CÁCH CHIA ĐỘNG TỪ KHIẾM KHUYẾT VÀ BÀI TẬP CÓ ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT

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Cấu trúc1 ) S + will + Vbare infinitive (100% chắc chắn – dự đoán) Ex : He will come back soon. (Anh ấy sẽ trở lại sớm.) 2) S + should + Vbare infinitive (90% chắc chắn – mong đợi) Ex 2 : He should do it easily. (Anh ấy có thể làm điều đó dễ dàng.)3) S + ought to + Vbare infinitive (90% chắc chắn – mong đợi) Ex 3 : He ought to be here by now.(Anh ấy phải có mặt ở đây giờ này rồi chứ nhỉ.)2. Perhaps something happened in the past. (Khả năng một việc gì đó có thể xảy ra trong quá khứ mặc dù chúng ta không biết nó có xảy ra hay không, nhưng chúng ta thể hiện niềm tin khá chắc chắn về phán đoán đó.) S + should + have + PII(90% chắc chắn) S + ought to + have + PII(90% chắc chắn) Ví dụ: Has Lucy arrived home yet? (Lucy đã về nhà chưa?) She should have arrived an hour ago. (We expected but we dont know whether she arrived home or not.) (Cô ấy phải về nhà cách đây một giờ rồi chứ.) III. Modals of logical assumption – ĐTKT chỉ sự giả định hợp lý1. Fairly sure that sth is logically probable to happen now in future or not. (Sự suy luận có cơ sở hợp lý và khá chắc chắn rằng điều gì có thể hoặc không thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc trong tương lai.) MODALS VERBS (CONT.) I Modals of possibility – ĐTKT khả thấp việc xảy Perhaps something is true now or will happen in the future (Có thể việc xảy tương lai.) S + can + Vbare infinitive (90% chắn) S + could + Vbare infinitive (50% chắn thấp hơn) S + may + Vbare infinitive (50% chắn thấp hơn) S + might + Vbare infinitive (50% chắn thấp hơn) Perhaps something happened in the past (Có thể việc xảy khứ.) S + could/ may/ might + have + PII (50% chắn thấp hơn) Ví dụ: She looks sad She could have heard bad news (Perhaps, she has heard bad news Or someone might have hurt her.) (Trông cô buồn Có thể nghe tin xấu Hoặc làm tổn thương ấy.) Lưu ý 1: Cấu trúc: S + could + have + PII dùng để nói việc đã xảy q khứ thực tế khơng xảy Ví dụ: Speed down You could have hit me (Luckily, you didn't hit me.) (Giảm tốc độ Anh đâm vào Thật may anh không đâm vào tôi.) Lưu ý 2: Không dùng ĐTKT “may” để diễn đạt khả câu hỏi Ví dụ: Could it be that you don't want to leave? (Có lẽ bạn không muốn dời phải không?) Không nói: May it be that you don't want to leave? II Modals of probability – ĐTKT khả cao việc xảy Something is probable now or in the future (Việc xảy tương lai.) Cấu trúc ) S + will + Vbare infinitive (100% chắn – dự đoán) Ex : He will come back soon (Anh trở lại sớm.) 2) S + should + Vbare infinitive (90% chắn – mong đợi) Ex : He should it easily (Anh làm điều dễ dàng.) 3) S + ought to + Vbare infinitive (90% chắn – mong đợi) Ex : He ought to be here by now (Anh phải có mặt nhỉ.) Perhaps something happened in the past (Khả việc xảy q khứ khơng biết có xảy hay khơng, thể niềm tin chắn phán đốn đó.) S + should + have + PII (90% chắn) S + ought to + have + PII (90% chắn) Ví dụ: - Has Lucy arrived home yet? (Lucy nhà chưa?) - She should have arrived an hour ago (We expected but we don't know whether she arrived home or not.) (Cô phải nhà cách chứ.) III Modals of logical assumption – ĐTKT giả định hợp lý Fairly sure that sth is logically probable to happen now/ in future or not (Sự suy luận có sở hợp lý chắn điều xảy tương lai.) S + must + Vbare infinitive (90% chắn – điều có thể) S + can't + Vbare infinitive (90% chắn – điều không thể) S + couldn't + Vbare infinitive (90% chắn – điều không thể) Ví dụ: His face turns red He must be angry (Mặt chuyển sang màu đỏ Chắc chắn tức giận.) The boy looks different from them They can't be his parents (Cậu bé trông thật khác họ Họ cha mẹ cậu bé.) Fairly sure that sth was logically probable to happen in the past or not (Sự suy luận có sở hợp lý chắn điều khơng thể xảy q khứ.) S + must + have + PII(90% chắn – điều có thể) S + can't + have + PII(90% chắn – điều không thể) S + couldn't + have + PII(90% chắn – điều khơng thể) Ví dụ: Ann was late for school She must have missed the bus (Ann bị muộn học Chắc chắn cô lỡ xe buýt.) Mark said you were full You couldn't have been hungry (Mark nói bạn no Bạn khơng thể lại đói được.) IV Modals of permission – ĐTKT xin phép Asking for permission (Sự xin phép) Can + S + Vbare infinitive? (thân thiện) Could + S + Vbare infinitive? (trang trọng hơn) May + S + Vbare infinitive? (rất trang trọng) Might + S + Vbare infinitive? (rất trang trọng) Ví dụ: Can I use your computer? (Tớ sử dụng máy tính cậu khơng? - Bạn bè hỏi bạn bè) May/ Might I go out? (Em ngồi khơng ạ? - Học sinh xin phép giáo viên) Giving permission (Sự cho phép) Yes, you can (Bạn - thân mật) Yes, you may (Bạn - trang trọng) Sure (Chắc chắn rồi.) Certainly (Chắc chắn rồi.) Yes, of course (Chắc chắn rồi.) No problem (Khơng vấn đề gì.) Ví dụ: - May I take a day off? - Yes, you can./ Certainly - May I park here? - Yes, of course./ Sure Refusing permission (Từ chối lời xin phép) No, you can't (Bạn - thân mật) No, you mustn't (Bạn khơng phép cấm đốn) No, you may not (Bạn - trang trọng) No, I'm afraid not (Tơi e khơng được.) Ví dụ: - May I take a day off? - No, I'm afraid not - May I park here? – No, you mustn't Exercises : Exercise 1: Complete each sentence so that it contains might, might not, must, mustn't, can or can't More than one answer may be possible It must Maybe John’s working this weekend John I’m sure he didn’t know that his brother was seriously ill He couldn’t possibly _ _ I didn’t apologize That was wrong of me I should I am sure it was Judy that I saw in town this morning It must 10 It wasn’t necessary for me to go out after all I needn’t _ Exercise 5: Rewrite the following sentences using the given words I am sure you were surprised when you heard all the news (must) You _when you heard the news It wasn’t necessary for you to all this work (needn’t) You _all this work Someone almost certainly broke the window on purpose ( must) The window _on purpose I’m sure you are very tired after working so hard (must) You _ after working so hard It is possible that one of the men died on the mountain (may) One of the men _on the mountain I’m sure that you were driving too fast (been) You _ too fast The thief almost certainly came in through the window (come) The thief _ through the window If he is not in the office, then I’m sure he’s working at home ( must) If he is not in the office, he _ Đáp án Exercise 1: Complete each sentence so that it contains might, might not, must, mustn't, can or can't More than one answer may be possible might might must can can might not can’t might must 10 mustn’t Exercise 2: Fill in the blank with must have been, can’t(couldn’t) have been, have to/had to (be) and didn’t have to (be): must have been couldn't have been didn't have to be have to be didn't have to had to must have been must have been didn't have to be 10 had to be Exercise 3: Rewrite the following sentences using the given words I think you had better give up smoking immediately I have to bring my passport It is very inconvenient if you aren’t able to drive I am sure that John can’t be the thief I am sure that the cat must be in the house somewhere Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences using the given words You can’t have locked the front door Here is the key You needn’t have carried all those parcels home yourself You shouldn’t have left the windows open last night It can’t have been Mrs Mai you saw because she is in Boston It must have been Alison who made arrangement I recognized her voice John may work this weekend He couldn’t possibly have known that his brother was seriously ill I should have apologized That was wrong of me It must have been Judy that I saw in town this morning 10 I needn’t have gone out after all Exercise 5: Rewrite the following sentences using the given words You must have been surprised when you heard the news You needn’t have done all this work The window must have been broken on purpose You must be tired after working so hard One of the men may have died on the mountain You must have been driving too fast The thief must have come in through the window If he is not in the office, he must at home ... me.) (Giảm tốc độ Anh đâm vào Thật may anh không đâm vào tôi.) Lưu ý 2: Không dùng ĐTKT “may” để diễn đạt khả câu hỏi Ví dụ: Could it be that you don't want to leave? (Có lẽ bạn khơng muốn dời... He ought to be here by now (Anh phải có mặt nhỉ.) Perhaps something happened in the past (Khả việc xảy q khứ khơng biết có xảy hay không, thể niềm tin chắn phán đốn đó.) S + should + have + PII... not.) (Cô phải nhà cách chứ.) III Modals of logical assumption – ĐTKT giả định hợp lý Fairly sure that sth is logically probable to happen now/ in future or not (Sự suy luận có sở hợp lý chắn
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