Commingled and disarticulated human remains, anna j osterholtz, kathryn m baustian, debra l martin, 2014 1414

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Anna J Osterholtz Kathryn M Baustian Debra L Martin Editors Commingled and Disarticulated Human Remains Working Toward Improved Theory, Method, and Data Commingled and Disarticulated Human Remains Anna J Osterholtz • Kathryn M Baustian Debra L Martin Editors Commingled and Disarticulated Human Remains Working Toward Improved Theory, Method, and Data Editors Anna J Osterholtz Department of Anthropology University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV, USA Kathryn M Baustian Department of Anthropology University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV, USA Debra L Martin Department of Anthropology University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV, USA ISBN 978-1-4614-7559-0 ISBN 978-1-4614-7560-6 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-7560-6 Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2013943277 © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein Cover Illustration: Cover art courtesy of Robert Turner, Office of Archaeological Studies, Department of Cultural Affairs, Santa Fe, NM Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) To my parents (and forces of nature), Roger and Janet Osterholtz (AJO) To my large family assemblage Thanks for your continual support (KMB) To all my commingled and disarticulated grad students (DLM) Contents Introduction Anna J Osterholtz, Kathryn M Baustian, and Debra L Martin Part I Long Term Usage Assemblages Making Sense of Social Behavior from Disturbed and Commingled Skeletons: A Case Study from Çatalhöyük, Turkey Başak Boz and Lori D Hager Commingled Human Skeletal Assemblages: Integrative Techniques in Determination of the MNI/MNE Anna J Osterholtz, Kathryn M Baustian, Debra L Martin, and Daniel T Potts 17 35 Bioarchaeological Spatial Analysis of the Walker-Noe Crematory (15GD56) Nicholas P Herrmann, Joanne L Devlin, and Jessica C Stanton 51 Into the Kettle: The Analysis of Commingled Remains from Southern Ontario Bonnie Glencross 67 Part II Episodic Assemblages Crow Creek Bone Bed Commingling: Relationship Between Bone Mineral Density and Minimum Number of Individuals and Its Effect on Paleodemographic Analyses Ashley Kendell and P Willey 85 Extreme Processing at Mancos and Sacred Ridge: The Value of Comparative Studies 105 Anna J Osterholtz vii viii Disarticulated and Disturbed, Processed and Eaten? Cautionary Notes from the La Plata Assemblage (ad 1000–1150) 129 Debra L Martin, Nancy J Akins, and H.Wolcott Toll Partible, Permeable, and Relational Bodies in a Maya Mass Grave 149 William N Duncan and Kevin R Schwarz Part III Caveats and Contributions from Other Disciplines Unmingling Commingled Museum Collections: A Photographic Method 173 Katie J Zejdlik Primary and Secondary Burials with Commingled Remains from Archaeological Contexts in Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey 193 Sherry C Fox and Kathryn Marklein Commingled Bone Assemblages: Insights from Zooarchaeology and Taphonomy of a Bone Bed at Karain B Cave, SW Turkey 213 Levent Atici Normal Goat or Diseased Human? Disciplinary Boundaries and Methodological Traps in the Analysis of Fragmentary Remains at Franchthi Cave, Greece 255 Della Collins Cook Taking Analyses of Commingled Remains into the Future: Challenges and Prospects 265 Kathryn M Baustian, Anna J Osterholtz, and Della Collins Cook Index 275 Contributors Nancy J Akins Museum of New Mexico Office of Archaeological Studies, Santa Fe, NM, USA Levent Atici Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA Kathryn M Baustian Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA Başak Boz Department of Archaeology, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey Della Collins Cook Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA Joanne L Devlin Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA William N Duncan Department of Sociology and Anthropology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA Sherry C Fox Wiener Laboratory, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Athens, Greece Bonnie Glencross Department of Archaeology Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada and Classical Studies, Lori D Hager Pacific Legacy, Inc., Berkeley, CA, USA The Archaeological Research FacilityUniversity of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Nicholas P Herrmann Department of Anthropology and Middle Eastern Cultures, Cobb Institute of Archaeology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA Ashley Kendell Department of Anthropology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA ix Taking Analyses of Commingled Remains into the Future: Challenges and Prospects 271 discovered that the commingled remains at Kalavasos-Kopetra were not actually commingled at the time of interment Through the use of photographic comparison of human remains during excavation, they were able to unmingle the remains and reinterpret the mortuary practices accurately While many commingled assemblages can at least be partially explained by mortuary treatments, Fox and Marklein caution against assumptions that assume intentional mortuary treatment Symbolism and Agency What is not recovered is also important to exposing symbolic meaning and agency on the part of the community burying the dead Analyses that discover differential representation of elements reveal more about the culture of the people that are still living than the dead themselves This was apparent in the study of the remains from Tell Abraq (Osterholtz et al., 2013), in which the underrepresentation of male crania in the tomb indicated significance of some individuals or skeletal elements Symbolism and agency are discussed by Duncan and Schwarz (2013) in their research investigating Postclassic Maya embodiment of elements In their study, the intentional removal of specific areas of the body for use elsewhere was presented in an alternative approach to understanding assemblage formation processes This was also the case at La Plata (Martin et al., 2013) where the placement of long bones in a skull cap was found to be ritually symbolic rather than a discard associated with cannibalism Lastly, Glencross (2013) discussed the Feast of the Dead in Ontario and the mixing of bones in “the kettle” as a symbol of community membership Thus, symbolism is richly interpreted in many of the studies in this volume Consideration of such cultural motivations is vital to more nuanced explanations for commingling and disarticulation of human bodies An excellent example of this is how Duncan and Schwarz use ethnographic examples to show that land tenure and corporate control was gained by an incoming group by the desecration of a large grave assemblage So, the question of who is manipulating the remains and for whose benefit the manipulation is being performed should also be considered Analyses of commingled and fragmentary remains must take place within cultural contexts as ignorance of possible factors presents a great potential for the misunderstanding of unrecognized processes and cultural practices in past communities Future Directions for Bioarchaeologists Analyzing Commingled Remains This volume pushes the bioarchaeological analysis of fragmentary and commingled remains in a new direction The case studies presented emphasize the importance and significance of commingled skeletal assemblages in research that contributes to our understanding of past human cultures Although often a great deal more complicated, 272 K.M Baustian et al commingled remains are valuable data sets and should not be ignored The contributors to this volume have demonstrated the variety of information that can be interpreted and some of the best approaches to accomplishing data collection But where bioarchaeologists go from here when encountering commingled human remains? Innovation in methodology will continue to be important in analysis, and new kinds of information will be gleaned from these techniques These methods will become increasingly more advanced and provide new directions for the interpretation of the assemblages It is also imperative that researchers strive to account for all taphonomic processes and causes of fragmentation as these data have proven to be excellent in assisting interpretation of mortuary practices and cultural reconstructions Furthermore, the contributions from the field of zooarchaeology should be recognized as valuable assets to commingled analysis Having at least minimal exposure to zooarchaeological analysis and techniques could greatly assist bioarchaeologists as they assess MNI and taphonomy of commingled assemblages Analysis of commingled human remains provides extensive biological data yet interpretation of cultural practices and values is not always a priority for researchers We recommend that researchers take a biocultural approach incorporating multiple disciplines so that social aspects of a population may be better understood Bioarchaeology as a discipline has moved to be more anthropological and holistic in recent decades; however, analysis of commingled assemblages has taken this approach inconsistently The inclusion of other kinds of data can also be valuable to interpretation Specifically, ethnographic comparisons and linguistic evidence could provide additional data to prompt new theoretical models It is our hope that this volume pushes bioarchaeologists and archaeologists to recognize the value of commingled and disarticulated human remains, particularly when more contextual information is available Numerous commingled assemblages exist in repositories across the world and have remained unanalyzed due to misconceptions that they are too difficult to analyze and are unable to provide valuable data Bioarchaeological method and theory continually evolve to provide better interpretation of past communities As has been discussed in the introductory chapter of this volume, there is no one correct way to analyze commingled assemblages References Appleby, J (2010) Ageing as fragmentation and dis-integration In K Rebay-Salisbury, M L S Sørensen, & J Hughes (Eds.), Body parts and bodies whole: Changing relations and meanings (pp 46–53) New York: Routledge Atici, L (2013) Commingled bone assemblages: Insights from zooarchaeology and taphonomy of a bonebed at Karain B Cave, SW Turkey In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Boz, B., & Hager, L D (2013) Making sense of social behavior from disturbed and commingled skeletons: A case study from Çatalhưk, Turkey In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Taking Analyses of Commingled Remains into the Future: Challenges and Prospects 273 Brittain, M., & Harris, O (2010) Enchaining arguments and fragmenting assumptions: Reconsidering the fragmentation debate in archaeology World Archaeology, 42, 581–594 Cauwe, N (2001) Skeletons in motion, ancestors in action: Early Mesolithic collective tombs in southern Belgium Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 11(02), 147–163 doi:10.1017/ S0959774301000087 Chapman, J (2000) Fragmentation in archaeology: People, places and broken objects in the prehistory of southeastern Europe London: Routledge Chapman, J (2010) ‘Deviant’ burials in the neolithic and chalcolithic of central and south eastern Europe In K Rebay-Salisbury, M L S Sørensen, & J Hughes (Eds.), Body parts and bodies whole (pp 30–45) Oxford: Oxbow Books Chapman, J., & Gaydarska, B (2007) Parts and wholes Fragmentation in prehistoric context Oxford: Oxbow Cook, D C (2013) Normal goat or diseased human? Disciplinary boundaries and methodological traps in the analysis of fragmentary remains at franchthi cave, Greece In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Duncan, W N., & Schwarz, K R (2013) Partible, permeable, and relational bodies in a Maya Mass Grave In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Fisher, K D (2007) Building power: Monumental architecture, place and social interaction in late bronze age Cyprus (Ph.D dissertation) University of Toronto, Toronto Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.unlv.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304750362?acc ountid=3611 Fox, S C., & Marklein, K (2013) Primary and secondary burials with commingled remains from archaeological contexts in Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Glencross, B (2013) Into the kettle: The analysis of commingled remains from southern Ontario In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Herrmann, N P., Devlin, J L., & Stanton, J C (2013) Bioarchaeological spatial analysis of the Walker-Noe crematory (15GD56) In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Hertz, R (1960) Death and the right hand (R Needham & C Needham, Trans.) Glencoe, IL: The Free Press Kendell, A., & Willey, P (2013) Crow creek bone bed commingling: Relationship between bone mineral density and minimum number of individuals and its effect on paleodemographic analyses In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Keswani, P (2004) Mortuary ritual and society in Bronze Age Cyprus London: Equinox Publishing Ltd Knüsel, C., & Outram, A K (2004) Fragmentation: The zonation method applied to fragmented human remains from archaeological and forensic contexts Environmental Archaeology, 9, 85–97 Martin, D L., Akins, N J., & Toll, H W (2013) Disarticulated and disturbed, processed and eaten? Cautionary notes from the La Plata assemblage (AD 1000–1150) In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Metcalf, P., & Huntington, R (1991) Celebrations of death: The anthropology of mortuary ritual (2nd ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Osterholtz, A J (2013) Extreme processing at Mancos and Sacred Ridge: The value of comparative studies In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Osterholtz, A J., Baustian, K M., Martin, D L., & Potts, D T (2013) Commingled human skeletal assemblages: Integrative techniques in determination of the Mni/Mne In A J Osterholtz, 274 K.M Baustian et al K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Parker Pearson, M (1999) The archaeology of death and burial College Station: Texas A&M University Press Saxe, A A (1970) Social dimensions of mortuary practices Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Shanks, M., & Tilley, C (1982) Ideology, symbolic power and ritual communication: A reinterpretation of neolithic mortuary practices In I Hodder (Ed.), Symbolic and structural archaeology (pp 129–154) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Sofaer, J R (2006) The body as material culture: A theoretical osteoarchaeology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press van Gennep, A (1972 [1960]) The rites of passage (M Vizedom & G L Caffee, Trans.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press White, T D., Black, M T., & Folkens, P A (2011) Human osteology (3rd ed.) New York: Academic Press Zejdlik, K J (2013) Unmingling commingled museum collections: A photographic method In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated human remains New York: Springer Index A Abrasions bones, 141 cranial elements, 134–135 impact breaks, 140 “taphonomic signature”, 130 Accumulation agglomeration, 165 description, 164 fragmentation theory, 164 vessels/human bodies, 155 Acute plastic bowing deformation (APBD), 76, 77 Adena, Ageing, 74 AH See Archaeological horizons (AH) Anatolia, Turkey commingled bones, 17 neolithic site, 17 Ancestors Person’s fractal body, 151 spiritual essences, 153 Ancestor veneration, 45 Ancient Corinth, Greece, 198 Ancient Thebes, Greece, 199 APBD See Acute plastic bowing deformation (APBD) Archaeological horizons (AH), 219 Arikara, 88, 89, 93–94 Assemblages, commingled bone assemblages basic and derived quantitative units, 238 bone surface preservation, 237 carnivore ravaging, 224, 226, 228 nonhuman bone accumulators and modifiers, 228 root etching, 229 taphonomic variables, 237, 238 trampling and abrasion, 228–229 weathering, 228 Attawandaron (Neutral), 68 Aztalan anthropologist, 179 archaeological site, 178 assemblage, 11 burials and cremations, 179, 180 correction of interpretation, 187–189 description, 178 discovery, Princess, 183–185 enhancing interpretation, 185–187 excavation project, 179 human skeletal locatings, 179, 182 isolated, fragmented and commingled remains, 179, 181 methods, 182–183 northern homeland, 178 photographic analysis, 182 physical analysis, 182 provenience reestablishment, 187 Aztalan Princess archaeological sites, 184 catalogue numbers, 183 emotional connection, 185 in-situ photo, human hand, 186 interpretive confusion, 184 Mississippian occupation, 185 B Baah biological head, 152 decapitation, 152 soul/animating essence, 152 A.J Osterholtz et al (eds.), Commingled and Disarticulated Human Remains: Working Toward Improved Theory, Method, and Data, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-7560-6, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 275 276 Binomial distribution test, 96, 97 Bioarchaeological spatial analysis bone weight and cranial bone distribution, 63–64 color, 59–61 distribution, fragmentary elements, 64 fragmentary human, 51 GIS, 51 quantification estimation methods, 54–56 spatial analysis methods, 56–57 temporal bone distribution, 60–63 Walker-Noe (15Gd56), 52–54 Bioarchaeologists analyzing, 271–272 Bioarchaeology ageing, 74 morphological variation, 72–73 population-level studies, 75 skeletal material, 74 Biocultural model, 75 Biological age, 75, 76 Blunt force trauma, 110 Body commodification, 156 Bone bed carnivore impact, 248 categories, 223 Crow Creek (see Crow Creek) epipaleolithic, 235 Karain B, 218, 219 macrofossil, 247 marrow extraction, 247 paleontological approaches, 215–216 skeletal parts, assemblage, 241 Bone mineral density (BMD) adult and subadult long bone segments, 97, 98 adult skeletal sample, 93 Crow Creek, 93, 101 and element preservation, 93 intrinsic factors, 99 intrinsic variables affecting element, 86 Larson skeletal series, 101 sex effect, 102 skeletal features, 100 Spearman’s rank order correlation, 97 subadult element segments, 101 substantial impact, 103 Bone preservation, commingled bone assemblages anatomical regions, 232 axial elements are heavily fragmented, 242, 244 body part frequencies, 242, 244 bone loss, 230 categories, 232 Index limb bone parts, 240, 241 lower and proximal, distal limb, 239, 241 lumping nutritionally disparate elements such, 232 metapodials, 232 MNE values, 242, 243 Bone quantification See Quantification estimation methods Bone retrieval archaeological context, 29 articulated skeleton, 19 dismemberment and, 18 secondary deposits, 31 surgical skill, 28 Bonferroni, 159 Burial clubs, 195 Burials ancient inhabitants, 135 carnivores/heavy equipment, 142 disarticulated, 140 LA 37593, 135 missing elements, 146 relocation, 130 Burning elements display, 136 fragmentary elements, 140 and human alteration, 139 LA 37592, 143 Butchering, 131 C Canada, 72 Cannibalism burning, 106 characteristics, 107 definition, 107 ethnographic analogy, 107 LA 37592, 136–139, 146 oral traditions, 107 “taphonomic signature”, 130 Cannibalistic activity, 106 Captives, 72 Carnivore gnawing, 131 Çatalhưk, Turkey burial customs, 17 deposition, age and sex, 22–24 dismemberment, 27–30 graves, houses, 24–27 intramural burial customs, 18 long-term-usage assemblages, MNI (see Minimum number of individuals (MNI)) Index movement of bones (see Movement of bones) mud-brick architecture, 17 neolithic activities, 18 Chi-square maxillary vs mandibular molars, 159–160 vs MNI, 159 Classic period ik’, 153 Late Postclassic period, 157 Terminal Classic period, 157 Collective burials, Commingled episodic-usage, 3–5 lab, long-term usage, 2–3 Commingled methodology bioarchaeological inquiry, 201 database coding system, 203 de-individualization, 204 demographic implications, 204 elemental number, 202 four-component coding system, 205 “Global History of Health Project”, 204 metric recordings, 204 paleodemographic statistics, 202 postdepositional structural alterations, 205 radial metrical and non-metrical observations, 205, 206 time frame, 203 Commingled remains bioarchaeologists analyzing, 271–272 cultural context and disarticulated human remains, 265–267 practices and approaches, skeletal remains, 267–268 themes, analysis fragmentation, 269 mortuary practices, 270–271 skeletal assemblages, 268 symbolism and agency, 271 taphonomy, 269–270 Commingled, secondary desecration, 164 fragmentation theory, 156 Complete spatial randomness (CSR), 160 Computerized MNI, 21–22 Concomitant commingling, 195 Conjoin Sacred Ridge, 112 tool marks and fracture patterns, 106 Conjoining exercises, Corinth, Greece assemblages, 11 277 Hellenistic and Roman sites, 193 Marklein’s efforts, 194 Nea Paphos, Cyprus and, 198 Cowboy Wash, 117 Cranial modification frontal bones comparison, 107, 108 Mancos assemblage, 107 mandibles comparison, 107, 109 maxillae comparison, 107, 109 occipitals comparison, 110, 111 parietals comparison, 110 Sacred Ridge conjoin, differential burning, 112 temporals comparison, 110, 111 zygomatics comparison, 107, 108 Crow Creek Site adult elements, 92 adult segments element and binomial distribution, 96 binomial distribution test, 96 BMD, 93 BMDs (see Bone mineral density (BMD)) bone beds, 90 childhood BMD, 101 commingled assemblage, disarticulated human remains, 90, 92 element segment, 98 episodic commingled assemblages, 10 excavation, 90–91 extrinsic variables, 102 Fisher’s exact tests, 97 house depressions and fortification ditch, 90, 91 intrinsic factors, 86 intrinsic variables, 102 Larson skeletal series, 93 limb bones, 94–96 limitation, 100–101 LI/MLNI, 99–100 locations, 86, 87 medical literature, 98 Middle Missouri River subregion, 88–90 MNI, 99 natural taphonomic processes, 99 Northern Plains, 90 paleodemographic age profiles, 101, 102 potential effect, 99 segregating commingled elements and individuals, 85, 86 skeletal measurements, 93 Spearman’s rank order correlation, 97 statistical analysis, 103 subadult long bones, 97 subadult values, 93 278 Cryoturbation, 131 Cut marks cervical vertebra, 28 defleshing and dismembering, disarticulated elements, 27–28 examination, 135–136 human bones, 27 Mancos disarticulated assemblage, 138 perimortem human processing, 137 “taphonomic signature”, 130 D Deaccessions, 173 Defleshing, 5, Demography, 73, 75 Desecratory acts, 159 Diagnostic zones (DZs) computerized MNI, 22 faunal assemblages, 21–22 fragmentation, 22 Diet, 73 Differential burning fragmentation, 112 Sacred Ridge assemblage, 110 variation, 112 Disarticulation assemblage (see La Plata assemblage) body/skeleton, 19–20 butchering marks, 131 and commingled, 1, interred individuals, 21 LA 37592, 142 LA 65030, 140, 145 non-grave contexts, 17 patterns of breakage, La Plata, 132 soft tissues, 27–28 taphonomic methodology, 10 techniques, volume and organization, Disease, 73, 74 Disembowelment, 119–120 Dismembering, Dismemberment and bone retrieval, 18, 31 hip, 120 intact primary burial, 28 methods, 125 partial older woman, 28 post-interment and solitary skulls, 27 Sacred Ridge, 125 Disturbed and commingled skeleton, Documentation, unmingling Angel Mounds Site, 177–178 Index Aztalan (see Aztalan) Pueblo Bonito, 177 Spencer Lake Site, 176 E Eastern Mediterranean bioarchaeology, 194–195 Element representation BMD, 86, 99, 103 Crow Creek bone bed, 92 proximal femur, 98 Spearman’s rank order correlation, 97 Embodiment corporeal manifestation, 151 fragmentation, 150 non-individualized, 156 primary mechanism, 155 Enchainment and accumulation, 155 definition, 155 Epidemic disease, Epidemiology, 75, 76 Epipaleolithic archaeofaunal assemblage, 247 archaeological bone bed, 214 bone bed, 235, 236 Karain B, 218, 248 Levantine, 248 taphonomic and zooarchaeological study, 216 Episodic assemblages, 3–5 Ethnography and archaeology historically documented locations, 68, 69 Yandasqua, prisoner, 71–72 Yandatsa, 69–71 Extreme processing See Mancos and Sacred ridge Extremities foot elements comparison, 124 hand elements comparison, 123 F Fairty Ossuary, 73 Faunal assemblages, 214, 218 epipaleolithic, Karain B, 218 macro-and micro, 219 Feast of the Dead ethnohistoric accounts, 69 human remains, 69, 70 periodic relocation, village, 69 Fischer’s exact, 97 Fractal body, 151 279 Index Fragmentation and coloration, 54 commingling, 269 cross-disciplinary training, 269 theory, 155 Franchthi Cave Angel’s manuscript, 256 animal bone, 258–259 “brain gyri digitations”, 256 cranial fragments, 261 Greek archaeology, 255 hazards instrumentalism, 262 human hydrocephalus and paleontology, 261 medium-sized ungulates, 261 Mesolithic fauna, 260 methodological issue, 259 overspecialization, 262 paleopathology, 261–262 physical anthropology, 255 reanalysis, 256–258 sheep-goat vault fragments, 259 skull fragments, 259 stable isotopic studies, 260 vault fragments, human, 260 zooarchaeology, 261, 262 G Genocide, Geographic information systems (GIS), 51, 160 Global History of Health Project, 204 Great Plains, 88 Guatemala ethnohistoric sources, 156 map of Petén lakes, 156 H “Headhunting”, 146 Health epidemiological-based investigations, 74 living population, 75 pre-and post-contact, 74 Hellenistic Late Byzantine periods, 193, 194 Roman-Hellenistic period, 199 and Roman tombs, 194 Hidden heterogeneity, 74–75 Human cremains, 63 Human processing, 131, 135–137 Human skeletal assemblages accession numbers, 40–41 baseline data and Tell Abraq assemblage, 37–38 data management, 39–40 demographic standards, 41 demography, 44–45 element representativeness, 42–44 mapping, tomb, 45–46 sorting, 39 subadult MNI, 46–47 Tell Abraq and Sacred Ridge, 38–39 Umm an-Nar mortuary patterns, 36–37 Huron ethnographic data, 74 Iroquois, 68 I Identity age-related fractures, 78 APBD, 76, 77 developmental-behavioral conceptualization, 75–76 discrete trait analyses, 79 healed fractures, 76 life course (see Life course) metric and nonmetric morphology, 78 population-level studies, 79 skeletal trauma, 76 supracondylar fractures, 77 Ik’ breath soul, 153 explicitly embodied, 153 ochb’ih, 153 Impact break and abrasions, 140, 142 digging implements and cobbles, 135 metacarpals, 139 orbital region, 134 postcranial alteration, adult elements, 135 Institutional commingling “cabinets of curiosity”, 174 cross-institution, 175 digitization, 174–175 Interpersonal violence, 107 Intramural burial customs, 18 disturbances and interactions, 27 males and females, 25 primary interments, 20 Iroquois, 68, 69 Itzá, 156 J Jaloj k’exoj, 154 280 K Kalavasos-Kopetra, Cyprus age-at-death, 197 alkaline soil conditions, 197 catastrophic circumstances, 197 fragmentary and complete humeri, 197 postdepositional movement, 196 preliminary analysis, 196 and Roman sites, 11 taphonomic conditions, 196–197 Tomb from Sirmata, 196 Kowoj Late Postclassic, 157 Mayapán-style temple assemblages, 157 occupation, 157 Petén lakes, 158 L LA 37592 adults, 138–139 disarticulated bone, 136, 137 excavation, 136 intentional arrangement and placement, bones, 136, 137 perimortem human processing, 136–137 subadults, 138 LA 37593 adults, 134–136 disarticulated assemblage, 133–134 excavation, 132 human remains, 132 subadults, 134 LA 65030 adults, 141–142 burials, 140 carnivore activity, 140 commingled and disarticulated fragments, 140 disarticulated assemblage, 140 impact breaks and abrasions, 140 subadult, 140–141 Lab commingling, La Plata assemblage analysis, 129 bone elements, 143, 145 breakage and disarticulation, 132 burials, 142 burned elements and broken crania, 145 burning, 143 dates, location, MNI and element frequency, 143, 144 human remains, 146 LA 37592, 136–139 Index LA 37593 (see LA 37593) LA 65030, 140–142 methodological considerations, 130–132 and Op 1000, taphonomic changes, 130 taphonomic forces, 146 Larson Cemetery, 88, 89, 93 Larson Village, 89, 93 Late Byzantine, 193, 194 Late Postclassic (ca AD 1200–1524) Mayapán-style temple, 157 Op 1000, 157 Late Roman/Early Christian KalavasosKopetra, 193 Late Woodland Effigy Mound burial location, 185 Native American, 176 Late Woodland period discrete traits, 78 mortuary practices, 69 Lhat bivariate plot, 160–162 Khat(t), 160 Life course human social identities, 75 skeletal factures, 78 social relations and responsibilities, 78 Lincoln Index (LI), 89, 90, 99, 100 Longitudinal, 131–132, 135–136, 139 Lower limb femora comparison, 120, 121 fibulae comparison, 120, 122 patellae comparison, 120, 122 tibiae comparison, 120, 122 M Mancos (5MTUMR-2346) Canyon study, 10 ceramic chronology, 106 clavicles comparison, 113 comparison, frontal bones, 107, 108 femora comparison, 120, 121 fibulae comparison, 120, 122 foot element comparison, 124 hand element comparison, 123 humerii comparison, 114, 115 mandibles comparison, 107, 109 maxillae comparison, 107, 109 occipitals comparison, 110, 111 parietals comparison, 110 patellae comparison, 120, 122 pelvic girdle comparison, 119 processing, individual element, 126 Index radii comparison, 116 scapulae comparison, 113 temporals comparison, 110, 111 tibiae comparison, 120, 122 ulnae comparison, 116, 117 vertebral element comparison, 117, 118 zygomatics comparison, 107, 108 Mancos and Sacred ridge analysis, assemblages, 106 ceramic chronology, 106 cranial modification, 107–112 disarticulated assemblages, 105 ethnographic analogy., 107 extremities, 123–124 lower limb, 120–122 methods for dismemberment, 125 pelvis, 119–120 processing, individual elements, 126 recordation, taphonomic change, 126 shoulder, 113–114 skeletal assemblage, 106 Southwest bioarchaeology, 106 upper limb, 114–117 vertebrae, 117–119 Marean, C.W., 214, 231 Massacres, 107 Mass burial, MAU See Minimum animal units (MAU) Maya mass grave bivariate extension, 160–161 chi-square, 159–160 CSR, 160 Eastern facing profile, Op 1000, 157, 158 element-by-element comparisons, 162 ethnographers, 149 ethnohistoric sources, 156 femoral shafts, 159 grinding and drilling, 159 individual long bones, 161 map, Zacpetén and group A, 157 MNI, 158 non-individual bodies, 149 omission, right forearm bones, 163 Operation 1000 (see Operation 1000) Petén lakes, 156 quantification and cutmarks, long bones, 159 radiocarbon dates, 158 relational, partible and permeable bodies, 150–156 right ulnae and radii, 163 Ripley’s K function, 150, 160 Mayapán style temple assemblages, 157 Yucatan peninsula, 157 281 Mellaart, J., 17 Mesa Verde, 105 Mesoamerica archaeology, 157 birth, death and rebirth, 154 maize seeds, 152 Mesolithic fauna, 260 Mexico, 152 MGUI See Modified general utility index (MGUI) Middle Missouri River, 88–90, 102 Middle Preclassic period (1000–300 BC), 157 Middle Woodland crematory, 51 mound and mortuary facilities, 52 Walker-Noe site, 52 Minimum animal units (MAU), 230, 233, 239, 244 Minimum number of elements (MNE), 58, 230, 233, 237, 239, 240, 242, 244 Minimum number of individuals (MNI) and BMD, 102 bone inventory, 20 calculation, 86, 99 computerized, 21–22 concept, 88, 90 cranial elements, estimation, 58 definition, deposition and redeposition, 20 feature-based approach, long-term-usage assemblages, measures, 10 medicolegal and archaeological contexts, 86 post-excavation analysis, 21 on post-excavation analysis, 21 skeletal features, 100 MNE See Minimum number of elements (MNE) Modified general utility index (MGUI), 227, 233, 244 Monte Carlo methods, 160 Mortuary practices, 270–271 Most likely number of individuals (MLNI), 89–90, 100 Movement of bones depositional categories, 19 flow of human bones, 19, 20 intramural burials, 20 platforms and central floors, 18 “primary disturbed loose bones”, 20 tertiary bones, 19 282 N Nea Paphos, Cyprus, 198 Neolithic site, 17 Nerik Roman period mass grave, 93 skeletal material, 201 Number of identified specimens (NISP), 222–224, 242 O OA See Osteoarthritis (OA) Oaxaca, 154 Ochb’ih, 153 Ontario See also Southern Ontario commingled assemblages, 10 Iroquois, 68 Operation 1000 (Op 1000) commingled assemblages, 10 Eastern facing profile, 157, 158 excavation, mass grave, 157 and La Plata, and MNI, 158 quantification and cutmarks, 159 radiocarbon dates, 158 white limestone, 157 Ossuary archaeological excavations, 73 collected and repositioned, 195 preliminary analysis, 196 primary inhumations, 196 skeletal assemblages, 72 Wendat burial practices, 69 Osteoarthritis (OA) eburnation, 204 OTE (see Os tibiale externum (OTE)) Osteological paradox, 74, 75 Os tibiale externum (OTE) description, 207 etiology, 208 forensic anthropology, 209 left navicular manifestation, 207 OA (see Osteoarthritis (OA)) paleoepidemiological research, 208 skeletal remains analysis, 207 Ovicaprid, 197 Oymaaaỗ Hửyỹk, Turkey floruit, 199 Roman–Hellenistic period, 199 Roman period mass grave, 200, 201 Index P Pair matching, 85, 90 Paleodemographic age profiles, 101, 102 assessments, 86 LI and MLNI, 100 Paphos, Cyprus, 11, 198 Parsons site, 79 Partibility See Relational, partible and permeable bodies Partible bodies, 151 PASSaGE 2.0, 160 Pathological biological anthropologists, 204 database coding system, 203 Permeability See Relational, partible and permeable bodies Permeable bodies See Relational, partible and permeable bodies Petén lakes map, 156 northern Guatemala, 156 political presence, 158 temple assemblages, 157 PI, 105 PII, 105, 106 PIII, 105, 106 Plague, Population analyses, 73 Postclassic Late Postclassic period (ca AD 1200–1524), 157 Ripley’s K function, 150 Pot polish, 130 Primary disturbed loose deposition age categories, 23 depositional categories, 19 disarticulated human skeletons, 23 loose bone category, 19 and tertiary bones, 20 Primary inhumations, 196 Primary long-term usage comingled assemblages, 3, Processed human remains (PHR), 5, Q Quantification estimation methods bone fragments, 55 data and layer management, 55 left temporal bone, 55, 56 MNI estimates, cranial elements, 58 surface colors, 56 Walker-Noe project, 54 283 Index R Raiding, Re-combination hybrid body, 164–165 intentional fragmentation, 155 Monte Carlo methods, 160 Refitting, 106 Relational bodies See Relational, partible and permeable bodies Relationally defined bodies, 152 Relational, partible and permeable bodies embodiment, 151–152 ethnographic research, 150 fractal bodies, 151 Hagen people, 151 Maya bodies, 152–154 notion, dividual, 150–151 past bodies, 155–156 “thinking statue”, 150 Ripley’s K, 9, 10 Ripley’s K function bivariate extension, 160 intentional manipulation, 161 in plant ecology, 160 scaled-distance algorithm, 160 spatial distribution, 150 Roasting, 142 S Sacred Ridge See also Mancos and Sacred ridge episodic assemblages, Mancos Canyon study, 10 Sacrifices, 72 Secondary interments, 18 partial older woman, 28 skeletons/skeletal elements, 19 Secondary burial Pre-pottery Neolithic B site of Kissonerga, 198 skeletal remains, 193 Secondary long-term usage assemblages, 3, Secondary processing, 106 Shoulder clavicles comparison, 113 MNI, proximal humerus, 114 scapulae comparison, 113 Single photon absorptiometer, 86 Skeletal assemblage, 200–201 Skeletal parts, commingled bone assemblages and abundance, skeletal elements, 229 bone bed assemblage, 237, 241 chemical and physical characteristics, 229 correlation coefficient, 239 expected vs observed MNE values, 237, 239 faunal assemblages, 229 mineral values, 230 MNE and MNI values, 230 Spearman’s rank correlation statistic, 230 Skeletal trauma, 76 Social enchainment, 155–156 Social identity, 78 Social memory burial locations, 29 neolithic people, 30 South Dakota, 86, 90, 92, 94 Southern Ontario archaeological contexts, 67 bioarchaeology, 72–75 ethnography and archaeology, 68–72 research, concept of identity, 75–79 theoretical and methodological approaches, 68 Southwest, 144, 145 Spatial analysis method arbitrary levels, 56–57 correlation analysis, 59 cremated bone weight standardized by unit size, 59, 60 distance measures, platform centroid, 57 excavation unit-based summary variables, 58–59 Spearman’s rank order correlation, 96, 97 Spiral fractures, 131, 136 St Lawrence Iroquois, 68 Stone tools, 131 Surgeon’s tomb microcosmic representation, 198 Nea Paphos, 198 Survivability, 86, 88, 99, 101–103 Symbolism and agency, 271 T Taphonomic processes, 86, 92, 99, 102 Taphonomic signature, 130, 132 Taphonomy See also Zooarchaeology and taphonomy, commingled bone assemblages commingled analysis, 269–270 fragmentary assemblages, sites, 132 “taphonomic signature”, 130 Tell Abraq assemblage, 3, and baseline data, 37–38 and Sacred Ridge, 38–39 284 Temporal bone distribution excavation unit and element side, 61, 62 mortuary behaviors, 63 relationship, bone weight, 61, 62 Terminal Classic period (ca AD 800–900), 157 Tertiary disarticulated bones, 21 grave pit, 20 loose bones, 19 recovered bones, 23 unassigned bones, 19 Tionnontaté (Petun), 68 Tomb dental development, 37 fortification tower, 35–36 good baseline, 38 mapping, 45–46 size, 36 trapezoidal opening, 36 Tomb reuse, 195 The Tombs of the Kings, 198 Tool marks bone, 106 forearm bones, 116 humeri from Mancos, 116 identification, 105 location and appearance, 106 Sacred Ridge, 117 Topoxté, 157 Transverse, 131–132, 134, 139 Trauma defensive wounds, 123 foot bones, 124 identification, foot, 113 perimortem, 117 shoulder, 113 Treponemal infections, 74 Treponematosis, 177 Tuberculosis, 74 Turkey, 214, 216 U Umm an-Nar grave goods, 36 spiritual provisioning, 37 tomb construction, 36 Unmingling commingled museum collections Aztalan photographs, 190 description, 173 documentation (see Documentation, unmingling) institutional (see Institutional commingling) Index laboratory context, 173 material culture, 190 osteologists, 173 skeletal collections, 173–174 taphonomic processes, 189 Upper limb Humerii comparison, 114, 115 MNI ratios, 114 radii comparison, 116 ulnae comparison, 116, 117 Uxbridge ossuary, 77 W Wahy, 153 Walker-Noe (15Gd56), 7, 52–54 Warfare, 3, 68 Wendat (Huron), 68 William M Bass, 63 Witchcraft, 146 Witches, 107 Woodland Period, 10, 68, 78 Y Yandasqua ethnographic accounts, 70–71 mortuary practices, 69 Wendat infants, 71 Wendat primary interment, 69, 70 Yandatsa archaeological evidence, 72 Iroquoian groups, 71 Z Zacpetén Late Postclassic, 157 Mayapán-style temple assemblage, 157 Mesoamerican archaeology, 157 Zooarchaeology and taphonomy, commingled bone assemblages and bone bed, Karain B, 218 bone fragmentation patterns, 234, 245–246 bone preservation (see Bone preservation, commingled bone assemblages) burning, 234–235, 246–247 carcass processing, economic utility and skeletal evenness, 233–234, 243–245 categories, 223 commingled assemblages, 11 285 Index composition and formation (see Assemblages, commingled bone assemblages) conceptual and methodological frameworks, 214 encouraging physical anthropology students, 262 identification, 221 Levantine epipaleolithic assemblages, 247 meat and marrow extraction, 247 multivariate taphonomic approach, 223 nonhuman biotic/abiotic agents, 247 paleopathologists and bioarchaeologists, 262 quantification, 222–223 quantitative matrix, 223–226 recording, 221 recovery, 219 sampling, 219–220 site description and research, 216–217 skeletal parts (see Skeletal parts, commingled bone assemblages) taphonomic techniques, and taphonomy, 11 taxonomic composition, 223–224, 235 terminology, .. .Commingled and Disarticulated Human Remains Anna J Osterholtz • Kathryn M Baustian Debra L Martin Editors Commingled and Disarticulated Human Remains Working Toward Improved Theory, Method, and. .. Anthropology University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV, USA ISBN 97 8-1 -4 61 4-7 55 9-0 ISBN 97 8-1 -4 61 4-7 56 0-6 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/97 8-1 -4 61 4-7 56 0-6 Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London Library of... M., Osterholtz, A J., & Cook, D C (2013) Taking analyses of commingled remains into the future: Challenges and prospects In A J Osterholtz, K M Baustian, & D L Martin (Eds.), Commingled and disarticulated
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