Clinical vision science, 1st ed , gunnar schmidtmann, 2020 3920

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Clinical Vision Science A Concise Guide to Numbers, Laws, and Formulas Gunnar Schmidtmann 123 Clinical Vision Science Gunnar Schmidtmann Clinical Vision Science A Concise Guide to Numbers, Laws, and Formulas Gunnar Schmidtmann School of Health Professions, Peninsula Allied Health Centre University of Plymouth Plymouth, UK ISBN 978-3-030-35339-1    ISBN 978-3-030-35340-7 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35340-7 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland This book is dedicated to my parents Sylvia and Wolfgang Schmidtmann Preface Students, trainees and clinicians in optometry, ophthalmology and related subjects are often confronted with a vastness of numbers, units and procedures to memorise and to recall during their studies, for exam preparations and in practice A small handbook that fits into a lab coat pocket would be the ideal resource to quickly refresh the knowledge This handbook serves as a quick guide for the most important facts, numbers, laws and clinical procedures for students and clinicians in the clinical vision sciences It is aimed at students and trainees in optometry, orthoptics, ophthalmology and vision science The book contains short chapters covering many domains ranging from physical optics to anatomy and clinical procedures Each chapter comprises of clearly arranged tables, formulas with explanations, custom-made illustrations and flow charts, which are designed to demonstrate complex concepts in a comprehensive way Particularly, important facts are highlighted in orange boxes It is important to emphasise that this handbook does not replace a textbook in any of the covered topics I therefore provide a list of further readings at the end of each chapter Plymouth, UK Gunnar Schmidtmann September 2019 Acknowledgements I would like to thank the students at the University of Plymouth who inspired me to write this book and who provided useful feedback I am particularly grateful to my colleague and friend Paul Artes for his support and encouragement Further, I would like to thank Sae Bom Ra from Adelphi University for the beautiful anatomical illustrations in Chap Contents 1Basics   1 1.1Greek Alphabet   1 1.2Angular Measures   2 1.2.1Degree to Radian   2 1.2.2Radian to Degree   2 1.2.3Degree, Arc Minute and Arc Second   2 1.3Pythagorean Theorem   2 1.4Trigonometry   2 1.4.1Trigonometric Functions   2 1.4.2Inverse Trigonometric Functions   3 1.5Logarithms   5 1.6The Metric System   5 1.7International System of Units   5 1.8Important Physical Units   7 1.8.1Decibel   7 1.9Further Reading   8 Physical Optics   9 2.1Nature of Light   9 2.2Refraction   11 2.2.1Refractive Index   11 2.2.2Snell’s Law   12 2.2.3Lateral Displacement   13 2.2.4Total Internal Reflection   14 2.2.5Refraction by Prisms   16 2.2.6Refraction on Curved (Spherical) Surfaces   17 2.2.7Thin Lens Equations   24 2.2.8The Power of a Lens System   28 xii Contents 2.2.9Thick Lenses   29 2.2.10Power of Thick Lens   30 2.3Reflection   31 2.3.1Reflection on Plane Mirrors   31 2.3.2Reflection on Curved (Spherical) Mirrors   32 2.4Further Reading   36 Reference   36 Visual Optics   37 3.1Schematic Eye Models   37 3.1.1Thin Lens Eye Model   37 3.1.2Gullstrand’s Reduced Schematic Eye   38 3.1.3Gullstrand’s Simplified Schematic Eye   39 3.1.4Gullstrand’s Exact Schematic Eye   40 3.2Emmetropia   42 3.3Myopia   43 3.4Hyperopia/Hypermetropia   45 3.5Astigmatism   47 3.6Accommodation   49 3.6.1Accommodation Curves   51 3.7Further Reading   52 References   52 Ophthalmic Lenses   53 4.1Types of Lenses   53 4.2Ophthalmic Lens Materials   53 4.2.1Refractive Index   54 4.2.2Density and Weight   56 4.2.3Abbe Number   57 4.2.4Optical Aberrations   59 4.2.5Surface Reflectance   63 4.2.6Summary   64 4.3Cylindrical Lenses   65 4.3.1Sphero-Cylindrical Lenses   65 4.4Combination of Cylindrical Lenses   66 4.4.1Graphical Solution   68 4.4.2Astigmatic Decomposition   68 4.4.3Calculation Method   70 Contents xiii 4.5Prisms as Ophthalmic Lenses   71 4.5.1Prism Dioptre   72 4.5.2Prentice Rule   74 4.5.3Prism Notation   74 4.5.4Vertical Differential Prism   76 4.6Further Reading   76 Optical Instruments   77 5.1Basics   77 5.1.1Depth of Focus   77 5.1.2Depth of Field   77 5.2Magnification   79 5.2.1Angular Magnification   80 5.3Telescopes   80 5.4Simple Magnifier (Loupe)   82 5.5Microscope   82 5.6Focimeter   83 5.6.1Optical Features of the Focimeter   83 5.6.2Optical Principles of the Focimeter   84 5.7Usage of Focimeter   86 5.7.1Focimetry of Spherical Lenses—Procedure   86 5.7.2Focimetry of Sphero-Cylindrical Lenses—Procedure   89 5.7.3Prism Base Direction   93 5.8Further Reading   95 6Photometry   97 6.1Angular Measures   97 6.1.1Flat Angles   97 6.1.2Solid Angle   98 6.2Light Intensity   98 6.2.1Luminous Intensity   99 6.2.2Luminous Flux   99 6.2.3Illuminance   99 6.2.4Luminance   100 6.3Light Intensity Laws   101 6.3.1Inverse Square Law   101 6.3.2Cosine Law   101 6.4Further Reading   101 9.6  Heterophoria and Heterotropia 9.6  Heterophoria and Heterotropia See Fig. 9.10 Heterophoria Heterotropia Figure 9.10  Heterophoria & heterotropia 145 146 Chapter 9.  Anatomy and Binocular Vision 9.6.1  Manifest Strabismus See Figs. 9.11 and 9.12 Figure 9.11  Manifest strabismus - exotropia 9.6  Heterophoria and Heterotropia Figure 9.12  Manifest strabismus - esotropia 147 148 Chapter 9.  Anatomy and Binocular Vision 9.6.2  Latent Strabismus See Figs. 9.13 and 9.14 Figure 9.13  Latent strabismus - exophoria 9.6  Heterophoria and Heterotropia Figure 9.14  Latent strabismus - esophoria 149 150 Chapter 9.  Anatomy and Binocular Vision 9.6.2.1  Alternate Cover Test See Figs. 9.15 and 9.16 Figure 9.15  Alternate covertest - exophoria 9.6  Heterophoria and Heterotropia Figure 9.16  Alternate covertest - esophoria 151 152 Chapter 9.  Anatomy and Binocular Vision 9.7  Further Reading • Eperjesi F, Rundstrom MM.  Practical binocular vision assessment Elsevier Health Sciences; 2004 • Evans BJ. Pickwell’s binocular vision anomalies: investigation and treatment Elsevier Health Sciences; 2002 • Forrester JV, Dick AD, McMenamin PG, Roberts F, Pearlman E.  The eye E-book: basic sciences in practice Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015 • Remington LA, Remington LA.  Clinical anatomy and physiology of the visual system Elsevier; 2012 • Rowe FJ. Clinical orthoptics John Wiley & Sons; 2012 • Scheiman M, Wick B.  Clinical management of binocular vision: heterophoric, accommodative, and eye movement disorders Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008 • Waugh A, Grant A. Ross & Wilson anatomy and physiology in health and illness e-book Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014 Chapter 10 Some Useful Equations 10.1  Descriptive Statistics 10.1.1  Arithmetic Mean x=  n  x1 + x2 +…+ xn  ∑ xi  = n  i =1  n (10.1) 10.1.1.1  Geometric Mean  n n x =  ∏ xi  = ( x1 ⋅ x2 ⋅…⋅ xn ) n  i =1  (10.2) 10.1.2  Measures of Spread 10.1.2.1  Variance σ2 = ∑in=1 ( xi − x )2 n −1 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 G Schmidtmann, Clinical Vision Science, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35340-7_10 (10.3) 153 154 Chapter 10.  Some Useful Equations 10.1.2.2  Standard Deviation σ = σ2 = ∑in=1 ( xi − x )2 n −1 (10.4) Index A Abbe number, 57–59 Accommodation amplitude of, 49 classification, 49 definition, 49 mean, maximum and minimum amplitude, 51 monocular amplitude, 51 points and distances, 50 range of accommodation, 50 Anatomy and binocular vision cranial nerves, 139, 140 extraocular eye muscles cardinal positions, 143 innervation of, 144 movements, 142 primary, secondary and tertiary muscle actions, 144 semi-transparent version of muscles, 141, 142 eye with structures, 137 heterophoria and heterotropia, 145–151 pupil reflex pathway, 139–141 retina, 138 visual pathway, 138, 139 Angle of deviation, 17 Angular measures, Arithmetic mean, 153 Astigmatism, 47–49 B Bausch and Lomb keratometer, 133–134 Blur estimation table, 111, 112 C Chromatic aberration, 59–62 Convergence accommodation, 49 Cosine law, 101 Cylindrical lenses combination with same axis, 66, 67 crossed cylinders, power determination, 67–71 plano-concave cylinder, 65 plano-convex cylinder, 65 refractive power, 65 sphero-cylindrical lenses, 65–66 D Decibel, 7–8 Degree, arc minute and arc second, Degree to radian, Descriptive statistics, 153–154 Diffuse illumination, 122–123 Direct illumination, 123–125 Distance vision, 104–105 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 G Schmidtmann, Clinical Vision Science, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35340-7 155 156 Index E Electromagnetic radiation, 9–10 Emmetropia, 42–43 Euler’s number, Extraocular eye muscles cardinal positions, 143 innervation of, 144 movements, 142 primary, secondary and tertiary muscle actions, 144 semi-transparent version of muscles, 141, 142 F Fechner’s law, 108 Focimeter definition, 83 optical features, 83–84 optical principles, 84–85 prism base direction, 93, 94 of spherical lenses, 86–89 of sphero-cylindrical lenses, 89–93 G Geometric mean, 153 Greek alphabet, Gullstrand’s exact schematic eye, 40–42 Gullstrand’s reduced schematic eye model, 38, 39 Gullstrand’s simplified schematic eye, 39, 40 H Helium d-line, 55 Heterophoria alternate cover test, 150, 151 vs heterotropia, 145 latent strabismus, 148, 149 manifest strabismus, 146, 147 Heterotropia alternate cover test, 150, 151 vs heterophoria, 145 latent strabismus, 148, 149 manifest strabismus, 146, 147 Hyperopia/hypermetropia, 45–46 I Indirect illumination, 127–128 International system of units, 5, Inverse square law, 101 Inverse trigonometric functions, 3–5 J Jackson cross cylinder, 118 K Keratometry Bausch and Lomb keratometer, 133–134 definition, 132 instrument, 132 ® Zeiss and ®Javal-Schiotz keratometer, 134–136 L Lateral displacement, 13–14 Light intensity illuminance, 99–100 luminance, 100–101 luminous flux, 99, 100 luminous intensity, 99 Logarithms, Loupe, simple magnifier, 82 Luminous intensity, 99 Index M Measures of spread, 153–154 Metric system, 5, Michelson contrast, 106 Minimum angle of deviation, 17 Myopia, 43–45 N Natural logarithm, Nature of light, 9–11 Near vision, 105 O Ophthalmic lenses Abbe number, 57–59 cylindrical lenses combination with same axis, 66, 67 crossed cylinders, power determination, 67–71 plano-concave cylinder, 65 plano-convex cylinder, 65 refractive power, 65 sphero-cylindrical lenses, 65–66 density and weight, 56–57 optical aberrations, 59–63 prisms, 71–76 refractive index, 53–56 surface reflectance, 63–64 types, 53, 54 Optical aberrations chromatic aberration, 59–62 definition, 59 spherical aberration, 62–63 Optical instruments depth of field, 77, 78 depth of focus, 77, 78 focimeter (see Focimeter) magnification, 79–80 microscope, 82–83 157 simple magnifier (Loupe), 82 telescopes, 80–82 P Photometry cosine law, 101 definition, 97 flat angles, 97–98 inverse square law, 101 light intensity, 98–101 solid angle, 98 Plano-concave cylinder, 65 Plano-convex cylinder, 65 Power of lens system, 27–29 Power of thick lens, 30–31 Prentice rule, 74 Presbyopia, 51 Prismatic effect, 72 Prisms application, 71 dioptre, 72–73 notation, 74–75 optical properties, 71 prentice rule, 74 prismatic effect, 72 vertical differential prism, 76 Proximal accommodation, 49 Pupil reflex pathway, 139–141 Pythagorean theorem, 2, R Radian to degree, Reflection on curved (spherical) mirrors, 32–36 definition, 31 diffuse and specular reflection, 31 internal reflection, 31 on plane mirrors, 31–32 158 Index Reflex accommodation, 49 Refraction by prisms, 16–17 Refraction on curved (spherical) surfaces image formation, 20–24 power calculation, 18–20 sign convention, 18 Refractive index, 11, 17 and Abbe number, 59 and density, 57 Helium d-line, 55 of optical material, 55 refracting medium, 54 refractive power, 55 relative curvature, 56 and thickness reduction, 56 Refractive power, 55, 65 Relative curvature (RC), 56 Retinoscopy description, 111 flow chart, 114, 115 pupil reflex direction, 111, 113 working distance lens, 112, 114–115 Retro illumination, 128 Root mean square (RMS) contrast, 106–107 S Schematic eye models definition, 37 Gullstrand’s exact schematic eye, 40–42 Gullstrand’s reduced schematic eye, 38–39 Gullstrand’s simplified schematic eye, 39, 40 thin lens eye model, 37, 38 Sclerotic scatter, 126 Slit lamp biomicroscopy diffuse illumination, 122–123 direct illumination, 123–125 focusing of eyepieces, 121–122 general principle, 120, 121 indirect illumination, 127–128 Retro illumination, 128 sclerotic scatter, 126 specular illumination, 128–130 van Herick’s technique, 130–131 Snell’s law, 12–13 Specular illumination, 128–130 Spherical aberration, 62–63 Spherical lenses, 86–89 Sphero-cylindrical lenses, 65–66, 89–93 Standard deviation, 154 Step-along method, 25–27 Steven’s power law, 108 Subjective refraction best vision sphere, 116–117 cylinder axis, 119 cylinder power, 120 Jackson cross cylinder, 118 Surface reflectance, 63–64 T Telescopes, 80–82 Thick lenses, 29 Thin lens equations ray diagram, 23, 24 step-along method, 25–27 Thin lens eye model, 37, 38 Tonic accommodation, 49 Total internal reflection, 14–15 Triangular prims, 16 Trigonometric functions, 2–3 V van Herick’s technique, 130–131 Variance, 153 Vertical differential prism, 76 Visual acuity, 103–104 distance vision, 104–105 near vision, 105 scales conversion table, 104 Visual optics Index accommodation, 49–52 astigmatism, 47–49 emmetropia, 42–43 hyperopia/hypermetropia, 45–46 myopia, 43–45 schematic eye models, 37–42 Visual perception Michelson contrast, 106 RMS contrast, 106–107 sensation and perception Fechner’s law, 108 Steven’s power law, 108 Weber’s law, 107 visual acuity, 103–104 distance vision, 104–105 159 near vision, 105 scales conversion table, 104 Weber contrast, 106 Voluntary accommodation, 49 W Weber contrast, 106 Weber’s law, 107 Z ® Zeiss and ®Javal-Schiotz keratometer, 134–136 ... of Plymouth Plymouth, UK ISBN 97 8-3 -0 3 0-3 533 9-1     ISBN 97 8-3 -0 3 0-3 534 0-7  (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/97 8-3 -0 3 0-3 534 0-7 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright... Switzerland AG 2020 G Schmidtmann, Clinical Vision Science, https://doi.org/10.1007/97 8-3 -0 3 0-3 534 0-7 _2 (2.1) 10 Chapter 2.  Physical Optics 1024 1022 1020 1018 1016 1014 1012 1010 108 106 -Rays X-Rays... Theta πΠ Pi ωΩ Omega © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 G Schmidtmann, Clinical Vision Science, https://doi.org/10.1007/97 8-3 -0 3 0-3 534 0-7 _1 Chapter 1.  Basics 1.2  Angular Measures 1.2.1 
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