Clinical handbook of anxiety disorders, 1st ed , eric bui, meredith e charney, amanda w baker, 2020 1792

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Current Clinical Psychiatry Series Editor: Jerrold F Rosenbaum Eric Bui Meredith E Charney Amanda W. Baker   Editors Clinical Handbook of Anxiety Disorders From Theory to Practice Current Clinical Psychiatry Series Editor: Jerrold F. Rosenbaum Department of Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA, USA Current Clinical Psychiatry offers concise, practical resources for clinical psychiatrists and other practitioners interested in mental health Covering the full range of psychiatric disorders commonly presented in the clinical setting, the Current Clinical Psychiatry series encompasses such topics as cognitive behavioral therapy, anxiety disorders, psychotherapy, ratings and assessment scales, mental health in special populations, psychiatric uses of nonpsychiatric drugs, and others Series editor Jerrold F.  Rosenbaum, MD, is Chief of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Stanley Cobb Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/7634 Eric Bui  •  Meredith E Charney  •  Amanda W Baker Editors Clinical Handbook of Anxiety Disorders From Theory to Practice Editors Eric Bui Department of Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA USA Meredith E Charney Department of Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA USA Department of Psychiatry Harvard University Boston, MA USA Amanda W Baker Department of Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA USA Department of Psychiatry Harvard University Boston, MA USA ISSN 2626-241X    ISSN 2626-2398 (electronic) Current Clinical Psychiatry ISBN 978-3-030-30686-1    ISBN 978-3-030-30687-8 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30687-8 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations This Humana imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Contents 1A Causal Systems Approach to Anxiety Disorders ����������������������������������  1 Emma R Toner and Donald J Robinaugh 2Neurocircuitry of Anxiety Disorders��������������������������������������������������������  15 Carolina Daffre, Katelyn I Oliver, and Edward F Pace-Schott 3Anxiety Disorders: A Feminist Ecological Approach ����������������������������  43 Rachel F Rodgers, Rachel Berry, and Laura E Fischer 4Two Peas in a Pod? Understanding Cross-­Cultural Similarities and Differences in Anxiety Disorders������������������������������������������������������  59 Anushka Patel and Devon Hinton 5Anxiety Comorbidities: Mood Disorders, Substance Use Disorders, and Chronic Medical Illness ��������������������������������������������������������������������  77 Andrew H Rogers, Sarah T Wieman, and Amanda W Baker 6From OC Spectrum to Anxiety Disorders ��������������������������������������������  105 Samantha N Hellberg, Ryan J Jacoby, and Sabine Wilhelm 7Anxiety Disorders in Children����������������������������������������������������������������  141 Sophie A Palitz and Philip C Kendall 8Anxiety Disorders in Emerging Adulthood ������������������������������������������  157 Nicole J LeBlanc, Mackenzie Brown, and Aude Henin 9Anxiety Disorders Among Older Adults: Empirically Supported Treatments and Special Considerations������������������������������������������������  175 Rachel Zack Ishikawa, Chirag Vyas, and Olivia Okereke 10Anxiety and Bereavement�����������������������������������������������������������������������  191 Arielle Horenstein and Meredith E Charney 11Suicide in Anxiety Disorders ������������������������������������������������������������������  203 René M Lento and Heidi Boland v vi Contents 12Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders��������������������������  221 Sarah T Wieman, Shelley Kind, and Amanda W Baker 13Psychopharmacology of Anxiety Disorders ������������������������������������������  251 Andrew Melaragno, Vincenza Spera, and Eric Bui 14Mind–Body Treatments for Anxiety Disorders ������������������������������������  269 Marco Maiello, Meredith J Ward, and Eric Bui 15Transcranial Photobiomodulation for Anxiety Disorders and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder ������������������������������������������������������  283 Marco Antonio Caldieraro, Marco Maiello, Olivia Losiewicz, and Paolo Cassano 16Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in the Digital Age������������������������������  297 Allyson M Blackburn and Elizabeth M Goetter 17Understanding and Treating Anxiety Disorders: A Psychodynamic Approach��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  315 Jonah N Cohen and Simona C Kaplan 18Barriers to Implementing Evidence-Based Treatments for Anxiety Disorders in Community Settings����������������������������������������������������������  333 Soo Youn, Yesenia Aguilar Silvan, Anna Bartuska, and Luana Marques Index������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  353 Contributors Amanda  W.  Baker  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA Anna  Bartuska  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Rachel  Berry  APPEAR, Department of Applied Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Allyson M. Blackburn  Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Heidi Boland  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Mackenzie Brown  Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Eric Bui  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA Marco  Antonio  Caldieraro  Universidade Federal Rio Grande Sul, Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Porto Alegre, Brazil Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Department of Psychiatry, Porto Alegre, Brazil Paolo  Cassano  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA Meredith E. Charney  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA vii viii Contributors Jonah  N.  Cohen  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA Carolina  Daffre  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA MGH/HST Athinoula A.  Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, USA Laura  E.  Fischer  APPEAR, Department of Applied Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Elizabeth M. Goetter  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA Samantha N. Hellberg  Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Aude  Henin  Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Program, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Devon Hinton  Department of Global Health & Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Arielle Horenstein  Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Rachel  Zack  Ishikawa  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Ryan  J.  Jacoby  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA Simona C. Kaplan  Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Philip  C.  Kendall  Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Shelley Kind  Department of Psychology, Suffolk University, Boston, MA, USA Nicole  J.  LeBlanc  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA René  M.  Lento  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA Contributors ix Olivia  Losiewicz  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Marco  Maiello  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Luana  Marques  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Andrew Melaragno  Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA Olivia  Okereke  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA Katelyn  I.  Oliver  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA MGH/HST Athinoula A.  Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, USA Edward  F.  Pace-Schott  Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA MGH/HST Athinoula A.  Martinos Center for 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GM, Thrush CR, Smith JL, Owen RR, Ritchie M, Chadwick D. Implementing research findings into practice using clinical opinion leaders: barriers and lessons learned Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2005;31(12):700–7 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1553-7250(05)31091-9 Index A Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), 84, 93, 132 Acculturation level, 53 Acrophobia, 233, 241 Acute grief period, 196 Agoraphobia, 203, 204, 229, 320 Alprazolam, 262 Alprazolam XR (Xanax XR), 262 Alzheimer’s diseases, 285 Amygdala, 17–20, 27, 30, 81 Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 19 Anticonvulsants, 260, 263 Antidepressant medication, 269, 272 Antipsychotics, 260 Anxiety and Related Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM 5, Lifetime Version (ADIS-5 L), 227 Anxiety comorbidities, 77, 78 chronic pain, 91 epidemiology and impact, 91, 92 key clinical features, 92 treatment, 92, 93 mood disorders, 78 biomarkers, 81 cognitive and personality correlates, 81–83 DSM-5 diagnostic categories, 85 environmental risk, 80 epidemiology and impact, 78, 79 family and genetics, 79, 80 key clinical features, 79 RDoC research, 85 treatment, 83–85 substance use disorders, 85 cognitive and personality correlates, 88, 89 environmental risk factors, 88 epidemiology and impact, 86 family and genetics, 87, 88 key clinical features, 86–87 treatment for, 89–91 Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-5 (ADIS-5), 119, 120 Anxiety sensitivity (AS), 64, 68, 82, 89 Applied relaxation training (ART), 322 Arachnophobia, 16 Ashtanga yoga, 273 Ataque de nervios, 61, 65–67, 238 Attention bias modification (ABM), 84, 242, 243 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 25 B Basolateral Amygdala (BLA), 26 Beating the Blues™, 236 Beck Anxiety Inventory, 274 Beck depression inventory (BDI), 287 Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), 19 Behavioral inhibition, 82 Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine, 271 Benzodiazepines, 90, 252, 256–259, 261–264 Bereavement acute grief period, 196 anxiety prevalence, 192 attachment anxiety, 197, 198 complicated grief, 196, 197 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 E Bui et al (eds.), Clinical Handbook of Anxiety Disorders, Current Clinical Psychiatry, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30687-8 353 Index 354 Bereavement (cont.) definition, 191 evidence-based treatment, 199 integrated grief, 196 longitudinal research, 199 panic disorder, 195, 197 predictors of anxiety closeness with deceased person, 195 forewarning prior to death, 195 gender, 195 grief, 195 mental health prior to loss, 194 suicide, 195 prolonged period, 196 psychophysiological reaction, 191 reactions to loss cluster of symptoms, 193 GAD, 193 guiding intervention, 194 PTSD, 193, 194 SAD, 193 risk factors, 198 Beta-adrenergic blockers, 257 Beta blockers, 257, 258, 263 Bikram yoga, 273 Biomarkers, 81 Blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MR, 16 Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), 105, 130 cognitive-behavioral models, 114 compulsions/rituals, 118 differential diagnosis, 123, 124 DSM-5, 109 insight criterion, 109 muscle dysmorphia, 109 prevalence and course, 110 Body dysmorphic symptom scale (BDD-SS), 122 Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 81 Brain structure amygdala, 17–19 anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 19 bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), 19 dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), 20 hippocampus, 23, 24 inferior prefrontal cortex (PFC), 24, 25 insular cortex, 21–23 integrative models, 26, 27 rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), 20 subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), 20, 21 ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), 25, 26 Bronchoconstriction, 258 Buprenorphine, 90 Buspirone, 259, 260, 264 C Catastrophic cognitions, 63, 66 Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, 80 Causal systems approach advancements, 11, 12 limitations, social anxiety disorder, diagnose and treat anxiety disorders, 9–11 mental illness beyond symptoms, disorder and comorbidity, 5, dormant system, DSM diagnoses, individual differences in propensity to experience anxiety disorders, 4, 6–8 symptom activation, symptom maintenance, symptom spread, Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), 144 Childhood trauma, 80 Chronic pain, 91 epidemiology and impact, 91, 92 key clinical features, 92 treatment, 92, 93 Chronic traumatic brain injury, 286 Chronosystem, 44 Cis-gender men, 51 Cis-gender women, 50 Citalopram (Celexa), 261, 263 Clinical Global Impression of Severity and Improvements, 274 Clomipramine, 262 Clonazepam, 258, 259, 262–264 Cognitive anxiety sensitivity treatment (CAST), 212 Cognitive behavioral group treatment (CBGT), 231 Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 2, 9, 11, 28, 29, 270, 299 accessibility, 238–240 Attention Bias Modification (ABM), 242, 243 basic principles and practice cognitive restructuring, 228, 229 exposures, 228 generalized anxiety disorder, 234, 235 Index panic disorder, 229, 230 psychoeducation, 227 social anxiety disorder, 231, 232 specific phobia, 232, 233 three-component model, 226–228 chronic pain, 93 D-cycloserine (DCS), 241, 242 efficacy of, 235, 236 Beating the Blues™, 236 FearFighter, 236 generalizability, 237, 238 transdiagnostic CBT, 237 history and development of behavioral therapy, 222, 223 cognitive therapy (CT), 223, 224 efficacy of, 224 generalized anxiety disorder, 226 panic disorder, 224, 225 social anxiety disorder (SAD), 225 specific phobias, 225, 226 medication, 240, 241 mood disorders, 83, 84 OCRD anxiety disorders, 112, 113 body dysmorphic disorder, 114 cognitive therapy, 128, 129 exposure and response prevention, 129–131 habit reversal training, 131 hair pulling disorder, 115, 116 hoarding disorder, 115 obsessive-compulsive disorder, 127 obsessive-compulsive disorders, 113, 114 psychoeducation, 127, 128 self-monitoring, 127, 128 skin picking disorder, 115, 116 Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), 302 Cognitive restructuring, 228, 229, 231, 233–235 Cognitive therapy (CT), 128, 129, 223–225 Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CT-SP), 213 Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidology (CAMS), 213 Community-based participatory research (CBPR), 343 Complicated grief (CG), 196, 197 Compulsions, definition of, 107 Conditioned fear generalization theory, 29 Conditioned response (CR), 17 Conditioned stimulus (CS), 16 Coping Cat program, 144–146 Cross-cultural differences 355 in explanatory models and display rules, 61–63 generalized anxiety disorder ‘Khyâl attacks, 70 definition of, 69 symptom, 69 ‘thinking a lot, 70 panic disorder, 65 ‘ataque de nervios., 65–67 ‘Khyâl attacks, 65, 66 in prevalence of anxiety disorders, 60, 61 social anxiety disorder definition of, 67 diagnosis, 67 ‘Taijin kyofoshu’, 68 ‘thinking a lot’, 68, 69 transdiagnostic constructs, 63 anxiety sensitivity (AS), 64 somatization, 64, 65 ‘thinking a lot, 63 Cross-ethnic differences, 60, 61 Cultural concepts of distress (CCDs), 61 Cultural formulation interview (CFI), 62 D D-cycloserine (DCS), 241, 242 Deep brain stimulation (DBS), 285 Depression, 79–82, 91, 261 Desipramine, 256 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), 15, 141 Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), 213 Diazepam, 258, 262, 264 Digital tools degree of privacy and anonymity, 298 internet-mediated therapies cognitive behavioral therapy, 299 computerized interventions, 299 disparities, 307 feasibility, 305, 306 mindfulness-based interventions, 299 psychotherapy, 304 regulatory and clinical practice guidelines, 306, 307 research informed guidelines, 304 tele-mental health, 307 transdiagnostic approaches, 300 treatment engagement, 305 videoconferencing, 300–302 web-based interventions, 299, 300 356 Digital tools (cont.) web-based self-help program, 300 internet-mediated treatments, 298 mobile phone application, 303, 304 for psychotherapy, 298 smartphone-based interventions, 303 technology-mediated treatments, 298 virtual reality, 302, 303 Dimensional obsessive-compulsive scale (DOCS), 121, 122 Distress tolerance, 89 Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association, 144 Dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC), 30 Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), 20, 21, 23 Duloxetine (Cymbalta), 260, 261, 263, 264 Dysfunction/dysregulation of certain central neurotransmitter systems, 252 Dysphoria, 87 E Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 285 Emerging adulthood (EA) biopsychosocial development, 158–161 definition, 157 epidemiological research, 158 epidemiological studies, 162 excitement and stress, 157 mental disorders, 158 NESARC, 162 neurobiological development, 158, 159 outcomes, 162, 163 prevalence rates, 162 psychological development emotion regulation, 159 identity exploration and commitment, 159, 160 risk factors, 163, 164 romantic relationships, 158 social development higher education, 160 social relationships, 160, 161 work and unemployment, 160 societal changes, 157 treatment empirically supported treatments (ESTs), 165 engagement and retention, 165, 166 follow-ups, 169 pharmacological treatments, 169 social factors, 166–168 Index substance use disorders, 168 Emotional dysregulation model, 29 Escitalopram (Lexapro), 261, 263 Evidence-base psychotherapy, 285, 286 Evidence-based treatments (EBTs) barriers, 334, 335, 343 CBPR, 343, 344 champions, 345, 346 facilitators, 334 implementation science (IS), 333 organizational buy-in, 344 organization-level barriers existing structures, 337, 338 implementation setting, 334 organization climate and culture, 334 resource availability, 337 patient-level barriers attendance, 342, 343 backgrounds, 343 knowledge and beliefs, 342 provider-level barriers burnout, 339 perceptions, 338 skills and ability, 338–339 resource support, 345 routine clinical settings, 333 science-practice gap, 333 treatment-level barriers content material, 341, 342 delivery, 340, 341 structure, 340 Exosystem, 44, 46 definition of, 43 economic and sociopolitical factors, 47 medical model and managed care, 47, 48 religion and community, decline of, 47 Explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC), 62 Explanatory models, 61–63 External sociocultural factors, 43 F Family Focused Therapy for Anxiety Disorders (FFT-ADs), 167 Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), 265 FEAR plan, 145, 146 Fear-driven disorders, 15 FearFighter, 236 Feminist ecological model exosystem, 46 economic and sociopolitical factors, 47 medical model and managed care, 47, 48 Index religion and community, decline of, 47 macrosystem, 44 competitive individualism, rise of, 44, 45 definition, 43 media, 46 microsystem (see Microsystem) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire., 287 5HT-1A partial agonist, 264 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), 18 Fluoxetine, 241 Fluvoxamine (Luvox), 261, 263 G GABA receptors, 260 Gabapentin, 260 Galvanic skin response (GSR) readings, 20 Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), 252 Gender non-binary individuals, 50, 51 Gender non-conforming individuals, 50, 51 Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 6, 19, 29, 30, 55, 78, 79, 82, 86, 143, 204, 320 amygdala, 30 characterization, 234, 263 cognitive behavioral therapy, 226, 234, 235 cognitive restructuring, 234, 235 exposure, 234, 235 progressive muscle relaxation, 235 self-monitoring, 234 conditioned fear generalization theory, 29 definition of, 69 emotional dysregulation model, 29 ‘Khyâl attacks, 70 mind-body interventions, 274, 275 pharmacotherapy imipramine, 257 pregabalin, 264 SSRIs/SNRIs, 263 Vilazodone (Viibryd), 264 symptom, 69 ‘thinking a lot, 70 Genome-wide association studies, 79 Glutamate decarboxylase gene, 80 H Habit reversal training (HRT)., 131 Hair pulling disorder (HPD), 105, 106, 123 cognitive-behavioral models, 115, 116 DSM-5 criteria, 111 Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), 286 357 Hatha yoga, 272, 273 Health anxiety, see Illness anxiety disorder Hippocampus, 23, 24, 26, 30 Hoarding disorder, 105, 130 cognitive-behavioral models, 115 DSM-5 criteria, 110 excessive acquisition criterion, 110 insight criterion, 110, 111 prevalence and course, 111 Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview (HRS-I), 121 Homosexuality, 53 Hypochondriasis, see Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) Hyponatremia, 255 Hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis stress-response pathway, 24 I Ideation-to-action models, 206, 213 Illness anxiety disorder (IAD), 125, 126 Imipramine, 241, 256, 262 Immigrant paradox, 60 Implementation science (IS), 333 Inferior prefrontal cortex (PFC), 24, 25 Insular cortex, 21–23 Integrated grief, 196 Integrated motivation-volitional (IVM) model, 206 Integrative models, 26, 27 Internet-based CBT (iCBT), 239 Interoceptive exposure therapy, 30 Interpersonal theory (IPTS), 206, 207 Iyengar yoga, 273 J “jikoshisen-kyofu”, 68 “jikoshu-kyofu”, 68 K Ketamine, 84, 212 Khyâl attacks, 65, 66 Kripalu Yoga, 273 Kundalini yoga, 275 L Late-life anxiety disorders age-related socioemotional changes, 180–182, 185 anxiety components, 176 cognitive impairment, 185 358 Late-life anxiety disorders (cont.) medical comorbidities, 183–185 neurocognitive disorders, 182, 183 prevalence, 176 risk indicators, 176 SHARE, 176 treatment antidepressants, 177–180 benzodiazepines (BZs), 177, 180 beta-blockers, 180 CBT with escitalopram, 180 cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 177 mood stabilizers/antiepileptic drugs, 180 psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, 176 relaxation strategies, 177 SSRIs, 177 Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, 53 Life-threatening withdrawal syndrome, 258 Limbic-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (LHPA), 17 Lorazepam, 262 Low-level laser therapy, see Photobiomodulation (PBM) Luborsky’s CCRT model, 324 M Macrosystem, 44 competitive individualism, rise of, 44, 45 definition, 43 media, 46 Magnetic seizure therapy (MST), 285 Major depressive disorder (MDD), 78, 80, 204, 286, 289 Maladaptive cognitions, 232 Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, 80 Manualized evidence-based psychotherapy approaches, 45 Massachusetts General Hospital-Hair Pulling Scale (MGH-HPS), 122 Massage therapy, 274, 275 Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), 19, 26, 28 Meditation, 270–274 Mental health, Mental load, 50 Meperidine, 256 Metaphors, 238 Methadone, 90 Microsystem, 44 age, 54, 55 Index class, 54 consists of, 48 definition of, 43 gender cis-gender men, 51 cis-gender women, 50 gender non-binary individuals, 50, 51 gender non-conforming individuals, 50, 51 transgender, 50, 51 privilege and power, 49 race/ethnicity, 51, 52 anxiety and legacy of racism and discrimination, 52 anxiety, immigration history, and acculturation, 52, 53 ecological considerations, 52 sexual orientation, 53, 54 Mind–body interventions future research, 276, 277 generalized anxiety disorder, 274, 275 mindfulness-based interventions effectiveness, 272 MBCT, 271 MBSR, 271 meditation practices, 270 SMART-3RP, 271, 272 movement-based interventions benefits, 272 massage therapy, 274 Tai-Chi, 273, 274 yoga, 273 panic disorder, 276 social anxiety disorder, 275, 276 Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), 271 Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), 84, 271 Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), 120 Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, version (MINI), 119 Minority stress model, 49 Misogyny, 50 Mitochondrial dysfunction, 284 Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), 83, 257 Mood disorders, 17, 78 biomarkers, 81 cognitive and personality correlates, 81–83 DSM-5 diagnostic categories, 85 environmental risk, 80 epidemiology and impact, 78, 79 family and genetics, 79, 80 Index key clinical features, 79 RDoC research, 85 treatment, 83–85 Motivation Enhanced Therapy for Treatment Attrition (MET-TA) protocol, 166 Muscle dysmorphia, 109 N National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, 274 National Comorbidity Survey Replication, 203 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), 162 National Institute of Health Research Domain Criteria (RDOC), 327 Near-infrared (NIR), 283–288, 290 Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), 86 Network analysis of social anxiety and comorbid depression, Neurobiology of anxiety disorders, 251, 252 Neurocircuitry brain structure amygdala, 17–19 anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 19 BNST, 19 dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), 20 hippocampus, 23, 24 inferior prefrontal cortex (PFC), 24, 25 insular cortex, 21–23 integrative models, 26, 27 rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), 20 subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), 20, 21 ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), 25, 26 cognitive-activation paradigms, 16 conditioned response, 17 conditioned stimulus, 16 fear conditioning and extinction paradigms, 16, 17 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 29, 30 amygdala, 30 conditioned fear generalization theory, 29 emotional dysregulation model, 29 LHPA, 17 neutral-state paradigms, 16 panic disorder, 30, 31 359 dACC, 30 definition of, 30 hippocampus, 31 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 31 resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC), 16 social anxiety disorder (SAD), 28, 29 specific phobia, 27, 28 symptom-induced paradigms, 16 NeuroThera Effectiveness and Safety Trials (NEST), 284 Neuroticism, 81, 89 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 212, 241 Norepinephrine, 252 O Obsessions, definition of, 107 Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs), 105 anxiety disorders, cognitive-behavioral models, 112, 113 BDD cognitive-behavioral models, 114 differential diagnosis, 123, 124 DSM-5 criteria, 109, 110 characterization, 106 diagnostic-specific and transdiagnostic considerations cognitive-behavioral techniques, 127–131 comorbidity, 126, 127 psychological treatments, 132 empirically-validated assessment measures ADIS-5, 120 clinician-administered, structured interviews, 119 Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview, 121 Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), 120 self-report measures, 121, 122 Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-5), 120 Trichotillomania Severity Scale, 121 Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), 120, 121 functional assessment, 116 avoidance, 118, 119 compulsions/rituals, 117, 118 cues/triggers, 117 hair-pulling and skin-picking behaviors, 118 interpersonal factors, 119 hair pulling disorder 360 Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) (cont.) cognitive-behavioral models, 115, 116 DSM-5 criteria, 111 differential diagnosis, 123 hoarding disorder cognitive-behavioral models, 115 DSM-5 criteria, 110, 111 illness anxiety disorder, 125, 126 OCD characterization, 107 cognitive-behavioral models, 113, 114 differential diagnosis, 123–126 DSM-5 criteria, 106, 108, 109 PTSD, 125 skin picking disorder cognitive-behavioral models, 115, 116 DSM-5 criteria, 112 social anxiety disorder, 124 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 105, 106 characterization, 107 cognitive-behavioral therapy, 113, 114, 127 compulsions/rituals, 117 differential diagnosis, 123–126 DSM-5 criteria, 108 insight criterion, 108 prevalence and course, 109 subtypes and symptom dimensions, 108 One size fits all approach, 12 Ontological security, 47 Opioid use disorders, 90 Oxytocin, 264 P Pain Away/PainCure™ nine-diode cluster device, 287 Panic attacks, 229, 230, 261 Panic disorder (PD), 30, 31, 78, 86, 318, 319 ‘ataque de nervios, 65–67 characterization, 229 cognitive behavioral therapy, 224, 225, 230 avoidance behaviors, 229 cognitive restructuring, 229 exposure component of, 229 interoceptive exposures, 229, 230 situational exposures, 230 dACC, 30 definition of, 30, 65 hippocampus, 31 ‘Khyâl attacks, 65, 66 mind–body interventions, 276 pharmacotherapy, 261, 262 alprazolam, 262 Index benzodiazepines, 261, 262 lorazepam and diazepam, 262 SSRIs/SNRIs, 261 Panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP), 322 Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), 147 Parent therapies, 147 Parkinson’s diseases, 285 Paroxetine, 263 Pavlovian conditioning and extinction, 16 Pharmacotherapy, 240 anticonvulsants, 260 antipsychotics, 260 benzodiazepines, 258, 259 beta blockers, 257, 258 buspirone, 259, 260 chronic pain, 92 FDA-approved medications, 253–254 for generalized anxiety disorder, 263, 264 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, 257 mood disorders, 83 for panic disorder, 261, 262 sertraline, 253 SNRIs, 255, 256 for social anxiety disorder, 262, 263 SSRIs, 255, 256 substance use disorders, 89, 90 tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), 256, 257 Phenelzine, 257, 262 Photobiomodulation (PBM), 84, 283 history, 284, 285 low-power lasers (LLL)/light-emitting diodes (LEDs), 283 primary mechanism of action, 284 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 25, 26, 31, 70, 125, 285–288 Prefrontal cortex dysfunction, 81 Pregabalin (Lyrica), 260, 263, 264 Prolonged exposures therapy (PE), 302 Prolonged grief disorder, 196 Propranolol, 92 Psychiatric disorders, 60 Psychodynamic theory agoraphobia, 320, 325 for anxiety disorders, 328 ART, 322 CBT, 322, 327, 328 contemporary and manualized treatment protocols, 321 contemporary research methodology, 327 evidence-based treatments, 321 Freud’s topographic and structural hypotheses, 316, 317 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 320, 324, 325 Index meta-analysis, 321 overview, 315, 316 panic disorder (PD), 318, 319 PFPP, 322 RCTs, 321, 326 site-by-treatment interactions, 326 social anxiety disorder (SAD), 319, 322–324 specific phobia, 320, 325 therapeutic relationship/transference, 322 transdiagnostic psychic processes, 328 and two-person psychology, 317, 318 Psychoeducation, 128, 227, 229, 230, 233, 235 Psychological stressors in adulthood, 80 Psychopathology, 10 Psychophysiological interaction (PPI), 16 Psychotherapy, 261 chronic pain, 93 mood disoders, 83, 84 mood orders, 83 substance use disorders, 89–91 Q Quetiapine, 260 R Race/ethnicity, 51, 52 anxiety and legacy of racism and discrimination, 52 anxiety, immigration history and acculturation, 52, 53 ecological considerations, 52 Racial battle fatigue, 52 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), 285 Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), 85 Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC), 16 Right inferior PFC (rIFC), 24 Rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), 20, 21, 23, 29 S Saving inventory-revised (SI-R), 122 Selective mutism (SM), 143 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs), 83, 84, 147, 241, 252, 255, 256, 264 adverse effect of, 255 antidepressants, 269 GAD, 263, 264 hyponatremia, 255 361 panic disorder, 261 SAD, 263 side effects, 255, 256 Self-monitoring, 128, 234 Self psychology, 318 “sekimen-kyofu”, 68 Separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD), 142, 143, 198 Serotonin, 252 Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), 83, 84, 255, 256, 264 GAD, 263 hyponatremia, 255 panic disorder, 261 SAD, 263 side effects of, 255 Serotonin syndrome, 256 Sertraline, 253, 263 Sexual orientation, 53, 54 “shubo-kyofu”, 68 Skin-conductance response (SCR), 31 Skin picking disorder (SPD) cognitive-behavioral models, 115, 116 DSM-5 criteria, 112 Skin picking impact scale (SPIS), 122 Skin picking scale (SPS), 122 Sleep deficiencies, 31 Social anxiety disorder (SAD), 1–4, 15, 28, 29, 78, 86, 142, 203, 204, 207, 212, 319 characterization, 231 cognitive behavioral therapy, 29, 225, 231, 232, 243 CBGT, 231 cognitive restructuring, 231 exposures, 231 social mishap exposures, 231 definition of, 67 diagnosis, 67 differential diagnosis, 124 intensive group therapy, 236 mind-body interventions, 275, 276 mPFC, 29 pathophysiology of, 28 pharmacotherapy, 262 beta-blockers, 263 paroxetine, 263 pregabalin, 263 sertraline, 263 SSRIs/SNRIs, 263 venlafaxine, 263 phenelzine sulfate, 241 ‘Taijin kyofoshu, 68 ‘thinking a lot, 68, 69 362 Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory, 63 Somatization, 64, 65 Specific phobia (SPs), 27, 28, 142 characterization, 232 cognitive behavioral therapy, 225, 226, 232, 233 Stress Management and Resiliency Training-­ Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (SMART-3RP), 271, 272 Stressors, 10, 49 Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-5), 119, 120 Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (SIGH-A), 287 Subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), 20, 21 Substance use disorders (SUDs), 85, 168, 204 cognitive and personality correlates, 88, 89 environmental risk factors, 88 epidemiology and impact, 86 family and genetics, 87, 88 key clinical features, 86, 87 treatment for, 89–91 Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY), 273, 275 Suicidal behavior, 256 Suicidal ideation, 203–213, 256 Suicide anxiety diagnoses, 204 comorbidity, 204 depression, 205 firearms, 210 future research, 213 ideation, 209 intent, 209 IPTS, 206 IVM model, 206 mood disorders, 203, 205, 206, 210, 213 panic attacks, 205 panic disorder, 204, 205 planning, 209 poisoning, 210 pre-assessment consideration, 207, 208 prevalence, 203 process consideration, 208, 209 risk factors, 204 social connection, 210 substance use, 210 Suicide Status Form, 211 3ST, 206 transdiagnostic risk factors, 210 treatment CAMS, 213 CAST, 212 Index crisis management, 211, 212 CT-SP, 213 DBT, 213 ketamine, 212 routine assessment, 213 suicide-focused interventions, 214 violent and non-violent means, 210 Suicide Status Form (SSF), 211 Supportive Parenting for Anxious Childhood Emotions, 148 Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), 176 Systemic PBM (s-PBM), 284, 289 T Tai-Chi, 273, 274 Taijin kyofoshu, 68 Temporomandibular disorder (TMD), 287 The Child Anxiety Tales, 147 The SPACE Program, 148 Thinking a lot, 63, 66, 68, 70 Thioridazine, 260 Three-component model, 226–228, 235 Three-step theory (3ST), 206, 207 Train-the-trainer models, 239 Tramadol, 256 Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), 285 Transcranial photobiomodulation (t-PBM), 284, 285, 289 anxiolytic effect of, 287 with different neuropsychiatric conditions, 287 dosing, 290, 291 Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), 286 lighten-GAD pilot study, 288 NEST-1, 285 Pain Away/PainCure™ nine-diode cluster device, 287 with red light, 286 safety and tolerability of, 289, 290 Transcultural and transdiagnostic constructs, 66 Transcultural phenomenon, 63 Transdiagnostic and transcultural processes, 70 Transdiagnostic CBT, 237, 240 Transgender, 50, 51 Tranylcypromine, 257 Traumatic brain injury (TBI), 285 Trichotillomania, see Hair-pulling disorder Trichotillomania Severity Scale (TSS), 121 Index Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), 83, 256, 257, 262 Trier Social Stress Test, 274 U Unified Protocol (UP), 132 Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP), 10 Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders, 84 V Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), 285 VA Suicide Risk Management Consultation Program, 208 Venlafaxine, 261, 263 Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), 17, 25, 26, 28, 29 Vilazodone (Viibryd), 264 Vinyasa yoga, 273 Virtual reality, 302, 303 W World Mental Health International College Student Project (WMH-ICS; 47), 162 Worry- and stress-driven disorders, 15 Y Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), 120, 121 Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale for Neurotic Excoriation (YBOCS-NE), 121 363 Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive-Scale-­ Trichotillomania (Y-BOCS-TM), 121 Yoga Ashtanga yoga, 273 Bikram yoga, 273 Hatha yoga, 273 Iyengar yoga, 273 Kripalu yoga, 273 Kundalini yoga, 275 mood regulation, 273 postures (asanas), 273 Sudarshan Kriya yoga, 273 Vinyasa yoga, 273 Youth anxiety disorders art therapy, 148 benzodiazepines, 148, 149 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), 144–146 cognitive restructuring, 149 comorbid diagnosis, 143 developmental and logistical considerations, 149 DSM-5, 141 GAD, 143 music therapy, 148 parent therapies, 147, 148 parental and family accommodation, 150 PCIT, 147 play therapy, 148 prevalence rates, 141 risk factors, 141 selective mutism, 143 SepAD, 142, 143 SocAD, 142 specific phobia (SPs), 142 SSRIs, 147 therapists, 150 ... Department of Psychiatry Harvard University Boston, MA USA ISSN 262 6-2 41X    ISSN 262 6-2 398 (electronic) Current Clinical Psychiatry ISBN 97 8-3 -0 3 0-3 068 6-1     ISBN 97 8-3 -0 3 0-3 068 7-8  (eBook)... Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 E Bui et al (eds.), Clinical Handbook of Anxiety Disorders, Current Clinical Psychiatry, https://doi.org/10.1007/97 8-3 -0 3 0-3 068 7-8 _1 E R Toner and D J Robinaugh... e-mail: epace-schott@mgh.harvard.edu © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 E Bui et al (eds.), Clinical Handbook of Anxiety Disorders, Current Clinical Psychiatry, https://doi.org/10.1007/97 8-3 -0 3 0-3 068 7-8 _2
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