department, 117–118 media coverage, 316 multi-index evaluation system, 316 “National Science and Technology Week”, 118 National Science Popularization Day, 119 public understanding of science, 118–119 Safety Technology Week, 121 schools, colleges and universities, 118 science events and activities, 315 smaller events variety, 315 society participation, 316 Lasswell, H.D., 56, 57 Law of the People’s Republic of China on Popularization of Science and Technology, 31, 32 Layered model, 66, 67 Leading cadres’ and public servants’ scientific literacy action community residents, 206 decision-making and implementation, national/local policies, 203 National Science Popularization Day in 2007, 205 Index Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee, 204–205 “Qilu Forum”, 205 science and technology knowledge, 203 science popularization facilities, 205–206 training and education programs, 203–204 training organizations, 204 Leading group for citizens’ scientific literacy, 31, 179 Lin, J., 80 Liu, H., 76 Luogeng, H., 109, 187 M Maletzke, G., 59 Maletzke’s systematic model, 61 Marx, K., 21 Mass science popularization activities diverse mass science popularization activities, 122–126 large-scale mass science popularization activities, 117–122 scientific and technological organizations, 117 Media-based S&T communication and popularization advantages, 105 capacity building, 116–117 communication skills, 106 coverage, scientific debates, 108 development, 107 gradual professionalization, scientific research, 105 “information market”, 105 journalists and editors, 105 language and techniques, 107–108 needs and tastes, recipients, 108 newspapers and TV networks, 105–106 print media, 109–110 public attention, scientific issues, 106–107 radio, 110–111 scientific discoveries, newspapers, 104–105 TV and films, 111–112 “twisting”, 107 web-based communication, 112–116 Mengpu, Z., 37 Merton, R.K., 74 Miller, J.D., 50, 163, 164, 173 Minors’ scientific literacy action, 32 Moruo, G., 26 Museums of science and technology category, 69–70, 79 353 N The National Geographic Channel, 280–281 National Long and Midterm Program for the Development of Science and Technology, 31, 174 National S & T communication and popularization system See Science and technology communication and popularization (STCP) Natural history museum, 69, 95, 97, 101, 102, 178 Needham, J., 21 Newton, I., 4, Nian, Z., 262, 317 O Oppenheimer, F., 103 The Outline of the National Scheme for Scientific Literacy (2006–2010–2020) children and young people, 176–177 community citizens’ scientific literacy action, 173–174 domestic background, 171–172 “driven by the government”, 175 11th Five-Year Plan, 179–185 formulating preferential policies, 278 implementation, 265, 275, 278 international background, 169–171 laws/regulations, 265 long-term operational mechanism, 175 mass media project, 178 obligation and responsibility, 168–169 organization and implementation, 179 programs, 210 “raising literacy”, 175–176 resources and capacity, 209 science education and training project, 177–178 science popularization infrastructure project, 178 science popularization policies, 259 “scientific literacy action for farmers”, 177 scientific methods, 175 sharing and development, science popularization, 178 social and economic progress, 168 social background and significance, 169 State Council, 254 targets, 251 urbanization process, 177 354 P PAS See Public awareness of science (PAS) Polanyi, M., 71 Policy context Chinese science popularization policies, 254–258 contemporary science popularization policies, 258–261 legalized science popularization policy, 253 multi-layered targets, 253 national policy, 252 policy content, 253 science and technology, 254 science popularization promotion, 252–253 scientific education, 253 scientific literacy improvement, 253–254 social stability and advancing development, 253 Policy issues and scientific literacy surveys American public’s scientific literacy, 161 Britain, Japan, India and Brazil, 163–164 educational and scientific circles, 162–163 European Union, 163 international organizations, 161–162 political documents and educational reforms, 161 “public understanding of science”, 161 science and society, 162 three-dimensional measurement system, 163 World Wars, 160 young people, 162 Popularization of science and technology S&T communication and popularization (see Science and technology communication and popularization (STCP)) STCP (see Science and Technology Communication and Popularization (STCP)) PP See Public Participation (PP) Print media, 109–110 Public Awareness of Science (PAS), 43, 44, 49, 137 Public communication of science and technology, 17, 137 Public engagement science dialogue, 140 and scientific culture, 46 STCP, 52 Public participation (PP) civic scientific Literacy and guaranteeing, 154 democratic model, 148, 149 Index massive national science popularization activities, 124 and public awareness, 100 relationship, science and public, 153–154 “Science Centers”, 69 scientific activities, 98 STCP function, 136 Public Understanding of Science (PUS) characteristics, 155–156 deficit model, 141 domestic and foreign research, 36 improvement, scientific literacy, 44, 155 knowledge model, 147 media communication, 108 media’s, 40 primary and middle school S&T education, 93 public anxiety and uneasiness, 17 Royal Society, 47, 66 science and education communities, 161 “Science and Society” issues, 17 scientific activities, 98 social factors, 75 STCP, 49, 50, 136, 153 White Paper, 119 PUS See Public Understanding of Science (PUS) R Recycling Interactive Model, 59, 63 Ren, H., 24 Resource for science communication and popularization educational campaigns, 72 knowledge economy, 16 “Science Education and Training Project” in China, 224–231 science popularization capacity building promotion project for mass media, 231–241 science popularization infrastructure project, 241–248 Riley and Riley’s systematic model, 60 Riley, J.W., 58 Riley, M.W., 58 Rogers, E M., 143 Roosevelt, F.D., 160 Russell, B., 10 S Sagan, C., 73 SC See Scientific Culture (SC) Index Schramm, W.L., 59 Science and technology communication (STC), 43, 46–49, 75 Science and technology communication and popularization (STCP) active and interactive communicating network system, 65 activities (see STCP activities) Berlo’s communication model, 62 in China, 212–216 “Citizen Science” project, 151 coding and transmission, information, 63 communication carrier, 81 communication channels, 78–79 content resource construction (see Content resource construction, STCP) cultivating talent, STCP workers, 342 description, 85–86 development of the relationship, 130–131 developments and trends, 322–335 dimensional model, “scientific literacy”, 155 disseminators and audiences, 64 educational activities, 86–95 environmental protection, China, 70 equality and innovation, 340 establishing national system, 343–344 facilities, 95–104 favorable social environment, 210 flow characteristics, 82 fundamental relation, 129–130 human communication studies, 55 innovative nation construction and science communication booming development, 133 Chinese government, 134–135 economic growth, 133 integrated model, 151, 152 interactive and systematic models, 58–61 issues on combining scienti?c research and science popularization, 339–340 knowledge and information, 63, 152, 153 layered model, 66–67 legal and policy frameworks, 340 mass activities, 117–126 media, 68, 104–117 modern science and social development, 154 modern science and technology development, 128–129 monitoring and evaluation, 342 museum, 69 popular science writing and products, 341 pressure and stress, 64–65 priority, 209 355 “promoting a public understanding of science”, 156, 157 public, 66 public participation, 156–157 public policy formation and decisionmaking processes, 67–68 public social life, 153, 154 relationships with construction of civic science literacy, 338 with construction of social culture, 339 with social and economic development, 338 requirements, 131–132 research on the construction of civic science literacy, 337–338 resources, 341–342 resources development (see STCP, resources development) revolution, 127 Rileys’ and Maletzke’s systematic models, 63 Schramm’s recycling interactive model, 63 science communication and popularization, 216–219 science popularization, 223–224 scientific literacy, promotion, 209 scientific spirit, 74–75 scientific thought and spirit, 341 scientific thoughts, 73–74, 155 “Serving public participation in science”, 156 “Serving the innovation of science and technology”, 157 social communication channels, 76–78 society and science, 75–76 spatial and temporal characteristics, 80–81 structural and procedural models, 56–58 synthesized attributes, 82–83 technical and scientific knowledge, 71–72 theoretical research, 336–337 Science and technology engagement, 31 Science and technology exemplary spot, 243 Science and technology layout, 103, 179, 244, 301, 312, 315 Science and technology museum, 69–70, 79, 137, 150 Science and technology museums, 270–271, 276 Science and technology professionals, 254 Science and technology work CAST, 135 “Dialogue Concerning the Two New Sciences”, science innovation and popularization, 53, 157 356 Science and technology works, 186 Science center higher-learning institutions and R&D institutes, 101 western countries, 100 Science Communication See Science communication and popularization Science communication and popularization academic information, 18, 19 achievements, in ancient times, Australian AEIOU model, 43–45 ‘Bernal effect’, 39 capacity building, 216 categories, 41 challenge to relationships, 16–17 civic scientific literacy, 217 construction, 218 Copernicus’ theory, 7–8 “Dialogue Concerning the Two New Sciences”, domestic scholars’ views, 36–37 education, 39 effective management and development mechanisms, 251–252 “Elements of Geometry”, encyclopedias, human civilization development, 2–3 independent innovation ability, 217 information technology, 17 infrastructure in China, 269–277 innovation, 218 journals, 38 knowledge gap, scientists and public, 13 knowledge sharing process, 48, 49 leadership and coordination, 219 magazines, Mapping Science Communication Activities, 42 maturing, 9–11 in modern China (see Chinese STCP) national science capacity, 217 “National Scientific Quality Program”, 216 natural phenomena, 13 “Natural Philosophy”, networks and traditional communications, 18, 19 Newton’s classical mechanics, old universities, private contacts and letters, promotion, 251 public demand and development, 20 public level, 49–51 public participation, 218 Index public understanding, 36 PUS, 40 resources development, 216 schools, 3–4 science and technology policy context (see Policy context) science dialogue, 42 science popularization, promotion, 218 science popularization talents (see Science popularization talents) sharing information, TheSocial Function of Science, 39, 40 social level, 51–53 and society, 15–16 society and gain recognition, society mobilization, 218 S&T (see Science and technology communication and popularization (STCP)) STCP resources, 216 and technology education, 11–12 television and internet revolution, 17–18 terminology selection, 46–48 “The Artificers Record”, 4–5 “traditional science popularization”, 14 workforce expansion, 218 “Science Education and Training Project” in China challenges, 231 citizens’ scientific literacy, 224–225, 229 formal education, 225 goals, 227–228 implementation, 225 infrastructure construction, 230 irregular education, 226 key tasks, 227 local departments, 229 “2061” program, 231 The Project Incubator, 229–230 regular education, 225–226 science curriculum standards, revision, 228–229 “science education system”, 227 science professionals, 230–231 science teachers training, 229 “seeking knowledge”, 229 technology counselors, 230 technology training, 229 11th five-year program, 228–229, 231 Science popularization See Science communication and popularization Science popularization activities British Science Festival pays, 297 budget, 301 Index classification, 294 complexity, 292 consulting and promotional activities, 294 content and method, 301 contents selection, 304 differences, 292–293 divison, 292–293 evaluation, 308–313 Exploration and Discovery hall, 303–304 goals, 291–292 government institutions and scientific organizations, 296 incentive and guidance, 296 monitoring and evaluation, 294–297 museums, revolutionary changes, 305–306 National Science Day, 303 organization and implementation, 306–308 organization and mobilization, 298 participants, 294, 301 plan framing, 299 Popular Science, 294 positioning theory, 300 principles and objectives, 300 process monitoring and collecting feedback, 307–308 project approval, 298 project conception, 299 project design, 305–306 project planning, 298–299, 301–303, 306 public awareness, 291–292 publicity, promotion, and marketing, 306 public participation, 292 resources, 301 science popularization projects, 305 scientific knowledge promotion, 291–292 scientific literacy improvement, 302–303 SWOT analysis method, 299–300 systematic data analysis, 296 themes within, 303–305 topics selection and positioning, 304 uniqueness, 300 United States Science Foundation (NSF), 297 5W2H analysis method, 299 Science popularization activity station, 97 Science popularization business, 66, 85, 95, 198, 201, 291, 292 Science popularization capacity building promotion project for mass media CCTV, 235–236 Chinese Science Expo, 239 competition, 240 content, program clusters, 236 357 dissemination of science and technology information, 239–240 domestic popular science programs, 232 earthquake information, 237–238 goals, 232–233 H1N1 outbreak, 238 ignorance of science contributes, 240 implementation, 235 Internet and websites, 238 local popular science brands building, 233 ‘media transition’, 231–232 mobile newspapers, 239 outline mission aspects, 233 popular science programming, 233 print media, 236–237 promotion project, 234 quality and brand-image, 233 reporting depth, 241 respond to emergencies, 237 reward policies, 234–235 science websites and museums, 233 social responsibility, 241 State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television, 234 strengthening exchanges and cooperation, 240 sufficient content, 232 television stations, 236 ticket sales tax, 235 Science Popularization Consumer Demand (SCPD), 283 Science popularization education base, 178, 245, 270–273, 276 Science popularization engagement, 31 Science popularization enterprise aims, 279 definiton, 279 scholars in China, 279 systematic classification method, 279–280 Science popularization industry (SPI) CAST, 278 demands and driving force, 282–283 development, 277–278 existing problems, in China, 280–282 “facing society, facing market”, 278 for-profit and non-profit, 278 “paid service”, 278 promotion measures, 284–285 science popularization enterprise, 279–280 “Shijingshan SPI”, 281 STCP resource construction work, 277–278 358 Science popularization infrastructure attention, 277 in China, 272–274 communication incorporation, 277 construction, 269 facilities, in rural areas, 271–272 financial and policy support, 276 inherent problems, solution, 275–276 internet-based media, 269 investment, 277 material resources, component, 269 project, 275 rooms/ stations, 272 scholars definition, 270 science and technology museums, 270–271, 276 science galleries, 272 social, 270 social resources, 276–277 Science popularization infrastructure project aspects, 241 caravans, 246 communication channels, 244–246 content resource construction, 247 demonstration technology, 244 exhibitions, 242 “fun popular science”, 243 internet, 242 knowledge sharing, 243 large-scale museums, 244 museums of science and technology, 245–246 reading rooms and galleries, 243–244 resource construction, 248 science and technology museums, 242 science popularization education models, 245 service capacity and channel functionality, 245 STCP infrastructure, 247 STCP venues, 246, 247 STCP work, resources and venues, 242, 248 Science popularization performance, 330–331 Science popularization policies cases, 257–258 CAST, 255–256 in China, 258–261 First Congress of Science Popularization Staff, 255 materialism and superstitions eradication, 255 national conference mechanism, 257 priorities, 255 promotion, 256–257 renewal, 256 Index Science popularization practice, 214, 215 Science popularization practitioner project, 214 Science popularization resources development and sharing project CAST, 221–222 cooperation and exchanges, 220 Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), 221 missions, 220 popular scientific works, 221–222 public internet service platform, 222 radio and TV programming services, 222 research institutes and universities, 222 Science popularization resources development and sharing project Science education and training project, 32 Science popularization (SP) talents building types, 263 Chinese, development, 265–266 civic scientific Literacy, 265 classification, 263–264 construction, 266 human resources process, 264 national talent construction, 268–269 part-time/full-time, 262–263 practitioners, 265 resource construction, 267–268 specialized staff, 263 team construction, 264 training, 262 training program, 265–266 Science popularization undertakings, 30 Science popularization wagon, 99, 102, 192 Science popularization work, 24, 30, 36, 291 Scientific Culture (SC), 38, 43 Scientific Dialogue (SD), 52, 82, 138 Scientific ethos, 74 Scientific inquiry and personal experience, S&T education European countries and US, 93 extra-curricular activities, 92–93 hands-on activities, children, 91 science museums and centers, 93 strict procedures, 91 “Student-Researcher Plan”, 92 ‘Student-Scientist Partnership’ program, 92 Scientific knowledge communication skills, 106 computer technology, 18 contests, 101 contextual model, 143 deficit model, 141–142 diachronic communication, 80 human, 3, 138 Index journals and magazines, 26 “Knowledge is power”, lay expertise model, 144–148 methods and thoughts, 100 pre-science communication and popularization phase, primary and middle school students, 186 print media, 109, 110 public interest, 163 public participation, 76, 153 schools, 3–4 scientists and public, 13, 139 sharing process, 48 STC, 45 STCP, 63, 136, 153, 155 teaching, 98 and technical, 71–72 theoretical research achievements, 130 “twisting”, 107 Scientific literacy (SL), 16, 32, 37, 44, 50–52, 78, 79 Scientific literacy action for children and youth attitudes and behavior, 185 “Big Hands Holding Small Hands” activity, 188 central committee of CPC and State Council, 186 Cultural Revolution, 186 11th Five-Year Plan, 189 implementation, 188–189 “Learning by Doing” program, 189 learning science and technology, 188 “The National Innovation and Invention Competition for Children and Young People and Science Forum”, 186–187 national science conference, 186 “The Olympiads for High School Students”, 187 out-of-class science and technology activities, 190 party and government, 185–186 primary education, 189 quality education, primary schools, 188 science and technology activity, 190–191 science promotion resources, 190 social resources, 188 Scientific literacy, S&T education Bill on Educational Reform, 89 enhancement, 89 higher education, 91 ‘Project 2061’ in US, 90 359 Qualification Course Committee, 89–90 Science for All Americans, 90 teaching quality, 90–91 Scientific methods leading cadres and public servants, 203 and scientific attitudes, 177 S&T education, 87 Scientific spirit Concise Encyclopedia Britannica, 99 leading cadres and public servants, 203, 204 and science knowledge, 173 Scientific thought, 37, 73–74, 155 SCPD See Science Popularization Consumer Demand (SCPD) SD See Scientific Dialogue (SD) Shannon-Weaver Model, 57, 58 Shi, S., 36 Shukun, T., 165 SL See Scientific Literacy (SL) STC See Science and technology communication (STC) S & T communication and popularization policy, 31 S & T communication and popularization policy system, 31, 131–132, 143, 156 S & T communication capability construction, 31 STCP See Science and Technology Communication and Popularization (STCP) STCP activities aspects, 287–288 China’s science popularization enterprise, 290 coverage, 289 goals, 288–291 market economy, 289 professional development, 290 science popularization activities, 291–294 science popularization work, 291 scientific and cultural education, 288 scientific literacy, 287, 289 social engineering tool, 288–289 updation, 289–290 STCP developments analysis, 323 changes in key elements, 325–326 civic scientific literacy, 331–332 content, 328 discipline construction, initial stage of systematization, 335 functions, 324–325 impact of demand, 327 incorporation of international perspectives 360 STCP developments (cont.) deepening collaboration, 333 mutual learning, 333 strengthened international academic exchanges, 332–333 innovation and expansion, 329–330 legal and policy framework, 326–327 objectives, 328 public benefits, 328–329 resources and effectiveness, 330–331 segmentation and systematic nature, 331 theory of S&T communication, 334–335 STCP, resources development careers, 215 CAST, 214, 215 categories, 211 channel resources, 211 China’s government policies, 214–215 China’s science popularization products, 215–216 communication studies, 211 conceptual framework and correlations, 212 definition, 210 demand for, 212–213 division, 210 financial resources, 211 grass-roots popular science venues, 214 human resources, 211 legal and policy environment, 215 material resources, 211 modern science and technology, 212–213 national and local governments laws, 210 organizational infrastructure, 215 Outline implementation, 211 scientific knowledge, 213 status in China, 213–214 T Teli, X., 26 The contextual model, 143–144, 146 The deficit model, 141–143 The democratic model, 83, 148–150, 153 The dialogue model, 143, 148, 143148 The engagement model, 42 The lay expertise model Chinese traditional culture, 145 “Cumbrian sheep event”, 144–145 knowledge, 144 local knowledge model, 147 public, knowledge, 146 science and technology, 146–147 scientists and public, 147, 148 Index The local knowledge model, 145–147 Theoretical study and scientific literacy surveys American, Japanese and European standards, 166 facilitation, 165 importance, 168 The Outline of the National Scheme for Scientific Literacy, 164 previous percentage method, 166, 167 public attitudes, 166 requirements, 164–165 Research Center of Management Science, 165 “scientific outlook”, 168 social development, 164 State Scientific and Technological Commission, 165–166 universal indicator system and methods, 168 yellow book, 166 The participation model, 141, 143, 148 Trout, J., 300 U Urban workforce scientific literacy action All-China Federation of Trade Unions, 202 approaches, 199–200 departments and local governments, 200 development, urbanization, 199 educational and training network, 198 formulated and professional certificate systems, 199 healthy and civilized lifestyle, 200 high-quality workers, 198–199 “knowledge updating project for technical professionals”, 201 laid-off and migrant workers, 202 national competitions, 201 National Federation of Trade Unions, 201 “new plan to cultivate technicians”, 200–201 science promotion, urban communities, 202 social undertaking, 199 total GDP, secondary and tertiary industries, 198 361 Index V Vesal, A., 109 Visalius, A., Volta, A., 13 X Xiaoping, D., 30 Xiaoyong, H., 316 Xingzhi, T., 24 W Web-based science communication and popularization high degree of interaction, 114–116 high speed, 113 “Internet citizens”, 113 large capacity, 114 multimedia, 113 technologies, Internet, 112–113 Wells, H.G., 110 Wolf, A., Wu, T.D., Y Yizhong, Z., 279, 283, 284 Yuan, Q., 36, 37 Z Zedong, M., 255 Zedong, Mao, 25, 74 Zemin, J., 170 Zhai, J., 45, 48 Zhi, G., 37 Zhili, C., 174 .. .Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China Fujun Ren • Jiequan Zhai Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China Fujun Ren China Research Institute... and Technology in China, DOI 10.1007/97 8-3 -6 4 2-3 956 1-1 _1, © China Science and Technology Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 History of Science & Technology Communication & Popularization. .. Maturing of Science Communication 1.2.2 Development of Science and Technology Education 1.2.3 Springing-up of Science Popularization 1.3 Development of Science and Technology Communication
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