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Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development Ian Pool Colonization and Development in New Zealand between 1769 and 1900 The Seeds of Rangiatea Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development Volume Editors-in-chief: Yves Charbit and Ian Pool This dynamic series builds on the population and development paradigms of recent decades and provides an authoritative platform for the analysis of empirical results that map new territory in this highly active field Its constituent volumes are set in the context of unprecedented demographic changes in both the developed—and developing—world, changes that include startling urbanization and rapidly aging populations Offering unprecedented detail on leading-edge methodologies, as well as the theory underpinning them, the collection will benefit the wider scholarly community with a full reckoning of emerging topics and the creative interplay between them The series focuses on key contemporary issues that evince a sea-change in the nexus of demographics and economics, eschewing standard ‘populationist’ theories centered on numerical growth in favor of more complex assessments that factor in additional data, for example on epidemiology or the shifting nature of the labor force It aims to explore the obstacles to economic development that originate in high-growth populations and the disjunction of population change and food security Where other studies have defined the ‘economy’ more narrowly, this series recognizes the potency of social and cultural influences in shaping development and acknowledges demographic change as a cause, as well as an effect, of broader shifts in society It is also intended as a forum for methodological and conceptual innovation in analyzing the links between population and development, from finely tuned anthropological studies to global, systemic phenomena such as the ‘demographic dividend’ Reflecting the boundary-blurring rapidity of developing nations’ socio-economic rise, the editors are actively seeking studies relating to this sector, and also to Russia and the former Soviet states At the same time as addressing their underrepresentation in the literature, the series also recognizes the critical significance of globalization, and will feature material on the developed world and on global migration It provides everyone from geographers to economists and policy makers with a state-of-the-art appraisal of our understanding of demographics and development More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/8813 Ian Pool Colonization and Development in New Zealand between 1769 and 1900 The Seeds of Rangiatea Ian Pool National Institute of Demographic and Economic Analysis University of Waikato Hamilton, New Zealand Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development ISBN 978-3-319-16903-3 ISBN 978-3-319-16904-0 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16904-0 Library of Congress Control Number: 2015942926 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) To my mokopuna (grandchildren), Caroline, Charlotte, Fiona and Nicholas Preface I have already published papers, research monographs and several books on Maori population, most more technical than the present book To my great satisfaction they have been read by three separate audiences The first are New Zealand scholars, particularly historians, a discipline I admire greatly as it has played a major role in building New Zealand’s cultural identity and documenting its story Secondly, there are overseas scholars, above all in Australia and North America, not just those carrying out research in indigenous studies, but also in related fields such as anthropology, colonial history and development But in many senses, the most rewarding constituency has been the third, members of iwi (tribes) preparing claims for New Zealand’s Waitangi Tribunal Seeing your own scientific text open before claimants, at meetings as you build a technical case for its users, is a very special experience to which relatively few scientists are exposed The most immediate motivation to write this book came from the Central North Island Waitangi Tribunal’s hearing at Ohinemutu in February 2005 After a long and particularly adversarial cross-examination by the Crown, I was approached by Counsel for some of the claimants, who, as only a lawyer can do, ‘instructed’ me to reissue my last book, Te Iwi Maori But, as might be expected, the challenge was not as straightforward as I first thought it might be It became a totally different book, not in terms of the arguments I had made or the techniques I had used in Te Iwi Maori, but because of other factors Inspiration came from a phrase used many years ago, in a seminal paper by the New Zealand expatriate demographer Wilfred Borrie He called the Maori population ‘a microcosm of the New World’ He was referring to a period of recuperation and very rapid growth, driven by rapid declines in mortality, across the Third World immediately after World War II, and represented in New Zealand by Maori But the phrase also has resonance for earlier decades as the nineteenth-century Maori history is a microcosm of the colonial experience of many other peoples The interest of researchers from other ‘Anglo settler societies’ was not entirely unexpected The histories of those countries have a lot in common with New Zealand’s, especially in terms of relationships between the settlers, who eventually vii viii Preface became the majority populations, and the indigenous people who became the minorities in their own countries In all cases, there was massive resource loss by the native peoples; indigenous populations were struck by pathogens, against which they had no immunity, introduced and diffused – generally by accident – and which produced demographic ‘collapses’ that threatened their very survival; there were wars of conquest and extension of empire, including the westward expansion of the United States, which was also empire-building at the expense of native Americans; there was displacement of ‘precursor peoples’ by settlers, who turned these domains into extensive pastoral estates and grain farms; and everywhere there was the demonisation of the original inhabitants But as I wrote this book, I also became aware of other comparators, not only in much of Latin America, especially its southern cone (Argentina, Chile and Uruguay), but also in peripheral, Celtic Britain They were subject to the ‘Clearances’, which were still continuing in Scotland – as New Zealand was being colonized – in the late Victorian era Even the ‘enclosures’ in the metropole, England itself, carried out in the name of progress and efficiency, had some similarities with displacements occurring in the peripheries, whether in Britain or the colonies Moreover, it did not take much more imagination to see resonance with Tsarist Russia’s relentless march eastward, converting the territory of nomads into grain farms, or even the colonization of many territories in Africa Displacement and collapse were also widespread in Africa – the history of the demographic decline of the Congo is a case in point, perhaps one of the more extreme This book then is a case study of the ‘displacement’ of one set of peoples by others, and the ‘internal colonialism’ that allows this domination to continue even after colonization per se may have finished I thus had the motivation and possible audiences for a book on colonization, Maori population and development The next question was what form it should take Here I had some clear goals in mind First, I wanted any ‘new’ book to be far less technical and more easily accessible to a wider range of audiences than my last book Fortunately, my earlier books provided the methodologies and substantive results that I could draw on to avoid technical analyses That said, the estimates and techniques I had used there had been gradually refined, often by developing or adopting new techniques, mainly in response to the requirements of cross-examined expert evidence for the Waitangi Tribunal, plus for entries I authored/co-authored for the official online Encyclopedia of New Zealand Recent papers by other authors, cited in the text here, also raised issues that needed addressing; for example, in the light of new evidence, especially the arguments of economist Brian Easton, I have lowered my estimate for the number of Maori in 1769, when Captain James Cook ‘discovered’ New Zealand Second, and far more importantly, I felt there was a need to pay greater attention to the ‘development’ side of population and development This became a mega-task, simply because, with some very notable exceptions, formal economics has virtually ignored the non-monetized sectors of nineteenth-century New Zealand development Indeed, in the post-contact but still precolonial epoch until 1840, there is very little written on any of the sectors of the New Zealand economy apart from extractive industries, in which Maori are seen as ‘bit players’: the ‘hewers of wood and Preface ix scrapers of flax’, with the more instrumental aspects of trade and shipping in the hands of Europeans Even in our most authoritative histories, the question of what ordinary Maori were doing in their daily lives is virtually a missing element By contrast, the intertribal wars of the period are paid much attention – perhaps they are inherently more exciting than the daily grind of horticulture, hunting, gathering and fishing; muskets are more newsworthy than hoes; and cannibalism is more easily sensationalized than normative events such as marriage Not surprisingly, we also know a great deal about the missionaries and the rapid conversion of Maori to Christianity – the missionaries were great chroniclers, often exaggerators, of their own successes Some were strong advocates for colonial annexation as a counter to the lawlessness apparently surging around the oases of calm formed by the mission stations To many European journal writers, Maori were inherently childish and/or savage and, as ‘Aborigines’, had to be protected from debauched sailors, escaped convicts from Australia, whalers and sealers This selectivity in the accounts available to researchers always had nuggets of truth, but those reports have often been adopted uncritically by some sensationalist, revisionist historians who have written ‘tabloid’ accounts of Maori in this period By contrast, the ‘business historians’ have restricted themselves to ‘tangibles’ but have shown how very successful Maori were as international traders in commodities The colonial period from 1840 until 1907 is easier to document But I have had to ask how and why the successful Maori ‘businesses’ were virtually eliminated This leads to a key question: what was the economic and social situation of Maori at the end of Victoria’s reign? It is an oft-forgotten truism that for an indigenous population all development depends on their very survival, which is a function of their health and exposure also to conflict To address this issue I had to document more elaborately the way in which Maori health suffered from contact and the diffusion of pathogens, then how Maori gradually gained resistance to these; in an era in which biomedical science was so primitive, there were virtually none of the preventive or curative measures that became commonplace in the twentieth century Conflict could be analysed by drawing on the authoritative book of Ron Crosby on the intertribal wars, 1810– 1840, on James Belich’s history of the various lethal colonial wars and conflicts, 1842–1898, plus more recent detailed research by Vincent O’Malley To explain decreases in Maori life-expectancy and numbers, so severe that their extinction was predicted by most pundits in late Victorian New Zealand, and then to account for their eventual survival, factors of health occupy much of the space in this book Taking the lead from the principles being enunciated by the ‘Bretton Woods’ and other international agencies, health is seen here as an integral factor of development, not as some fiscally burdensome ‘social sector’ off to one side, as was too often the attitude of neo-liberal economists over the past three to four decades As I have indicated already, the subject matter of this book has a wider interest beyond New Zealand The knowledge base on Maori in the nineteenth century is still far from complete; I hope that this book significantly extends it in an area where until now there have been major gaps But New Zealand’s story is probably far more detailed and better documented than those for many other territories facing European 320 15 Just Surviving – Not Thriving We can compare New Zealand with rural England George Monbiot talks about the late eighteenth–early nineteenth century English poet John Clare, who mused ruefully about rural Northamptonshire life that underwent radical tenurial changes, as was to happen analogously 40–100 years later for Maori, with Crown Purchase, confiscation and the Native Land Court All that Clare had valued fell apart Clare ‘documents both the destruction of place and people and the collapse of his own state of mind’ Monbiot goes on to say, ‘What Clare suffered was the fate of indigenous people torn from their land and [sense of] belonging everywhere His identity crisis, descent into mental agony and alcohol abuse are familiar blights in reservations and outback shanties the world over’ (Monbiot 2012: 24) Yet, the Victorians and latter-day resurrection-ists attributed such breakdown and the consequences of population decline to a technologically inferior people coming into contact with a superior one Strangely enough, the colonists did not look back ‘home’ to Scotland or Ireland where clearances had occurred Nor to the massive dislocation, coming from land tenure shifts and related ‘agrarian reforms’, that had even had similar impacts on rural populations in England’s ‘Green and pleasant Land’ In fact, the Vogel migration waves of the 1870s included semi-skilled farm workers from ‘grassy shires’, such as Oxfordshire, that were subject to high levels of rural unrest For Maori, the war and confiscation were tangibles, but the ‘peaceful’ transfer of resource tenure also wreaked other consequences beyond material losses In this colony distant from its metropole, ‘tightening of Empire’ irreversibly transformed ‘place and people’ Today, there is still an ontological chasm: Pakeha tend to regard the focus of the Waitangi Tribunal to be on tangibles such as breaches of the Treaty by the Crown and the economic losses these entailed But, for Maori the intangibles are frequently as important, arguably more so, and certainly are the bedrocks of grievances An apology from the Crown, representing Queen Victoria’ heirs and successors, simple as this is, may count for as much as a cash compensatory payment It is not surprising, therefore, that in Aotearoa such ‘intangibles’ come into more public focus Most recently this has been in an incongruous context, in the midst of public debate on a narrow issue of public policy – the sale of state-owned energy companies and thus their hydro-electric infrastructure (2012) Maori iwi, which have collective authority mandated by legislation relating to the Treaty of Waitangi, are asserting this, forming alliances with other outspoken groups, and making public their views about the very important intangible values attributed to rivers and lakes in Maori culture – enough in fact to force rethinks about some policy initiatives All this is a critical question when reviewing Maori survival and resource alienation in the nineteenth century Yet, anything more than a mere superficial nod to the significance of the intangibles is beyond the scope of this book The evidence on these has yet to be sifted, most notably through the Waitangi public record documentation Thus, this book perforce has had to focus on the record of the material dimensions of Maori life over the 131 years from contact until 1900, and to put to one side for others to research what are vast but as yet unexplored domains References 321 References Buller, W (1884) The decrease of the Maori race New Zealand Journal of Science, 2, 55 Cohen, J., & Cohen, M (1977) The Penguin dictionary of quotations London: Penguin Crosby, A W (1986) Ecological imperialism: The biological expansion of Europe, 1900–1900 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press McGregor, N (2010) A history of the world in 100 objects London: BBC McKinnon, M (Ed.) (1997) New Zealand historical atlas Auckland: Bateman Monbiot, G (2012, July 20) John Clare, the poet of England’s rural crisis Guardian Weekly p 24 O’Malley, V (2007) English law and the Maori response: A case study from the Runanga system in Northland, 1861–65 Journal of the Polynesian Society, 116(1), 7–33 O’Malley, V., Stirling, B., & Penetito, W (2010) The treaty of Waitangi companion: Maori and Pakeha from Tasman until today Auckland: Auckland University Press Te Rangi, H (1924) The passing of the Maori Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 55, 362–375 Glossary: Maori Words Used Frequently in the Text Aotearoa: New Zealand, usually translated as the ‘land of the long white cloud’ New Zealand is an officially bi-lingual nation, so both country names are used here Hapu: Sub-tribe Iwi: Tribe Kai: Denotes all foods in Aotearoa; but restricted to a syrupy pudding of starchy food in Tropical Polynesia Kainga: Hamlet or village Kumara: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), native of tropical America, introduced by Maori at the time of their first settlement; very different from ‘white potatoes’ (Solanum tuberosum) first introduced, centuries later, by European voyagers Kupapa (Maori): Maori who supported the Crown in the New Zealand Wars Mana: Usually translated as ‘prestige, authority, status’ Marae: Open area (meeting grounds) in front of whare runanga; also called whare nui Maoritanga: Maori concepts, way of thinking, way of doing things; an understanding of, and sympathy towards, things Maori Pakeha: [OED: ‘A White person’ (as opp to a Maori) E19] Persons of European origin or descent In the nineteenth century, at least from 1840 on, overwhelmingly of British Isles origin Pa: Fortified village Rangiatea: The Maori word for Raiatea an island in the Society Islands group, from which Maori probably emigrated to settle Aotearoa Runanga: Council, today refers to the governing body of an iwi Tapu: Sacred, prohibited, restricted Taua: War party Tikanga: Custom, habit, lore Te Aka (On-line) Dictionary was consulted for Maori words used in this book © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 I Pool, Colonization and Development in New Zealand between 1769 and 1900, Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development 3, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16904-0 323 324 Glossary: Maori Words Used Frequently in the Text Utu: Popularly translated as revenge, but more correctly as exchange or reciprocity and thus fundamental to all social and economic transactions Whakapapa: Genealogical links; kinship Whanau: Family, applied more to extended rather than nuclear units; hence abstract noun whanaungatanga, family bonds, feeling, values Whare: House Whare Runanga: Meeting house usually highly decorated typically with carvings; the substantial building of the of the Runanga (Council), normally at the most central part of any kainga or pa, and with an open area (marae, meeting grounds) in front of it Whare Wananga: Traditional Maori schools of learning; today means university Index A Alienation of resources See Resource Loss Altman, Jon, 58, 75 America See United States Anderson, Atholl, 2, 19, 163 Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-world, 28, 49, 53, 58, 84, 91, 99, 311 Annexation See Colonisation Antiquity See Pre-contact Period, Pre-history (first Maori settlement-1769) Asians, 180 Atiawa, 13, 142 Australia, 18–21, 23, 42, 44, 45, 49, 55–58, 62, 71, 75, 80, 85, 87, 88, 97, 104, 144, 161, 165, 166, 184, 205, 224, 231, 240, 260, 261, 263, 265, 286, 287, 302, 310–312, 315–317 Austronesian See Polynesia, Polynesians in B Ballara, Angela, 13, 85, 97, 119, 124, 137–139, 159 Banks, Joseph, 114 Barbarism See Demonisation Belich, James, 17, 18, 25, 26, 28, 31, 43, 49, 50, 53–56, 58, 59, 62, 64, 76, 84, 86, 88, 89, 91, 98, 100, 101, 107, 112, 114, 118, 120, 121, 133, 137–140, 148, 156, 161–163, 165–172, 174, 179, 183–186, 196, 197, 205, 206, 209–211, 218, 223, 224, 231–234, 236, 238, 246, 258, 259, 261, 263, 264, 267, 272, 273, 276–278, 296, 308, 315, 316 Biggs, Bruce, 17, 118, 119, 122 Binney, Judith, 17, 118, 119, 237, 238 Bio-medical, Bio-social See Mortality, Maori Blakely, Tony, 132 Boast, Richard, 42, 43, 87, 192, 193, 195, 197 Bovine, 64, 210, 213 Britain, 22, 57, 58, 71, 73, 76, 98, 114, 121, 131, 134, 138, 170, 184, 207, 208, 213, 228, 229, 232, 247, 253–255, 264, 273, 274, 315, 317, 319 British, 13, 14, 17–22, 26–28, 36–38, 42, 43, 45, 49, 50, 53, 54, 57, 58, 61, 63, 64, 69, 84, 87, 98–102, 105, 107, 111, 114, 115, 118, 121, 125, 131, 136, 165, 169, 170, 173, 180, 181, 183–179, 191, 192, 196, 205, 207, 209, 214, 219, 224, 232, 233, 235, 237, 238, 241, 248–249, 254, 259, 267, 269, 271, 281, 285, 286, 294, 296, 297, 302, 309, 311, 315–318 Brooking, Tom, 17, 209, 255, 270, 273 Buckley, Haillie, 62, 132 Buck, Peter See Te Rangi Hiroa Busby, James, 53, 84, 98, 184 Business See Development C Canada, 44, 49, 55, 56, 80, 184, 195, 224, 301, 311 Cannibalism, 19, 85, 90, 100, 103, 105, 111, 122–125, 148, 168 Carroll, James, 23, 47, 57, 60, 170, 179, 194, 247, 248, 275 Celts, Celtic Britain See Britain © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 I Pool, Colonization and Development in New Zealand between 1769 and 1900, Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development 3, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16904-0 325 326 Chapple, Simon, 63, 120, 121, 206, 232, 249, 270, 279–281, 286, 291, 294 Cheung, Jit, 38, 181, 182, 207, 208, 214, 270, 285, 287 Childhood See Mortality, Maori Child-woman ratios See Mortality, Maori Christianity See Missionaries Clearances See Development, Maori; Resource Loss Clip-ons See Development, Maori Coale, Ansley, 73, 77, 294, 299 Colenso, William, 102, 203 Colonialism See Colonisation Colonization See also ‘Fatal impact’; Recolonisation of Africa, 49, 50, 52, 55–57, 59, 62, 144, 259, 271, 309 of the Americas (North, South), 56, 309, 311, 316 of Australia, 21, 57, 209, 256, 316 colonialism, internal, 55–59 colonies, convict, slave, 16, 18, 23, 28, 49–51, 58, 61, 81, 98, 100, 102, 122, 125, 135, 136, 140, 144, 146, 165, 167, 168, 180, 184, 187, 192, 195, 209, 228, 255, 256, 259, 263, 270, 271, 309, 318 ‘knowledge creation’, 187 of New Zealand annexation, cession, 21–22, 54, 83, 139, 180, 264, 277, 281, 297, 315, 318 settlers (see Society, Pakeha) settler societies, 79, 301, 309–311, 314, 316 social construction by colonists, 187, 188 Colonists See Development, Pakeha; Population, Pakeha; Society, Pakeha “Colonial Era” (1840–1907), 21, 27–28, 117, 182–184, 286, 309 Colony, 3, 8, 17, 21, 22, 28, 51, 53, 54, 58, 61–63, 90, 101, 148, 159, 165, 166, 171–173, 180, 183, 184, 191, 195, 198, 203, 257, 258, 265, 281, 296, 301, 310, 315, 318, 320 Confiscation (Raupatu) See Resource Loss Conflicts See New Zealand Wars and other conflicts Contact (between Europeans and Maori), 14–30, 47, 54, 61–63, 79–80, 85, 97–108, 113, 119, 120, 124, 135, 146, 151, 156, 172, 180, 182, 212, 224, 225, 227, 229, 320 Index Cook, James, 11, 12, 18, 21, 22, 25, 27, 38, 47, 69, 84, 86, 97, 102, 105, 116, 131, 135, 137, 153–156, 158, 160, 161, 163, 167, 169, 171, 172, 204, 208 Cordell, Dennis, 50, 259 Core economy, 107, 152, 159–161, 163, 166–173, 256, 257, 272, 275 Crosby, Alfred, 62, 102, 131, 132 Crosby, Ron, 103, 130, 135, 136, 138, 140, 144, 146 Crown See Gonment, of New Zealand Crown purchase See Resource Loss Cruise, Richard, 117, 140 Cultural factors, 121 intangibles, 32, 40, 307, 319, 320 ‘Culture War’ (United States) See ‘History Wars’ D Daley, Caroline, 113, 114, 121 Darwin, Charles Darwinism, Darwinian, 18, 28, 46, 97, 99, 101, 121, 133, 183 social Darwinism, 18 Data See Demography; Resource/alienation Demographic transition See Maori population; Population models Demography See also Maori fertility; Mortality, Maori; Population, Pakeha; Sources, data quality demographic analysis, 50, 51, 103, 199 ‘demographic dividends’ (see Development) demographic transition, 71–73 ‘regressive pre-transition phase’, 72 historical demography, 50, 105 indirect estimation, 51, 188, 291, 315 methodologies, 51, 187–190, 291, 309, 315 model life-tables, 291 non-conventional techniques, 51 techniques, 51, 91, 188, 299, 310, 315 transition models, 73, 78, 313 Demonization See also Social pathologies, alleged Maori anarchy, lawlessness, 27 of colonists, 21–22, 25, 50–53, 186, 187, 192, 209, 217, 246, 316 of Maori ‘barbarism’, 26, 63, 111, 125 ‘communism’, 42, 74, 79, 191 Index ‘savagery’, 27, 98, 106, 107, 122, 124–125, 139 of natives elsewhere than New Zealand, 18–21, 27, 28, 50, 51, 99, 102, 106, 112, 122, 153, 180, 248, 254, 294, 308 Development See also Development, Maori; Development, Pakeha clearances, highland, irish, 36, 46, 255, 256 (see also Resource Loss) conventional models of economic g rowth, 74 defined, 69 economy/dual economies, 17, 18, 26, 27, 31, 35, 151–153, 198, 266, 286–288, 301 monetization, 259, 289 role of health in development, 29, 221, 241, 291–293 sectors primary, 32, 70, 261, 277 secondary, 18, 32, 70, 91, 240 tertiary, 17, 32, 70, 152, 236 social and cultural development, 23, 49, 308 Development, Maori business, trade, 36, 161, 185, 267, 268, 272, 308 capital financial, 17, 73–75 human, 10, 15, 29–31, 35, 39, 69, 73–78, 151, 180, 183, 184, 288, 289, 301, 314 physical, 10, 17, 24, 29, 30, 35, 36, 39, 41, 58, 84, 234, 248, 249, 255, 256, 271, 272, 289 social, 29, 31, 32, 154, 183 cattle farming (see Pastoralism) ‘clip-ons’ (to the ‘core economy’), 152, 153, 166–171 ‘core economy,’ subsistence sector, 75, 107, 152, 159, 164, 172 dairying (see Pastoralism) ‘economic options constrained by the law’, 195–197 economy, 25, 31, 32, 36, 46, 70, 75, 107, 148, 152, 159, 162, 164, 190, 195, 223, 241, 253–282 employment casual, 196 seasonal, 241 wage work, 31, 196, 280 extensive farming, 64, 261 327 birding, 46, 153, 159, 162, 166, 192, 256, 272, 274 eeling, 39, 46, 159, 162, 163, 192, 241, 256, 257, 272, 274 fishing, 163 gathering, 64, 153, 159, 162, 163, 241, 242, 253, 256–258, 261, 262, 271–273, 275 hunting, 46, 64, 156, 159, 162, 163, 169, 170, 241, 242, 253, 256, 257, 261, 262, 269, 272, 273, 275, 309 extractive industries kauri (agathis australis) milling, 218 kauri gum digging, 241, 271 sawing, 262 sealing, 19, 26, 32, 62, 152, 170, 262, 276 timber, 26, 152, 153, 169, 170, 231, 245, 261, 262, 268, 271, 276 whaling, 276, food and crop production, 162, 166 ‘globalization’ (see Paleo-globalisation) government contract work, 271 grain, 185, 266, 276, 278, 318 ‘gross national income’/GDP estimates, 29, 30, 74, 190, 285, 288, 290, 291, 293 health development (see Mortality, Maori) “horticulture”, 15, 17, 156, 162, 209, 210, 241, 253, 256, 261, 264, 266, 267, 269, 270, 273, 276–279 hybrid economy, 256–258, 260, 261, 271–274 intensive farming, 15, 17, 241, 253, 262, 266, 275, 278 kai, 167 kumara (sweet potato), 263, 269 labour, sectoral distribution of, transformation in, 31, 32, 70, 74, 78, 83, 151, 152, 272, 280, 288, 289, 293, 301, 308 low-level equilibrium trap (see ‘under-development trap’) maize (see Grain) monetisation, money, 37, 151, 259, 278, 289 New Zealand ‘clearances’ (see Resource Loss) ‘Paleo-globalization’, 169 pastoralism, 223, 241, 257, 261, 273–277, 293 pigs and other animals, pork, 18, 152, 162, 167, 169, 241, 279 328 Development, Maori (cont.) potatoes, potato blight, 18, 86, 122, 140, 152, 159, 160, 164–169, 171, 257, 261, 263, 264, 266, 269, 272 poverty, wellbeing, 15, 16, 27, 29, 30, 32, 39, 46, 52, 58, 60, 69–81, 102, 151, 179, 181–183, 185, 195, 205, 206, 208, 237, 248, 256, 271, 275, 287–289, 293, 295, 308, 313 productive industries (eg flax-preparing/ milling, housing, canoe-building, public building) other than food production, 166–169 public policy, 31, 40, 75, 89–90, 308, 311, 312, 320 public works acts, Maori affairs trustees (see Resource Loss) ranching (see Pastoralism) resources (land, marine, lake, riverine, swamp), 13, 14, 16, 17, 22, 25, 31, 35, 36, 39, 44–47, 54, 61, 63, 75, 85, 89, 90, 99, 120, 155, 185–179, 192, 196, 205, 208, 216–219, 236, 238, 247–249, 254, 256, 258, 271, 273, 275, 277, 281, 286, 293, 294, 313, 316, 318 sheep farming (see Pastoralism) ships, shipping, 71, 114, 131, 161, 165, 167, 170, 208, 261, 264, 265 subsistence sector (see Core economy) technology, adoption and adaptation, tools, 22, 28, 63, 89, 125, 153, 161, 164–166, 168, 273 ‘under-development trap’, 11, 23–27, 35, 74, 80, 253, 267–271, 286, 301, 308 wheat (see Grain) Development, Pakeha business, trade, 185, 235, 258, 260 capital (financial, human, physical), 15, 17, 23, 24, 29, 31, 32, 35–37, 39, 49, 70, 73, 76, 78, 84, 86, 104, 161, 180, 183, 248, 249, 286, 288, 289, 291 dairying (see Pastoralism) extensive farming, 162, 166, 260–262 extractive industries (sealing, whaling, timber), 19, 32, 62, 170, 192, 262, 275–276 gold, gold rushes, 152, 207, 231–239, 272, 316 grain farming, 276–277 gross domestic product (GDP), 32, 70 gross national income (GNI), 190 intensive farming, modes of production, small farms, 162, 235, 260–262, 270, 275 Index land tenure, inheritance, property rights, 18, 23, 32, 36, 60, 119, 320 pastoralism, bovine, ovine, wool, 17, 64, 152, 210, 213, 223, 235, 241, 242, 257, 260, 262, 266, 273, 280, 293, 318 ranching (see Pastoralism) sectors (primary, secondary, tertiary), 17, 32, 70, 152, 260, 309 sheep farming (see Pastoralism) ships, shipping, 114, 161, 166, 170, 171, 192, 264, 265 Dieffenbach, Ernest, 106, 112, 113, 115, 116, 119, 141, 154, 206, 210, 211, 225 Displacement of precursor peoples See Maori population Dow, Derek, 212, 214, 215 Durie, Mason, 13, 65, 89, 179 E Easton, Brian, 70, 152, 155, 174, 290 Empire See Colonisation; Imperialism, imperial fervour England (England and Wales) See Britain Environment, 12, 18, 32, 75, 89, 90, 156, 163, 206, 210, 223, 228, 238, 270, 273, 287, 313, 319 Epidemiologic transition See Mortality, Maori Eugenics See Darwin, Charles Europeans See Development, Pakeha; Population, Pakeha; Society, Pakeha F Farming See Development ‘Fatal impact’, 25, 26, 63, 86, 97–100, 106–108, 114, 137–139, 164, 172 Fenton, Francis, 87, 106, 141, 154, 184, 190, 204, 211, 213, 223, 225, 227, 230, 236, 237, 297, 300 Fertility, Maori See also Mortality, Maori; Population, Maori bio-medical/bio-social factors affecting reproduction, 29, 116, 132, 134, 183, 187, 188, 205, 292, 298 birth rates, 72, 116, 141, 155, 157 (see also Population, Maori) child woman ratios (see Mortality, Maori) crude birth rates (see Population, Maori) intermarriage‘half-castes,’, 52, 56, 80, 187 rates, total fertility rates (TFRs), 80, 158, 189, 190, 204, 207, 227, 230, 231, 243, 292 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 116, 129, 131, 134, 208, 230 329 Index Fertility, Pakeha See Population, Pakeha Fiji, 62, 136 Firth, Raymond, 76, 79, 107, 119, 120, 152, 161–163, 263 G Gaelic See Britain Gender bias, 119–122, 285, 286, 292, 293, 315 Genealogy See Social organisation, Maori, whakapapa Geographic factors (eg local relief, isolated areas), 198, 216, 217, 239, 246, 272–274 Government, of New Zealand See also Imperial power colonial, 46, 52, 186, 192, 215, 297, 309 constitution, 44, 54, 59, 83, 89, 185, 191, 194, 281, 311 dominion (constitutional status), 19, 54, 57, 59, 185, 196, 279, 281, 301 Liberal government, 57, 83, 216, 278 Maori franchise, electoral seats, 56 officials (see Society, Pakeha) Grain, 64, 160, 162, 166, 185, 244, 255, 262, 265, 266, 269, 270, 276–279, 318 Great Britain See Britain Grey, George, 209, 222 H Hapu See Social organization, Maori Hawaii(n) See Polynesia, Polynesians in Hawke, Gary, 76, 270, 293 Health See Development, Maori; Development, Pakeha; Mortality, Maori; Population, Pakeha Hechter, Michael, 57–59, 99 Hika, Hongi, 71, 138, 139, 142, 148 Hill, Richard, 14, 21, 37, 45, 53, 59, 62 Historians, 12–14, 19–21, 25, 27, 31, 32, 40–43, 53–55, 59, 76, 79, 84, 85, 87, 88, 91, 95, 97–100, 103, 105–108, 111, 112, 114, 118, 121, 131, 138, 139, 153, 164, 169, 181, 186, 190, 191, 193, 194, 218, 224, 229, 272, 275, 276, 278, 281, 309, 310, 312, 316, 317 History conventional, 15, 19, 26, 27, 32, 91, 100 revisionism, 20, 103–106, 281, 312 ‘Tabloid’, 19–21, 26, 46, 97, 99, 103–106, 111, 118, 169, 206 ‘History Wars’, 20, 21, 45, 85, 104, 312, 317 Holland, Peter, 260 Hunn, John, 56, 198 I Imperialism, imperial fervour Belich’s European ‘expansion’ stages‘networks,’ ‘empire,’ ‘settlement’, 11, 63, 131, 171, 172 Imperial fervour, 18, 26 ‘Imperial-Incubation Era’, 172, 173, 184 Imperialists See Society, Pakeha Imperial power Empire, Belich’s stages (‘False,’ ‘Loose,’ ‘Tight’), 86 metropole, 53, 58, 315–319 ‘Whitehall’, 53, 315 Incidence, occurrence, prevalence, 19, 90, 99, 101, 111–113, 115, 117, 118, 122–124, 132, 155, 230, 269, 286, 292, 294, 296, 298 Indigenous minorities, Precursor people(s) in Arctic Eurasia, Australia, Canada, Latin America, United States, 44, 80, 286, 301, 308, 311 race relations, ethnic inequality, ‘racial order’, 49, 55–59, 174, 315 racism, racist superiority (notions of), 18, 19, 23, 99, 101, 203 Inheritance rules See Development, Pakeha; Social organisation, Maori Intangible(s), non-material, tangible Factors See Cultural factors Inter-tribal Wars See ‘Musket Wars’ Ireland See Britain Ittmann, Karl, 16 Iwi (Tribes) Arawa, 163, 278 Atiawa, 13, 142 Ngai Tahu, 163, 226 Ngaiterangi, 246 Ngapuhi, 142, 165 Ngatiawa, 13, 210 Ngati Kahungunu, 13, 142, 296 Ngati Maniapoto, 210, 218, 234 Ngati Mutunga, 13, 246, 260 Ngati Ruanui, 142, 234 Ngati Toa, 142, 223 Ngati Tuwhareatoa, 13 Ngati Whatua, 142 Rarawa, 296 Tainui (see Ngati Maniapoto; Waikato) Taranaki (see Atiawa; Ngati Mutunga; Ngati Ruanui) 330 Iwi (Tribes) (cont.) Tuhoe/Urewera, 210, 237, 246 Waikato, 135, 142, 146, 232, 234, 246, 264, 265 Whanganui, 146, 233 J Jackson, Natalie, 78 K Kauri (Agathis australis) See Development, Maori, extractive industries Kawharu, Hugh, 41 King, Michael, 11, 12, 19, 22, 36, 37, 44, 53, 55, 57, 61, 86, 88, 98, 137, 139, 142, 180, 181, 183, 263, 278 Kukutai, Tahu, 14, 16, 52–54, 87, 91, 146, 175, 187–189, 240, 242, 246, 249, 257, 268 L Labour force, sectoral transformation See Development, Maori Land and water resources birding, 46, 153, 159, 162, 166, 192, 256, 272, 274 eeling, 39, 46, 159, 162, 163, 192, 241, 256, 257, 272, 274 fishing, 163 gathering, 64, 153, 159, 162, 163, 241, 242, 253, 256–258, 261, 262, 271–273, 275 hunting, 46, 64, 156, 159, 162, 163, 169, 170, 241, 242, 253, 256, 257, 261, 262, 269, 272, 273, 275, 309 Land forms See Geographic factors Land tenure, inheritance, property rights See Development, Maori; Development, Pakeha Lange, Raeburn, 212, 221, 239, 240 Leach, Helen, 89, 163, 164, 166, 167 Lee, Charlotte, 155 Lee, Ronald, 78 Locations See Regions/localities Lowe, Jeremy, 52, 188, 189 M Mackay, Thomas, 170, 194, 197, 210, 271, 275, 277 Maclean, Francis, 107, 181, 215 Index Maddox, Gregory, 16 Malthus, Thomas, 155 Maori population, 14–16, 20, 25–28, 30, 36, 37, 39, 41, 44, 46, 47, 49, 51, 54, 69–71, 80, 83, 84, 86, 90, 91, 97, 98, 103, 104, 106, 107, 111, 113, 130, 137, 139–141, 144, 145, 151, 153–157, 169, 174, 175, 179, 180, 183–185, 187, 190, 191, 193, 195, 198, 199, 203, 206, 208, 210, 211, 213, 216–219, 225, 228, 230–239, 246, 247, 249, 257, 267, 272, 281, 312–314, 317 Maoritanga mana, 40, 41, 61, 70, 119, 174, 183, 236, 307, 308 utu, 31, 79, 103, 123, 151 Map 1, 11–13, 134, 245 Marsden, Samuel, 168 McAloon, Jim, 76, 107, 165, 170 McKeown, Thomas, 214 McLean, Donald, 42, 87, 196, 197, 226, 258, 265, 274 Medicine See Mortality, Maori Military asymmetry, 232 numbers of troops, 32 Missionaries Catechists, 84, 192, 257 conversion, 121 ‘Low Church’ Anglicans, 22 Marists (French Society of Mary), 116 (see also Cannibalism) missionary reports, 26, 51, 119, 172 mission stations, 107, 224 Moa (Dinornithiformes) (Giant flightless bird), 12, 85, 156, 163, 174 Momentum, 25, 157, 158 Monin, Paul, 107, 148, 164, 165, 167, 169, 170, 176, 197, 208, 223, 259, 260, 263, 265–270, 277, 278 Moon, Paul, 103, 105, 122, 123, 135, 136, 194, 195 Moriori, 11–13, 142, 143, 263 Mortality, Maori See also Fertility, Maori; Population, Maori abortion (see Social Pathologies, alleged Maori) bio-medical, bio-social factors affecting health, 29, 116, 132, 134, 292, 294, 298 childhood diseases, mortality, survival, survivorship, 133, 208 Index child woman ratios, 188, 189, 225–227, 233, 244–248, 287 community health, sanitation, 29, 240 crude death rates (see Population, Maori) death/mortality rates, 71–74, 103, 129, 130, 132, 133, 135–137, 141, 146, 148, 155, 157, 158, 179, 181–183, 186, 189, 190, 205, 207, 211, 221, 229, 233, 238, 289, 292, 299 diseases/disorders, causes of death and sickness, epidemics acute infectious, 212 diarrhoeal, dysenteric, 212, 292, 300 gonorrhoea (see Maori fertility) influenza, 62, 132, 237 measles, 62, 132, 212, 213, 229 mumps, 211 respiratory, 132, 212, 240, 300 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (see Maori fertility) smallpox, vaccination, 62, 63, 106, 133, 180, 211, 213, 215, 228, 229 syphilis (see Maori fertility) tuberculosis, 62, 102, 131, 132, 134, 136, 182, 212, 213, 230, 298, 300 typhoid, 29, 228, 238–240 venereal disease (see Maori fertility) whooping cough, 240 epidemiologic transition, 72, 115, 132 ‘regressive pre-transition phase’, 72 fatalities, battle, 103, 139, 141, 238 fetal mortality, 208, 294 health, and development, 294 immunity, resistance, 15, 73, 116, 130, 131, 134, 186, 208, 212, 234, 240, 242, 249, 281, 318 infant mortality, 116 life expectncy, life-tables, longevity, 15, 29, 38, 72, 157, 181, 188, 189, 207, 227, 247, 285, 291, 292, 298, 299 malnutrition, malnutrition-infection cycle, 135, 204, 208, 213, 238, 271, 288, 289, 318 maternal mortality, 182, 298 medical science, 72, 101 morbidity, sickness, 29, 181, 204, 212, 230 pathogenicity, virulence, 129–130, 132, 212 pathogens, diffusion, 15, 73, 130–132, 137, 148, 173, 208, 248 public health, health system, hospitals, 29, 72, 181, 182, 213–216, 287 sexually transmitted diseases (see Fertility, Maori) 331 survivorship, 38, 182, 189, 207, 208, 213, 225, 274, 297–300 theoretical considerations, 286–289 Mortality, Pakeha See Population, Pakeha ‘Mother Country.’ See Britain ‘Musket Wars,’ 13, 63, 84, 85, 98, 100, 103, 104, 107, 124, 129–149, 158–161, 168, 171–173, 206, 218, 300 See also Crosby, Ron Myth-building See Demonization N Native Land Court (NLC) See Resource Loss Natural events (tsunami, volcanic eruption), 155, 246, 263, 268 Nelson, Richard, 23, 74, 199, 223, 224, 226, 231, 287, 288 Neo-Europes, Anglo-America, Australasia See Colonisation Newman, Alfred, 51, 63, 98, 101–103, 112, 135, 203, 207, 297 New South Wales See Australia New Zealand, as a colony, country, 17, 53, 54, 61, 80, 114, 148, 165, 166, 171, 172, 281, 301, 315–318 New Zealand Company, 36, 180, 181, 184, 210 New Zealand Wars and other conflicts campaigns against Te Kooti, Titokowaru, 1864–80, 234, 239 ‘Dog-tax War,’ Hokianga,1898, 210, 258 kupapa (Maori supporting the Crown), 45, 183, 228, 232–234, 238 Northern War, 1845–54, WellingtonWhanganui, 1846–55, 184–185 sacking of Parihaka, Taranaki, 1881, 210, 246 second New Zealand Wars, Taranaki, Waikato, 1860–66, 232 ‘Wairau Affray,’ Marlborough, 1843, 184–185, 211 Ngati Maniapoto, 210, 218, 234 Nicholas, John Liddiard, 165, 168 Norfolk Island See Australia Normanby, Lord (Phipps, Constantine), 277, 280 O O’Malley, Vincent, 13, 18, 29, 62, 100, 107, 111, 113, 114, 119, 122–124, 140, 158, 165, 166, 168, 170, 192, 195, 198, 214, 215, 218, 232–234, 238, 254, 255, 258, 263, 285, 311, 316 Ovine, 64, 210, 213, 235, 262, 273–276, 280 332 P Paleo-demography, 174 Paleo-globalisation, 169 Pakeha See Development, Pakeha; Population, Pakeha; Society, Pakeha Panum, Peter, 133, 229 Parihaka See New Zealand Wars and other conflicts Park, Geoff, 273, 274 Pasifika See Polynesia, Polynesians in Pastoralism, 11, 64, 210, 223, 235, 241, 242, 257, 260–262, 266, 267, 273–277, 280, 293, 318 Pathogens See Mortality, Maori Pawson, Eric, 32, 33, 282, 283 ‘Pax Britannica’, 19, 26, 183, 248 Paxman, Jeremy, 101, 112, 125 Pearce, Nancy, 188, 211 Peden, Robert, 260 Penetito, Wally, 119 Petrie, Hazel, 107, 160, 161, 166, 167, 170, 173, 185, 258, 263–266, 277 Piketty, Thomas, 7, 9, 73 Pirie, Peter, 230 Polack, Joel, 117–119 Polynesia, Polynesians in Chatham Islands (see Moriori) French Polynesia, 11, 12 Hawaii, 298 population collapse, 11, 154, 173 Tahiti, 12, 154 tropical Pacific/Polynesia, 230, 295 Pomare, Maui, 57, 240 Pope, James, 215, 296 Population, Maori See also Fertility, Maori; Mortality, Maori changes/trends birth rates (crude), 155, 157, 158 death rates (crude), 155, 157, 158, 221, 229, 300 growth rates, 155, 244, 247 natural increase rates, 71, 208 child woman ratios (see Mortality, Maori) collapse, decline, 12, 14, 17, 19, 23, 25, 28, 36, 46, 47, 72, 77, 97–99, 107, 112, 113, 140, 142, 146, 157, 159, 173, 180, 185, 198–199, 203, 206, 207, 225, 229, 246, 247, 300, 314, 318, 320 densities, Maori/land ratios, 25, 135, 198, 275 displacement, 129–130, 144, 146, 186, 222, 232, 238, 308–310, 312 Index distribution/redistribution, 41, 90, 103, 129, 130, 144, 152, 216–219, 231, 279 increase, 20, 50, 57, 71, 158 masculinity (ratios/rates), sex ratios, 60, 116, 187, 285, 286, 291–300 numbers, population size, 14, 23, 29, 47, 65, 90, 97, 111, 113, 139, 146, 157, 174, 175, 180, 203–206, 211, 216, 247, 279 settlements, kainga, pa, 37, 140, 156, 173, 186, 214, 218, 224, 226, 229, 240, 243, 264 survival of the population, ‘The Passing of the Maori’, ‘extinction of the race’, 91–92, 203 urban-rural, 58 vital balance, stationarity, 23, 184, 307 Population models, 30 Population, New Zealand total (Maori plus Non-Maori), 60, 90 Population, Pakeha changes/trends, 71, 76, 84, 97, 204 childhood mortality, survivorship, 25, 78, 179, 182, 207, 208, 225, 226, 243, 244, 288, 297, 300, 314 densities, 25, 135, 275 fertility, marriage, 12, 25, 56, 60, 182, 247, 287 health system, hospitals, 29, 180, 181, 213–215 immigration, 25, 89, 191, 192, 206, 233, 235, 236 longevity, mortality, morbidity, survivorship, 15, 29, 38, 73, 101, 181, 182, 204, 208, 287, 298 population distribution, spread across New Zealand urban-rural, 58, 231 population numbers, size, 12, 38, 47, 111, 113, 136, 180, 203–206, 247, 307 settlements and towns, 52, 184, 226, 257, 264 ‘swamping’ (of Maori population by Pakeha), 54, 86, 89, 179–199, 318 Potatoes See Development, Maori Poverty See Development Pre-colonial period, Pre-Waitangi (1769–1839), 19, 25, 27, 28, 84–86, 103, 113, 115, 153, 172, 257, 261, 266, 317 Pre-contact period, Pre-history (first Maori settlement-1769), 37, 101, 138, 153, 156, 158, 166, 174, 203, 212, 214, 316 Index Precursor peoples See Indigeneity, Indigenous minorities, Precursor people(s) Prendergast, James, 191 Prevalence, 19, 90, 99, 101, 111–113, 121, 230, 269 Puckey, Adrienne, 107, 164, 169, 170, 257–259, 264–268, 278, 289 R Raiatea See Rangiatea Rallu, Jean-Louis, 11, 25, 135, 154, 230, 298 Rangiatea, 11–13, 38, 46, 47, 91, 307 Recolonisation, 53, 55, 315 Rees, William, 170, 194, 275 Regions/localities See also Map Auckland, Tamaki Isthmus, TamakiMakarau, 107, 135, 139–143, 145, 146, 161, 171, 173, 185, 206, 208, 209, 214, 217, 223, 224, 226, 232, 233, 236, 237, 244, 245, 262–266, 272, 275, 295, 296 Banks Peninsula, 163 Bay of Islands, 107, 112, 114, 135, 168, 169, 179, 214, 240 Bay of Plenty, 42, 142–146, 163, 169, 192, 209, 217, 218, 222–226, 232, 235–237, 244, 246, 258, 263, 269, 272, 278, 295, 296 Canterbury, 36, 143, 145, 223, 224, 262, 272, 318 Chatham Islands, 11, 142, 263 Cook Strait (Kapiti), 160, 169 East Coast, Gisborne, 143, 145, 163, 169, 211, 216, 217, 222–226, 234, 237, 238, 241, 247, 265, 267, 269, 272, 275–277, 279, 295 Firth of Thames, 139, 142, 146 Foveaux Strait (Bluff), 101, 134, 153, 167, 170 Hauraki, Piako, 13, 167, 170, 197, 208, 217, 223, 224, 238, 245, 259, 260, 262, 265, 268, 278 Hawkes Bay, Wairoa, 146 Hokianga, 124, 169, 210 Kaiapoi, 163, 268, 295 Kawhia, Raglan, 138, 169, 222, 263 King Country, 216–218, 222, 225, 226, 234–236, 238, 244, 246, 247, 272, 274 Manawatu, 146, 209, 226, 244, 245 Marlborough, 12, 116, 223 Mercury Bay, Thames-Coromandel, 142, 143, 145, 169, 226, 231, 237, 245 333 Murihuku, 135 Nelson, 36, 163, 171, 197, 207, 223, 224, 226, 231, 263 New Plymouth, 36, 171, 209, 214, 215, 223, 224, 263 North Island, 12, 25, 37, 42, 60, 63, 64, 89, 134, 136, 145, 153, 160, 162, 185, 188, 192, 198, 206, 208–210, 212, 216–218, 222, 223, 225, 231, 233, 234, 236, 240, 242, 243, 246, 247, 253–255, 257, 261, 265–268, 270, 272–274, 276–279, 295, 308 Northland/North Auckland, Far North, 107, 138, 143, 145, 164, 165, 167–170, 206, 208, 211, 215, 217, 218, 224–226, 234, 238, 244, 258, 259, 264, 265, 267, 268, 271, 272, 278, 289, 311 Otago, Otakou, 134, 136, 167, 207, 223, 224, 231, 232, 262, 270, 272, 318 Rangitikei, 274 Rotorua, 29, 123, 143, 145, 146, 163, 185, 223, 240, 246, 268 South Island, 13, 31, 60, 84, 132, 134–136, 143, 146, 160, 163, 164, 185, 197, 206, 209, 211, 215, 216, 225, 226, 231, 237, 244, 247, 262, 265, 266, 268–270, 272–275, 277, 295, 316 Stewart Island, 223, 225 Taranaki, 88, 135, 138, 142, 143, 145, 146, 163, 209, 210, 217, 218, 222, 223, 226, 232–234, 236–238, 246, 260, 264, 265, 268, 270, 295 Taupo, 163, 211, 222, 224, 234 Tauranga, 146, 216, 246, 265, 296 Urewera, 86, 143–145, 210, 216–218, 222, 223, 232, 234, 236–239, 243, 244, 246, 247, 276, 278 Waikato, 42, 118, 135, 138, 139, 142, 146, 173, 209–210, 214, 215, 217, 218, 222, 224–227, 232–238, 244, 246, 247, 263–265, 272, 278, 318 Wairarapa, 197, 206, 217, 223, 226, 238, 247, 266, 267, 274, 276 W(h)anganui, 36, 145, 146, 211, 214, 216, 217, 222, 226, 233, 234, 237, 239, 244, 263, 267, 287 Wellington (Port Nicholson), 36, 76, 135, 142, 143, 145, 146, 171, 175, 192, 198, 200, 211, 214, 215, 217, 223, 226, 237, 244, 263, 270, 297 Westland/West Coast, 12, 163, 197, 207, 231, 246, 260, 316 334 Resource/alienation See also Development, Maori Confiscation (raupatu), 39, 192, 193, 234 Crown Purchase, 39, 41, 192, 194, 206, 208, 221, 222, 226, 247–249, 253, 254, 266, 274, 308, 320 impacts of resource loss, 39, 44, 52, 108, 189 Maori Affairs trustees, 193, 195 Native Land Court (NLC), 21, 22, 37, 41–43, 45, 89, 113, 119, 169, 188, 190, 193, 197, 210, 213, 221, 239–248, 253, 254, 257, 259, 266, 267, 273, 275, 308, 310, 313, 319, 320 Public Works Acts, 193, 195, 197, 313 Resource Loss, 35–45, 52, 61, 86, 179–199, 219, 313, 319 Resources See Development Richmond, Christopher, 192, 258 Robinson, John, 46, 63, 113, 116, 117, 136, 156, 174, 187, 194, 206, 286, 294, 296 Russell, Thomas, 209, 265 Ryan, Tom, 118, 119 S Salmond, Anne, 27, 31, 85, 105, 123, 153, 160, 164, 309 ‘Savagery.’ See Demonization Schaniel, William, 85, 86, 89, 107, 113, 140, 164, 166–168 Scotland See Britain Seddon, Richard, 83 Settlers See Development, Pakeha; Population, Pakeha; Society, Pakeha Settler-societies See Colonization Sex ratios See Maori population Smith, Percy, 141 Social organization, Maori customary law, 40, 60, 193 hapu, 52, 89, 118, 151, 152, 192, 213, 242, 254 inheritance rules, 25 inter-tribal dynamics, 138 rohe (tribal domain), 246 tribes (see Iwi) whakapapa, 12, 13, 164 whanau, 52, 79, 89, 118, 162, 271 whanaungatanga, 79 Social pathologies, alleged Maori See also Demonisation; ‘Musket Wars’ Index abortion, 103, 115–116, 294 alcohol, drunkenness, 19, 100, 111–115 cannibalism, 19, 90, 103, 122–125 (see also Missionaries, Marists (French Society of Mary)) ‘drudgery, wretched conditions of women’ (see Gender bias) female infanticide, 103, 296, 298 gender bias, 119–122, 285, 286, 292, 293, 315 guns, love of, 106 prostitution, sex, sexual encounters, 111, 112, 114 suicide, 103, 111–115 Society, Pakeha See also Development, Pakeha; Missionaries; New Zealand Wars and other conflicts; Population, Pakeha British imperial soldiers, sailors, 131, 232 colonial militia, 232–234 farmers, 246, 247, 262, 270, 293 officials, 16, 18, 107, 196, 293, 309 ‘Pakeha-Maori’, 98, 165 pastoralists, 17, 209, 257, 273, 274 (see also Development, Pakeha) sealers, whalers, 60, 71, 144, 167, 170 settlers/colonists, 17–18, 22, 49, 63, 111, 180, 192, 196, 204, 206, 217, 222, 226, 228, 236, 239, 249, 256, 265, 277, 307, 311, 316 sojourners, 20, 38, 152 traders, 60, 107, 192 voyagers, 38, 144 Sorrenson, Keith, 43, 188, 241 Sources, data quality age/sex, ethnicity and location data, 187, 188 Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives (AJHR), 101, 113, 170, 179, 239–241, 268–271, 275, 296 censuses, 14, 52, 250, 297 data collection, 16, 51, 52, 87, 88, 187, 309 Euro-centric biases, 26 expository, 16, 27, 28, 36, 87, 91, 102, 117, 118, 129, 183, 187, 190, 217, 218, 228, 242, 281 House of Lords Committee on New Zealand, 1837–38, 105 Maori sources (oral, written), orality, 27, 85, 105, 118 qualitative, quantitative data, 51, 74, 105, 190 Index Te Ara–Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 154 vital registration, 51, 87, 88, 188, 214, 228, 285, 291, 292 Stiglitz, Joseph, 75, 288 Stirling, Bruce, 119 Stolnitz, George, 298, 299 Stone, Russell, 107, 139, 140, 142, 146, 163, 167, 263 ‘Swamping’ (of Maori population by Pakeha) See Population, Pakeha Szreter, Simon, 100, 121, 214 T Tabloid history See Historians Tahiti(an) history See Polynesia, Polynesians in Taranaki Wars See New Zealand Wars and other conflicts Tasman, Abel Janzoon, 37, 38, 69, 88, 153, 165 Taua (War parties) See ‘Musket Wars’ Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia, 14 Te Ika a Maui See North Island Te Rangi Hiroa, 12, 60, 62, 87, 88, 91, 214, 215 Te Rauparaha, 138, 139 Terra Nullius, 310 Te Wai Pounamu See South Island Thomson, Arthur, 123, 165, 171, 213, 214, 228, 263, 264, 297 Transitions demographic (see Maori population) epidemiologic (see Mortality, Maori) labour force transformation (see Development) thwarted transitions, 312–314 Tribes See Iwi Tuljapurkar, Shripad, 155 U ‘Under-development trap.’ See Development, Maori United Kingdom See Britain United States, 20, 49, 55–57, 59, 76, 80, 88, 97, 102, 104, 123, 170, 263, 270, 301, 311, 316 Urlich, Dorothy (Cloher), 130, 141, 142, 144, 218 V Vallin, Jacques, 298, 299 Vayda, Andrew, 123, 139 Victoria, colony/state See Australia 335 Victoria, Queen, Victorian era, Victoria’s reign, Victorians, 14, 15, 17, 21, 24, 26, 36, 37, 45, 46, 51, 53, 61, 71, 72, 78, 79, 86, 99, 102, 103, 105, 106, 111, 113, 114, 116, 121, 134, 137, 139, 141, 161, 172, 181–179, 194, 204, 206, 208, 210, 212–214, 229, 230, 235, 248, 257, 261, 263, 266, 272, 276–280, 289, 294–296, 300, 301, 314, 316, 318, 320 Vogel, Julius Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870, 89, 313 Vogel schemes, 207, 209, 235–236, 244, 247 W Waikato, 42, 118, 135, 138, 139, 142, 145, 146, 173, 209–210, 214, 215, 217, 218, 222, 224–227, 232–238, 244, 246, 247, 263–265, 272, 278, 318 Waikato Wars See New Zealand Wars and other conflicts ‘Wairau Affray.’ See New Zealand Wars and other conflicts Waitangi, Treaty of (1840) grievances, ‘grievance industry’, 46, 354 Waitangi Tribunal(s), ‘Inquiry Districts,’, 15, 40, 44–46, 50, 62, 63, 65, 87, 91, 130, 188–190, 193–195, 215–217, 242, 312, 320 Wakefields See New Zealand Company Waldren, Ingrid, 298, 300 Walker, Ranginui, 15, 65, 88, 159, 183, 186, 281, 282 Walzl, Tony, 225 Ward, Alan, 190, 193, 198, 216, 260, 275 Warfare See ‘Musket Wars’; New Zealand Wars and other conflicts Wars, Northern, Taranaki, Waikato, other North Island See New Zealand Wars and other conflicts Wellbeing See Development Whakapapa See Social organization, Maori, whakapapa Whanau See Social organization, Maori Williams, David, 191 Windschuttle, Keith, 20, 85, 104, 105, 123, 124 Wood, Vaughan, 17, 209, 273 Wright, Harrison, 144 Wright, Matthew, 102, 138, 140, 141, 276 Wright, Ronald, 49, 63, 95, 102, 133 ... Transformation and Socio-Economic Development ISBN 97 8-3 -3 1 9-1 690 3-3 ISBN 97 8-3 -3 1 9-1 690 4-0 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/97 8-3 -3 1 9-1 690 4-0 Library of Congress Control Number: 20159 42926 Springer Cham Heidelberg New. .. Colonization and Development in New Zealand between 1769 and 1900 The Seeds of Rangiatea Ian Pool National Institute of Demographic and Economic Analysis University of Waikato Hamilton, New Zealand Demographic... PhD in medical demography, plus a long career in health services research in Canada and New Zealand and consulting on New Zealand demography In writing a book like this which, perforce, is likely
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