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THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES NGUYEN THI DUONG THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING VISUAL AIDS TO PROMOTE SPEAKING SKILLS FOR THE 12TH GRADERS AT CAM PHA HIGH SCHOOL (Hiệu việc sử dụng giáo cụ trực quan để phát triển kỹ nói cho học sinh lớp 12 trường THPT Cẩm Phả) M.A THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 THAI NGUYEN – 2019 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES NGUYEN THI DUONG THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING VISUAL AIDS TO PROMOTE SPEAKING SKILLS FOR THE 12TH GRADERS AT CAM PHA HIGH SCHOOL (Hiệu việc sử dụng giáo cụ trực quan để phát triển kỹ nói cho học sinh lớp 12 trường THPT Cẩm Phả) M.A THESIS (APPLICATION ORIENTATION) Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 Supervisor : Dr Nguyen Thi Huong THAI NGUYEN – 2019 DECLARATION I hereby certify that no part of the thesis has been copied or reproduced by me from any other person’s work without acknowledgement and that the thesis is originally written by me under strict guidance of my supervisor Quang Ninh, September 20th 2019 Trainee Nguyen Thi Duong This study was approved by i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The thesis could not have been completed without the help of many people to whom I am indebted First of all, I am greatly indebted to Dr Nguyen Thi Huong, my supervisor, for her invaluable guidance, comments, criticisms, corrections and for her kindly constant encouragement during the course of writing this thesis Second, I would like to thank all lecturers at Foreign Languages Department, Thai Nguyen University for their valuable teaching and tremendous assistance that have enlightened my study path Third, I am grateful to my colleagues at Cam Pha high school for their constructive suggestions about this research Without their help and cooperation, the research would have been made impossible I also would like to give my special thanks to the students at Cam Pha high school who have actively participated in my study Last but not least, my sincere thanks go to my family, my classmates at the Master Course Class, my friends, especially my husband, who also encourages and shares the hardship with me These people deserve all the credit I highly appreciate all their support and contribution Nguyen Thi Duong ii ABSTRACT This study is an attempt to investigate the use of visual aids in teaching speaking to 12 graders at Cam Pha high school The main purposes of the study are to find out: the current English speaking teaching and learning situation at Cam Pha high school; activities and techniques of teaching with visual aids applied by teachers and students’ preferences; the difficulties in learning and teaching English speaking and then give some suggestions for teachers to stimulate students in speaking and overcome the difficulties they have to face with in teaching speaking English for students The study adopts action research approach, with the use of mixed research methods involving both qualitative and quantitative data Two hundred 12th grade students and four teachers took part in the study The findings show that the use of visual aids significantly enhanced students’ interest and engagement in speaking skills Students also reported their improvement in various aspects of speaking skills The study proposes implications and suggestions for using visual aids in improving speaking skills iii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLERATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study 1.2 Aims and objectives of the study 1.3 Research questions 1.4 Scope of the study 1.5 Significance of the study 1.6 Design of the study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Speaking skills 2.1.1 Mỉco and macro skills of speaking 2.1.2 2.2 Fluency and accuracy Teaching speaking 2.2.1 Teaching and learning speaking skills 2.2.2 Principles for designing speaking techniques 2.2.3 Problems in learning speaking 2.3 Visual aids 10 2.4 Roles and functions of visual aids in language teaching and learning 14 2.5 Use of visual aids in language teaching and learning 15 2.6 Previous studies 17 iv 2.7 Summary 18 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 19 3.1 Research method 19 3.2 Research design 20 3.2.1.Students 23 3.2.2 Teachers 23 3.2.3 Research procedure 24 3.3 Data collection instruments 27 3.3.1 Questionnaire 27 3.3.2 Observation 28 3.3.3.Interviews 30 3.4 Data analysis 30 3.5 Validity and reliability 32 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 34 Questionnaires 34 4.1.1.The reality of the current learning speaking English 34 Students’ purposes of learning speaking English 34’ assessment on the importance of speaking English 35 students' opinions towards speaking activities 35 Students’ frequency of speaking English in speaking class 36 Causes of students' reluctance to speak in class 37 4.1.2 Students' attitudes towards using visual aids in the speaking lesson 38 4.1.3 Teachers' attitudes towards using visual aids in speaking lesson 42 4.2 Observations 45 v 4.3.Interviews 46 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 49 5.1 Concluding remarks 49 5.2 Limitations 50 5.3 Implications 50 5.4 Suggestions to further studies 51 REFERENCES 53 APPENDICES I vi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study Nowadays, English has an important role in the world Most countries in the world use English as medium of communication in many aspects of life Meanwhile, in Vietnam, English is considered as a foreign language It also has been introduced to educational institutions, which is learnt from Junior High School up to university as a compulsory subject Oral communication competence or speaking skills is the goal of English learning in many schools Speaking skill is considered as an initial skill that leads learners to develop the other communication competences (reading and writing) However, it is assumed that developing speaking skill to 12th graders in our school is not easy because of the status of English as a foreign language in which it is not used in national or social life With more than years of experience in teaching English at Cam Pha high school, the researcher find that students have to learn English in semesters in the curriculum At the end of each semester, the students have to take a written tests and spoken tests However, the result of spoken test is always lower than the one of written test With my own teaching experience and what I have observed from my colleagues’ teaching, I found certain of reasons why students usually obtain unsatisfied achievement: There are plenty of different levels of ability in learning English the class As soon as we put them in groups, our students speak Vietnamese not English The students always make too much noise We would like to more speaking activities, but our students just won’t cooperate The students make so many mistakes that we cannot correct them We not have time to give them enough speaking practice Some topics are not interesting Supiyati (2011) stated that practically the use of visual aids is one of the appropriate techniques to develop students’ speaking skills Actually, there are many kinds of visual aids that the researcher will describe like pictures, graphics, charts, illustrations etc Through visual aids, the students are more enthusiastic Students enjoyed the process of teaching and learning more Teaching speaking using visual aids gives a big chance to the students to speak Due to the identified issues of speaking skills of high school students in Vietnam and the effects of employment of group work on enhancing the students’ speaking skill, this research employs the treatments of action research to conduct the research on: “The effectiveness of using visual aids to promote speaking skill for the 12th graders at Cam Pha high school” 1.2 Aims and objectives of the study The overarching aim of this current research is to investigate the Vietnamese high school students’ speaking behaviors and performance under the effects of using visual aids in English speaking lessons in the context of public high school from the perspectives of both the EFL teachers as instructors and students The following specific objectives will be supportive to the areas of research: To find out the 12th grader’ attitudes towards using visual aids to teaching speaking at Cam Pha high school To evaluate the effectiveness of using visual aids in teaching speaking at Cam Pha high school 1.3 Research questions Based on research objectives, there are three research questions as 1) How visual aids promote speaking skills for the 12th graders at Cam Pha high school? 2) What are Cam Pha high school students’ perceptions of and attitudes toward using visual aids in speaking lessons? 3) What are Cam Pha high school teachers’ attitudes toward using visual aids in speaking lessons? 1.4 Scope of the study The study is carried out at Cam Pha high school This study investigated the issues and changes that arise from an EFL speaking class This study included 200 students of grade 12 at Cam Pha high school Students are surveyed to find out the communicative Acting out a dialogue and doing role play in front of the others were able to build the students’ self-confidence to speak English They were excited and also enjoyed doing these activities in front of the class 5.2 Limitations There were nevertheless some limitations in this study This study was carried only in a public high school in Vietnam with a relative small sample size which makes results only valid for the respective schools Also, to make the findings more reliable, more responses should be collected and more time should be allocated Due to the scope of time, the research time is carried out in the first semester of academic year 2018-2019, the evaluation of students’ progress in speaking skills and motivation by the application of visual aids is restricted Furthermore, the researcher only conducted random class observations; the data collected by observations are not varied The limited time and number of observations has lowered the creditability and accountability of data and results Secondly, psychological factors can drive the results of research The responses of students to the questionnaire heavily depend on their interests and preferences The engagement and commitment to the questionnaire differs from one student to others; some students are highly serious about the questionnaire while others neglect the importance of questionnaire Therefore, the accuracy of data is affected Another limitation is that, due to the age range of students, they are easily influenced by the “crowd psychology” They produce their responses similar to the responses by their classmates 5.3 Implications The conclusions have described the use of visual aids that is effective to improve students’ speaking skills The use of visual aids can attract the students’ attention and motivation in the teaching and learning process By using visual aids, the students can listen how to pronounce some words and observe how to express some expressions Besides, this media help the teacher explains the materials that will be taught clearly without talk too much It also creates a fun and enjoyable atmosphere during the lesson This is effective to attract their attention and also change the 50 monotonous teaching and learning process of speaking This implies that visual aids should be used often in the teaching and learning process because they can be a good media for a fun learning Research findings generate the following implications to students, English teachers, and other researchers: To the students The English teaching and learning process can run effectively if every participant involved gives positive contribution Thus, the students as the subjectin the teaching and learning process should actively participate in the activities during the class If they feel that English is a difficult subject to be learned, they should learn it seriously and not to ignore the lesson They need to keep practicing if they want to be fluent in speaking They should not be picky with the teachers who teach them To the English teachers The English teachers should consider the students’ needs and interest before designing the speaking materials It is important for the teacher to make a variation of the activities and use the communicative activities in the teaching and learning process of speaking because it can reduce the students’ boredom and monotonous teaching and learning process Besides, the teacher is required to provide visual aids in the teaching and learning process because audiovisual aids help the teacher deliver the materials easily in such an interesting way To other researchers The weakness of this study is its limited time in implementing the actions It made the researcher able to use only two kinds of visual aids thatarepicture and video Other researchers who are interested in the same field are recommended to implement the actions in a longer period of time and vary the kinds of visual aids being used to get more maximum results so that the improvement will be more significantly seen It is also recommended to provide the authentic visual aids 5.4 Suggestions to further studies This current research has indicated the significance of visual aids as a teaching technique in improving the students’ speaking skills The context for this research is a 51 public high school in which 100% of English teachers are non-native speakers It is recommended that in further researches, the researchers can carry out the research in more varied contexts in public, private and international schools where there are more variations in students and teachers to explore and compare the effects of use of visual aids on improvement of speaking competency of students Additionally, the strategy of visual aids is not only effective and supportive for teaching speaking but other English skill teaching; hence, further studies can focus on the impacts of visual aids on the acquisition and mastery of other skills with students in Vietnam 52 REFERENCES Aina ( 2006 ) Visual Aids in English Language Teaching Arikunto, S (2013) Procedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta Allsop, J (1996) The Penguin Elementary Picture Composition Book London: Penguin Group Al Mamun, M.D (2014) Abdullah Effectiveness of visual Aids in Language Teaching in Tertiary Level BRAC Institute of Languages (BIL) Dhaka Ariningsih, D (2009) The Effectiveness of Using Picture Series to Improve the Students’ Writing Skill Viewed from Their Learning Motivation An Experimental Study in the Seventh Grade of SMPN Tanjunganom Nganjuk in the Academic Year 2008/2009 Andre, R (2012) An Analysis Oflexical Errors In The English Narrative Writing Produced by the Tenth Grade Students Of SmaNegeri Surabaya In EFL Classroom Amiqah, M (2016) The Effectiveness of Genius Learning Strategy in Enhancing The Students’ Speaking Skill of The Second Year Student of SMA YAPIP Makassar Sungguminasa Thesis of English Education, 2(2),181 Barkley, E (2005) Collaborative LearningTechniques:A journal for College Faculty USA: Jossey-Bass Brown, H D (2004) Teaching by Principles, an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy New York: Addison Wesley Longman Callista ( 1938 ) The use of visual aids in teaching Cooper, L Z (2002) Considerations in cross-cultural use of visual information with children for whom English is a second language Journal of Visual Literacy, 22(2), 129-142 https://doi.org/10.1080/23796529.2002.11674585 Cunningham, J (1991) Making and Using Slides in the ESL Classroom TESL Canada Journal, 9(1), 67-78 https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v9i1.597 Ezidene, M (2011) The Effect of Using Visual Aids on Second Language Speaking Lebanese American University American 53 Efrizal, D (2012) Improving Students’ Speaking through Communicative Language Teaching Method at MtsJa-alhaq, Sentot Ali Basa Islamic Boarding School of Bengkulu, Indonesia State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Bengkulu Indonesia Gorman, R., & Eastman, G S (2010) I See What You Mean: Using Visuals to Teach Metaphoric Thinking inReading and Writing English Journal, 92-99 Harmer, J (2007) The Practice of English Language Teaching (4th Ed.) Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited Madhuri, J N (2013) Use of Audio Visual Aids in Teaching and Speaking Research Journal of English Language and Literature (RJELAL), 3(2), 112-118 McKay, S.L (2006) Researching Second Language Classrooms New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc M, Jessa ( 2008 ) Definition of Visual Aids | Language Education | Teachers Prasasti, P W (2011) The Effectiveness of Using Audio Visual Aid in Teaching Speaking of Interpersonal and Transactional Conversations (an115 experimental research at the eighth graders of SMP Randublatung in the academic year of 2010/ 2011) English Department Faculty of Languages and Arts Semarang State University Unpublished undergraduate thesis Riddell, D (2003) Teach Yourself: Teaching English as A Foreign/Second Language London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd Rodgers, S T and Richards, J (1999) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching United Kingdom Cambridge University Press Singh, N (2012) What are the main advantages of audio visual aids? Retrieved 20 April 2019 from http://www.preservearticles.com Spratt, Pulverness, and William ( 2011) Teaching Knowledge Test Course Subathra, P (2012) The Audio-Visual Aids in English Teaching Supiyati, D (2011) Improving Students’ Speaking Skills by Using Audio-Visual Aids in Class I A RSBI SD N Cemara Dua No.13 Surakarta in 2009/2010 Academic Year Surakarta: Teacher Training and Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University Unpublished undergraduate thesis 54 Lai, Y (2011) Teaching vocabulary with Visual aids Journal of Kao Ying Industrial & Commercial Vocational High School Callisa, E (1938) The Use of Visual Aids in Teaching University of Wisconsin Steven P Callahan (2006) VisTrails: visualization meets data management University of Utah Harmer, J (1988) The practice of English language teaching (4th ed.) UK: Pearson Longman Joan Peeck (1993) Increasing picture effects in learning from illustrated text University of Utrecht, The Netherlands Maria Teresa Bajo (2012), Mental models and computer programming, University of Granada Ulloa Salazar, G., & Díaz Larenas, C (2018) Using an Audiovisual Materials-Based Teaching Strategy to Improve EFL Young Learners’ Understanding of Instructions HOW Journal, 25(2), 91-112 Bobkina, Jelena & Caleya, Miriam & Sarto, Maria (2012) The use of literature as an advanced technique for teaching English in the EFL/ ESL classroom Educación y Futuro 217-239 Slavíková (2014) The Impact of Using PowerPoint Presentations on Students' Learning and Motivation in Secondary Schools Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 98, 1672 – 1677 Shabiralyani, Ghulam; Hasan, Khuram Shahzad; Hamad, Naqvi; Iqbal, Nadeem (2015) Impact of Visual Aids in Enhancing the Learning Process Case Research: District Dera Ghazi Khan Journal of Education and Practice, v6 n19 p226-233 J B Garfield & G Burrill (1996.), Research on the Role of Technology in Teaching and Learning Statistics: Proceedings of the 1996 IASE Round Table Conference (pp 169-190) Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute Kitchel, E., Murphy, R., & Gevers, M., (2002) Teaching the student with a visual impairment: A primer for the classroom teacher Louisville 55 Abdullah Al Mamun (2014) Effectiveness of Audio-visual Aids in Language Teaching in Tertiary Level BRAC University Tasnubha Bably & Dil Nusrat (2017) Using Realia as an Effective Pedagogical Tool Journal of Humanities And Social Science, 22(11),1–7 Sora Park (2015), Effect of visual aids and individual differences of cognitive traits in judgments on food safety, International University of Korea Ajayi IA (2008) Towards effective use of information and communication technology for teaching in nigerian colleges of education Asian J Inf Technol 7(5): 210 – 214 56 Appendix A Questionnaires Question 1: What is your purpose of learning English speaking? Purposes Students Percentage to pass the exam to communicate to foreigners to get high mark to find a job easier to study abroad Question 2: How important you think of learning speaking English? Purposes Students Percentage Very improtant Rather improtant Littte improtant Not improtant Question 3: What you think of the speaking activities in English speaking lessons? Purposes Students Very improtant Rather improtant Nomal Little Not at all I Percentage Question 4: How often you speak English in English class time? Purposes Students Percentage Always Usually Sometimes Rarely Never Question 5: What factors make you reluctant to speak in class? Factors Students Percentage Learning goal is not to communicate Being afraid of losing faces Boring topics Boring teaching ways Low proficiency in English Question 6: What you think about using visual aids in your speaking lessons? Opinion Students Percentage Too difficult Challenging but interesting Normal Too easy Question 7: Do you like visual aids which have been used in your speaking class? Opinion Students Yes No Ideal II Percentage Question 8: When are you ready to speak English in lessons with visual aids? A.actively take part in B Join only when being asked C Join only when feeling interested D Do not join Question 9: How effective is visual aids on your speaking skill? A.Very effective B effective C slightly effective D ineffective Question 10: Which aspects of speaking skill have you improved? Criteria Students Percentage Fluency Vocabulary Grammatical accuracy Pronunciation Interactive communication All of them Question 11: What are your opinions of your own changes after taking part in the lessons using visual aids? A strongly agree B agree C I don't know D disagree E extremely disagree Question 12: According to you, how important is the use of visual aids in teaching speaking? Frequency Always Usually Sometimes Rarely Never Occurrence 1/4 1/4 2/4 0/4 0/4 III Percentage 25% 25% 50% 0% 0% Question 13: How often you visual aids in teaching English speaking to your students? Frequency Occurrence Percentage Always Usually Sometimes Rarely Never Question 14: Do you think using visual aids can develop students’ speaking skill? Teachers’ Opinions Occurrence Percentage Yes, very much Yes but not much Not really Not at all Question 15: What you think of visual aids? Items Percentage (%) A Help students enjoys learning English B Improve students’ presentation skill C Save the time D Enhance students’ self-confidence E Make students take more active role in class F.Avoid Dullness IV Appendix B : Interview question with students/teachers Do you know about visual aids which normally used in the English class? Name some of visual aids you normally see/use in your class? How often visual aids are used in your class? Do you think visual aids help in teaching/learning English especially speaking skill? In what circumstances will visual aids will be used? 4.Share any expectation or recommendation on the use of visual aids in English class Do you want this type of teaching/learning instrument to be use more in your class? V Observation sheet Subject: Date: Class: Number of students: School: Aims of lesson Observation Elements Comments How many times visual aids were used in the class? What type of visual aids were used? How proficient teacher/students using those type of visual aids? Other observation on student concentration and take part in the class’ activities VI Appendix C Lesson plans UNIT 1: HOME LIFE B SPEAKING I Aims/Objectives of the lesson: - To help Ss develop their speaking skills - To help Ss prepare material for speaking - To encourage Ss work in pairs and groups II Teaching method: - Communicative language teaching III Teaching aids: - Flashcards, images, videos, text book IV Procedure: Class organization (1 minute) Check – up (5 minutes) Some Ss go to the board to – Write down new words - Talk about the family in the passage New lesson (35 minutes) Teacher’s activities Students’ activities Pre – speaking Pre - speaking - Give Ss some new V: + share the household chores + the interest words + talk to sb through showing videos + personal secrets with sb + make an important decision Interest: watching films/football matches on TV, listening to music, going shopping, reading books, playing badminton, chatting merrily with each other Housework: to clean the house, wash the clothes/dishes, take out the garbage, look after brother/sister, hang the washing out, cook the dinner While- speaking Task While- speaking - Read out task and check understanding VII - Ask Ss to task - Work individually to talk about your own family - Use images and ask Ss to describe the actions in the pictures - Work in groups, give the questions Task + Who works and supports your family? - Ask Ss to task Who does the household chores? What’s your responsibility in the family? 2,3 through Which interest your family members share closely? Who you often share your personal secrets with? To whom you talk before making an important Task decision? - Ask Ss to task Post - speaking - Talk about their partner’s family through pair work Post – speaking: Useful expressions: - Ask Ss to write a letter telling your friend about your family Consolidation: (3 minutes) Ask and answer about your family Homework (1 minute) Words and phrases Talk about your family V Evaluation VIII ... GRADERS AT CAM PHA HIGH SCHOOL (Hiệu việc sử dụng giáo cụ trực quan để phát triển kỹ nói cho học sinh lớp 12 trường THPT Cẩm Phả) M.A THESIS (APPLICATION ORIENTATION) Field: English Linguistics... UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES NGUYEN THI DUONG THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING VISUAL AIDS TO PROMOTE SPEAKING SKILLS FOR THE 12TH GRADERS AT CAM PHA HIGH SCHOOL (Hiệu việc sử dụng giáo cụ trực quan. .. 200 students who participated in this current research; they are students of 12A1, 12A2, 12A3, and 12A4at Cam Pha high school The students are aged from 16 to 18 years old and have learned English
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