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Closeup Workbook key Angela Healan, Katrina Gormley, Diana Shotton Karen Ludlow, close upAngela Healan, Katrina Gormley, Diana Shotton Karen Ludlow, close upAngela Healan, Katrina Gormley, Diana Shotton Karen Ludlow, close upAngela Healan, Katrina Gormley, Diana Shotton Karen Ludlow, close upAngela Healan, Katrina Gormley, Diana Shotton Karen Ludlow, close upAngela Healan, Katrina Gormley, Diana Shotton Karen Ludlow, close upAngela Healan, Katrina Gormley, Diana Shotton Karen Ludlow, close upAngela Healan, Katrina Gormley, Diana Shotton Karen Ludlow, close up WORKBOOK C2 KEY Unit Reading A Questions and B 1d 2c 3c 4a 5d 6a 7a 8b Vocabulary A 1dysfunctional 2aberrant 3maladjusted 4malfunction 5misbehave B 1h 2d 3a 4b 5g 6f 7e 8c C 1principled 2conduct 3head 4vulnerable 5prone 6disorders D 1on 2pain 3terms 4out 5down 6between 7on 8beyond E 1c 2d 3d 4d 5b 6c 7b 8d Grammar A are/’re drifting/have drifted has been venting has treated is/’s always peering have been conducting have/’ve just settled B 1They have tested a range of hypotheses 2Rashid has completed the trial study 3The scientist is analysing the data 156 4I’m/am putting the samples into the machine 5Leon has been interviewing (the) subjects for hours 6Ms Clarkson has been working all morning 7The brain processes images in 13 milliseconds 8He appreciates your hard work C 1tasted had been driving was tasting have met had driven ’re/are meeting Do you see haven’t been walking D 1She would be a research assistant, but now she supervises the lab used to 2That’s strange; Barb used never to talk to her neighbours across the street used to never / never used to 3They ran the results through the computer and after they have, they wrote up a detailed report had/did 4Henry didn’t used to be so difficult to work with, but he’s been under a lot of stress use 5In the mornings, my dog would always beg me to take him for a walk He loves going out will 6He rarely made a mistake in his research, but when he does, he wouldn’t admit it so readily did 7Marcos was being a teacher at that school, but he retired a few years back used to be 8We’re soaking up the rays on the beach, just like we did every time we go on holiday E 1have 2did 3would 4not 5are 6been 7used 8has Listening A Q1:reason, to bully Q2:companies, face up to bullying Q3:factor, reduces a charity’s donor pool Q4:charities, should change approach Q5:previous studies Q6:saddest, how jealousy affects, friendship B 1c 2b 3c 4a 5a 6c Writing A Well-adjusted individuals are often … Maladjusted individuals can be … constructive content meticulous open positive sympathetic apathetic discontented dissatisfied neurotic violent withdrawn B 1It addresses the topic mostly appropriately, but it needs examples of when the opposite is true, such as how negative feelings make people feel lazy or overeat 2It does not address the topic appropriately It should include examples of people who lead difficult lives due to a lack of care as children and how they can seek help from mental health specialists as adults, for instance 3It does not address the topic appropriately It should include ideas about students who feel unfairly punished and how it breeds resentment, and how students should activities such as write essays about what their behaviour can lead to in later life, for example C Sample answers: 1Young people today don’t often have much real contact with the outside world 2There are a few things young people can to be more of a part of their community Topic questions: Are young people too disconnected from the harsh realities of society? What can young people to learn more about the challenges people face in life? D Sample answer: Violence in schools is a fact of life that many students must face on a daily basis It is ironic that the very place a young person might go to educate themselves and improve their lives could be the setting for an act of violence Of course, some youths harbour dark feelings and are perhaps undergoing difficulties that cause them to act negatively Some students feel withdrawn and apathetic about school and life in general, and perhaps their discontent is displayed through obsessive or neurotic behaviour Their dissatisfaction with life, their family or themselves can, for instance, push them to harm other students who are otherwise content In other words, they want to vent their anger on others so that they feel the way they do, which obviously is not a constructive form of expression There are a few ways to address these students’ concerns so that their negativity does not adversely affect other students A key example is for teachers to reach out to troubled youths and make an effort to show an interest in their lives Often, withdrawn students feel isolated from society and a welcoming approach might pull them out of their rut Another way is for educators to have an open dialogue with parents to ensure positive forms of communication exist between families, teachers and students Lastly, although it does not address the underlying issues of school violence, making sure that students know the rules and the consequences of acting up in class or against others might also curb the urge to behave violently Naturally, it takes great effort to eradicate violence from our schools, but it is a phenomenon that affects everyone involved Not a single youth should feel like they are all alone, or that it is them against the world We all face difficulties sometimes; therefore, having a positive outlet for our negative feelings keeps us in the right mental place Unit Reading A Q1: what robots, allowed to Q2: tales of man against machine, ease our fears Q3: intimate, chore, unnerved we become Q4: fears, overblown, fictional stories Q5: awareness, informed choices Q6: aware, threat, machines, problematic Q7: imagining, worst-case scenario, robot-controlled tasks Q8: desire, menial tasks, automatically Q9: well-being, hands of robots, appalling Q10: fears of machines, always there, not, visible B 1C 2D 3A 4B 5B 6D 7B 8C 9A 10D Vocabulary A 1censors 2sensors 3ingenuous 4ingenious 5decompose 6disintegrate 7omit 8emit B 1principal 2eradicate 3utilitarian 4tangible 5fusion 6dissolved 7revolutionary 8deduct C wear and tear touch and go more or less back and forth safe and sound little by little back to front time after time D 1breach 2engines 3on 4intelligence 5off 6system 7infancy 8behind E 1b 2c 3d 4a 5b 6c 7a 8b Grammar A 1Will you be needing a ride to the airport? 2I shan’t surf the net until I finish/have finished my/the assignment 3They are not to share data with unauthorised personnel 4The director is to promote Julie to lead scientist 5By the time John arrives/has arrived, the guests will have left B ‘ll/will fall ‘ll/will be entering ‘ll/will have explored will remain will have completely finished C to hear just about to that the mission will 4being is brewing to utilise 7envisage 8counting sure to 10going D 1The ideas he was generating would revolutionise farming technology 2Sorry, but he was never going to find a cure for baldness! 3The actions world leaders took then would affect generations of people 4Something was going to happen that would revolutionise our working lives 157 E 1c 2b 3b 4d 5a 6c Listening A Students will listen for facts in Task and opinions in Task B 1D 2H 3A 4B 5E 6C 7A 8F 9D 10H Writing A 1B 2F 3F 4O 5O 6B 7F 8B B 1attentive; informative; welcoming; preoccupied dazzling; impractical avid; obsessed C When it comes to using technology, I have to admit I’m not someone who’s used a lot of it before a newbie But I wanted to attend one of those places where they feature the latest in technology a tech expo, so I decided to go with a friend While perusing the floor, I came across a booth with a number of devices that you can wear on your head or body wearable devices I tried one on, but honestly, I had a bit of trouble using it A representative who was very good and highly skilled proficient in its use helped me get started I thought for sure it would take hours and hours just to learn basic tasks be a steep learning curve However, after about 20 minutes, I had mastered it and I really felt like someone who knows everything about technology a tech whiz! The representatives handed me some information that lists the device’s selling points promotional information, but I was hesitant to invest in one It had a price tag that was far too high for me to ever be able to afford an exorbitant price tag, so I’ll stick with my cheap smartphone D Sample answer I recently attended a thoroughly entertaining tech expo in London which featured all the latest technological gadgets – laptops, notebooks, smartphones, games 158 consoles and more I had a fantastic time sampling new technology and poring over all the material on offer Some things had me scratching my head as to how useful they might be for the market, but I was nonetheless dazzled by the array of equipment spread across the exhibition floor The tech expo was relatively inexpensive to attend, as I only paid 12 euros for entry, which is about half of what I’ve paid to attend other venues The site was expansive; set in a refurbished warehouse in an industrial district of London, it covered what seemed like half a football field Each tech company’s representative seemed welcoming and attentive, as well as knowledgeable once you conversed with them I spent several hours sampling devices, and what was most impressive was the latest in games consoles Being an avid gamer, it’s mesmerising to see the virtual worlds that exist in these games I was especially pleased with this aspect of the expo The only drawback was with the wearable devices Honestly, I’m not sure why tech companies focus so much energy on making these devices There were watches, glasses, bracelets, belts and even gloves The screens, if they had them, were too small, as usual The buttons were too difficult to operate and it just didn’t live up to expectations I suppose they have an application somewhere in our world, but for the most part, they seem impractical, at least for me All in all, I’d say going to the tech expo was a riveting experience It probably won’t appeal to casual tech users, but if you’re a bit of a tech whiz, I would urge you to go while it’s still on The expo runs until the end of this week and more information can be found on their website at www.londontechexpo Review Vocabulary A 1d 2c 3d 4a 5c 6c 7a 8d 9c 10b 11a 12a 13b 14b 15b 16a 17a 18a 19c 20c Grammar B 1d 2b 3b 4b 5b 6c 7c 8d 9c 10b 11b 12d 13c 14c 15c 16b 17a 18a 19b 20d Use of English C 1b 2a 3d 4d 5d 6a 7a 8d D abnormal integration inseparable unintelligible misspent aberrant incurable unconditionally E 1were 2used/had 3had 4have 5from 6not 7to 8would F 1is bound to be found on other planets shall not keep my ideas argument is looming predict (that) the event will be expected him to pay for wasn’t trying to be Unit Reading A ‘Sloppy mistakes aside’ B 1G 2E 3D 4F 5A 6H 7C Vocabulary A 1tolerant 2corrupt 3humane 4brutal 5callous 6merciful 7prejudiced 8apathetic B away with face up to comes down to cut back on came out of C 1d 2c 3a 4b 5c D 1came/went 2formed 3fallen 4get 5turning E 1intolerable 2impoverished/poor 3disregard 4misappropriation 5disreputable 6unlawfully/lawlessly 7fraudulent 8distrustful/mistrustful Grammar A 2The plate of canapés was quickly devoured by the starving travellers 4The money was laundered through a corrupt foreign bank The streets were lined with protesters in anticipation of the prime minister 6Ninety per cent of the residents were vaccinated (by medical workers) in one day Sentence does not need an agent because it can be assumed that ‘medical workers’ did the vaccinating The other sentences cannot be made into the passive because the verbs are intransitive B treated poorly generous inundation of heavy reliance on feigned ignorance C 1The grant for the charity is under review 2The new nursery is under construction The burglar is under arrest Carol is under suspicion of theft The fort is under attack D have had their homes destroyed has had their farmland stricken 3had a tenth of its buildings consumed 4had/got a route bulldozed 5were having/getting aid delivered 6are currently having/getting their health checked E 1of the charity have been under scrutiny 2workers haven’t got the new school constructed 3had (the) beachgoers running for is expected to be 5is under occupation Listening A passionate, nuisance, wary, overrated, strict, feels sorry, ignored, unaware, appreciates, concern B 1b 2c 3a 4c 5b 6a 7a 8a Writing A I saved solution man's best friend go up in smoke forced to flee animal abuse The better choices either made the title personal, used a play on words, such as a rhyme, or used more dramatic language to grab the reader’s attention B Suggested answers: 1Treating animals well shows that we are kind people and the opposite shows that we are uncaring 2People talk a lot about helping and making a change, but it’s what they that shows who they really are 3It’s important to take care of ourselves and our loved ones, and in doing that, we can extend our help to others 4We can things today to shape the future in the way we want it to be C 15; 3; After all, can you imagine what it would be like having to leave your home? 21; 2; What would life be like if nature were completely ruined? 34; 4; How would you like living in a place as polluted as this? D Sample answer: Giving a best friend a home Every morning as I leave my house, I’m greeted by my neighbour’s adoring cat She’s allowed to roam around freely and, like clockwork, she knows when I’m off for work I’ve got two cats of my own who see me when I wake up, but it’s remarkable how the cat next door is smart enough to know my daily schedule Isn’t it amazing how intelligent and loving animals are? They are all deserving of a home, but sadly there are many who haven’t got one Shouldn’t they have a place to call their own? It’s an issue that concerns me deeply, so I’ve visited my local animal shelter to see how I can help There I met the most wonderful staff who are so very caring for animals, provide a safe place for them to stay and so on a limited budget They also play with and nurture them, but the goal is to find them a permanent home I’ve decided to assist them however I can I urge local shops to put out small collection jars for stray pets I explain that the money goes to the animal shelter, so that they can provide better care I also post notices on social media to try to get pets adopted So far I’ve managed 159 to place three cats and two dogs Although my neighbourhood is largely free of strays, it’s important to get stray cats and dogs into a shelter, so that they can get medical treatment and other basic services As the saying goes, ‘Society can be judged by how it treats animals,’ so we shouldn’t neglect them, should we? Take it from me – it’s a rewarding experience to help out a pet in need With just a little effort, you can make a difference in the lives of the most wonderful creatures on Earth – our best friends! Unit Reading A Suggested answers: Q1: d; Q2: a, d B 1c 2d 3b 4b 5b 6a Vocabulary A 1lobby 2throng 3dynasty 4flock 5troupe 6diaspora 7pack 8choir B one-side one-sided long-gone long-lost most best brain-boggling mind-boggling incorrect wrong dense thick quick-lived short-lived levels degrees C 1detract 2up 3dominating 4get 5met 6base 7on-and-off 8lose 160 D 1shrinkage 2contradictory 3proximity 4homogenous 5interdependence 6globalisation 7connectivity 8antisocial E 1c 2a 3c 4b 5d 6b 7d 8b Grammar A 1You can check your emails remotely almost anywhere 2She couldn’t locate her friend’s profile on Twitter 3They should have said thanks when they left the party 4He may/might have registered multiple accounts on the same site 5We mustn’t/can’t send texts while driving a vehicle 6Hadn’t we better invite the O’Hares to the wedding? 7I won’t create an online profile because I prefer anonymity B 1can’t have recognised 2needn’t have deleted/didn’t have to delete shouldn’t have uploaded will spend Can I post C Don’t (you) dare mention daren’t/doesn’t dare publish need I say needn’t apologise needn’t have bought D 1b 2c 3b 4c E 1will 2cannot 3not 4ought 5must 6can 7should/must 8have Listening A Suggested answer: A piece of factual information that contradicts or clarifies an opinion or widely held belief that the speaker just voiced B 1c 2b 3d 4a 5b Writing A 1b 2c 3d 4a B A good crowdfunding campaign takes organisation, and *I would like to advertise it through social media, ✓ in hopes that more community members will donate I would also like your office to endorse the campaign publicly, as ✓ that will help us reach our goals I am writing in response to the ban on mobile phone use that the board has imposed on educational institutions ✓ Hindering our ability to communicate with one another is a path towards isolation ✓ What it achieves is it makes individuals resent the very place that they are supposed to learn Exchanging pleasantries with our neighbours is about as far as most people go in getting to know one another these days It’s this lack of contact that I have witnessed in our neighbourhood, so *I am taking it upon myself to organise a meet-andgreet at our town hall this coming Saturday ✓ My main argument against social media is that ✓ if misused, it can harm a person’s reputation and even result in a loss of friends or a job Had I known of the dangers, I might not have opened an account As such, *I would like to share my advice for staying out of harm’s way C Suggested answer: Personally, I protect myself online simply because posting an inappropriate comment or photo can result in a ruined reputation When you upload personal details to social media sites or the internet at large, you create a permanent record Furthermore, it can be accessed by hackers, causing a threat as regards privacy issues Careful consideration of what we post online is of utmost importance Question answers A magazine editor; an experience; Main paragraph Suggested answer: Going forward, what I see is a community coming together in a common area enjoying one another’s company and getting to know one another better What this results in is cooperation, increased interaction and mutual trust Having trust in a community serves as a cornerstone for sharing ideas and protecting one another Were it not for trust, would communities not struggle to survive? Question answers: A council/local government official; a plan; Main paragraph D Suggested answer: To whom it may concern: I am writing to ask your help in remodelling a run-down community theatre Returning this once-majestic theatre back to its former state is a desire expressed by many of our fellow citizens I would like to start a crowdfunding campaign to that, and I would like you to come on board with the project Personally, I believe a key aspect of a strong community is being able to come together with your neighbours, help one another in times of need, share ideas about cooperation, and build mutual trust Remodelling the community theatre is a terrific way to achieve this, and giving community members a way to directly take part is the reason I would like to use a crowdfunding campaign to raise money Of course, a good crowdfunding campaign takes organisation I plan to create a profile for the theatre, with photos of how it once was and ideas for future use I would like to advertise the campaign through social media; what this will achieve is that more community members will learn about it and donate I would also like your office to endorse the campaign publicly, as that will help us go the extra mile in reaching our goals I hope to achieve a fully funded theatre remodelling from the campaign and to get the theatre up and running as soon as possible I also hope that the crowdfunding campaign puts community members with like-minded ideas in touch with one another With your help, I believe we can make this a reality Going forward, what I see is a community that comes closer together through shared ideas, cooperation and increased interaction No sooner had I realised how crowdfunding could make this happen than I penned this letter to your office I look forward to working with you to help our community grow Yours faithfully, (Student’s name) Review Vocabulary A 1c 2c 3a 4d 5c 6c 7b 8d 9b 10b 11c 12d 13a 14c 15d 16b 17a 18d 19c 20c Grammar B 1d 2c 3d 4a 5c 6d 7b 8a 9b 10a 11c 12d 13d 14d 15c 16b 17d 18d 19d 20a Use of English C 1c 2a 3c 4c 5a 6d 7b 8d D will is burying face being better not together E 1distraction 2analogous 3recreational 4unconsciously 5disregard 6intolerant 7irreparable 8shrinkage F were under review by the 2he should not/shouldn’t have/ ought not to have yelled show being cancelled 4are getting their house repainted by the 5would not/wouldn’t dare mention the incident that happened 6can’t/cannot/couldn’t/could not have paid for Unit Reading A Suggested answers: (text) permanence, testament to man’s ability, create something that’s … opposite, ice hotels, bars and restaurants, large ice structures such as these, massive structure, fanfare, eventually razed, deeper connection, sliver of what we face in life, latter is certainly proof that mankind’s determination knows no boundaries (missing paragraphs) takes a bit of letting go, smaller municipalities, adjacent ice-skating rink and toboggan slide, that depressing thought, grandiose as an entire village, This misfortune, visitors pay hundreds of euros a night to stay in, in neighbouring China, That … cannot be said about ice sculptures, Designed by Russian architect B 1G 2A 3E 4H 5B 6D 7C Vocabulary A 1inspiration 2initiative 3ineptness 4criticism 5setback 6prevalence B 1high 2rude 3mean 4rosy 161 5fast 6rough 5What 6If C 1in 2up 3caught 4leapt 5In 6corner 7retrospect 8to C D 1throw 2get 3held 4fell 5make 6plucked 7hold 8ahead D 1could 2aren’t 3must 4will 5might 6won’t E 1b 2b 3b 4d 5d 6a 7b 8a Grammar A 1Unless we learn how to solve problems, life will be difficult./ Life will be difficult unless we learn how to solve problems 2They would survive the night providing (that) we gave them shelter./Providing (that) we gave them shelter, they would survive the night 3Given the choice, she would have studied abroad./She would have studied abroad given the choice 4But for keeping your job, you would have lost your house./You would have lost your house but for keeping your job 5Supposing the scandal hadn’t occurred, could John be president?/Could John be president supposing the scandal hadn’t occurred? 6You’ll graduate from university as/so long as you pass your exams./As/So long as you pass your exams, you’ll graduate from university B 1Had 2Were 3But 4Given 162 would not have given are going to search had stood wouldn't have were sitting would have cheated wouldn't be driving were to go E 1b 2c 3c 4a 5d 6a 7b 8a Listening A Suggested answers: particularly impressed, reply, inspired, conducted, women’s wear collection, take up, While going to work, most recent, top influence, words of his songs B live performances personal anecdotes ballet dancer 4slabs of meat (in a butcher’s shop) (graceful) giraffes (mindless) doodles 7subconscious/dreams 8bluegrass Writing A and complement each other, contrasts with and B 2&3 1&2 2&3 1&3 C 1S 2E 3R 4S 5E D Suggested answer: How effective are aptitude tests in judging our skills? Two contrasting views on the subject are the usefulness of tests in screening potential employees, and the flaws of tests that overlook otherwise valuable skills and experience In some cases, tests can be valuable There are companies that administer aptitude tests to assess a multitude of skills, such as how well an employee can demonstrate leadership, how good they are at problem solving and how adept they are at using numbers This can give hiring managers an idea of who to hire and where to put them Additionally, these tests are an inexpensive way of analysing a person’s skill set They cannot take the place of a face-to-face interview entirely, but they can provide an extra layer of knowledge about a candidate’s skills On the other hand, it should be noted that testing does not always give the most accurate reading of a person’s abilities Some people have test anxiety, which translates into poorer test performance Were they in a comfortable working environment, one might find that their skill set outperforms other candidates with higher test scores Also, it is worth bearing in mind that there may be barriers in the tests that can be more problematic for some candidates An individual whose language skills are not as well-honed as a native speaker’s might poorly on a test, when the reality is that their specific skills are compatible with the company All things considered, testing does provide an insight into a person’s abilities We should, however, keep in mind that it can never reveal the whole picture Unit Reading A Students’ own answers B 1a 2d 3b 4d 5c 6b Vocabulary A 1stimulus 2blackmail 3squander 4proxy 5settlement 6misuse 7concessions 8incur B 1spendthrift 2shady above board 4entitled 5corner 6corrupt 7go 8crack C 1soar 2abuse 3red 4bribery 5opulent 6bet 7cuts 8tape D 1line 2of 3side 4egg 5off 6lane 7into 8last E 1d 2d 3b 4c 5d 6a 7a 8b Grammar A was, had situations, circumstances did, would after, until credit, account will, had a, no loses, lost B 1such 2Such 3So 4So 5so 6such C would prefer had better it’s time If only would rather 6wish as if 8better D 1had 2only 3such 4under 5little 6until 7no 8once E 1would prefer to 2it had such terrible / of such terrible 3not one (good) reason could 4only after Catherine had finished eating did she 5No sooner had they got their lottery winnings Listening A Handling debt, speakers’ experiences, speakers’ feelings B 1F 2G 3E 4A 5C 6D 7C 8B 9G 10E Writing A 1C 2A 3B 4C 5B B Prompt 1: A; underlined key words: Microloans, very small loans, help families start small businesses, prospective merchants, helping hand, beneficial Phrases: dreams fulfilled helping the poor jumpstart the economy stepping stone Prompt 2: C; underlined key words: non-violent crimes, go to different, sometimes nicer, prisons than violent offenders, Is it important to keep, separate or, live with other criminals Phrases: punishment fits the crime rehabilitation programme safety concerns severity of offence C 12 21 31 41 52 62 D Suggested answer: Prompt 1: People are sometimes faced with moral dilemmas at work They uncover information that the company they work for has been hiding from the public, perhaps to preserve the company’s image or perhaps to avoid legal troubles Not saying anything makes them guilty, but betraying their employer could end their career While whistleblowers can be beneficial to society, one can see how they could be considered traitors to the people who employed them A very beneficial aspect of a whistle-blower is when they reveal information that pertains to matters of public safety Let’s take into consideration a car manufacturer that has been hiding the fact that its automobiles have been failing safety standards They are doing this in order to avoid having to spend a huge amount of money to fix a manufacturing process But these cars are going out on the road and a faulty brake or an explosive electrical system could kill someone It is not hard to see how an employee with high moral standards could have an issue with keeping this knowledge a secret On the other hand, an employee that has signed a confidentiality agreement with an employer takes it upon themselves to keep company secrets just that – a secret By violating a contract, they are in a sense going against their word It is damaging to their character and their careers suffer because other companies may be wary of hiring them Perhaps it could be said that whatever problems they discovered within the company should be handled internally Of course, perhaps they attempted that first and they did not get the outcome they were looking for To conclude, while it may be 163 beneficial for society to come forward with damaging information about your employer, there is very much a risk of being given a negative label for doing good It is a shame, but one must imagine that a whistle-blower’s positive impact on society must serve as compensation for the damage done to their careers can never know what your son or daughter is going to with their finances once they have their freedom from home For this reason, allowing them to use credit cards during their teenage years is a practical way for them to get educated about their use Prompt 2: It goes without saying that teenagers should learn about managing their money We all know that money does not end with cash; there is plastic money to be considered as well Obviously, there are pitfalls to avoid when it comes to using credit cards and perhaps the best way for teenagers to learn about them is to use credit cards while they are still living with their parents First of all, a few complicated things have got to be learnt about credit cards, such as interest rates, minimum payments and so forth Having a parent around to help a young person navigate these features will make them better equipped at using them A mum or dad can explain that the higher the balance on a card, the more money that is paid in interest, and it can be quite high They can also inform them of how much they will have to pay per month based on any given balance and what happens if they miss a payment or get so far behind that the bank will start calling them Another reason parental supervision might be a good idea is due to the deceptive nature of buying things with credit cards It is easy to use them to pay for things, rather than forking out the cash But teenagers can easily forget that they will have to pay the balance at the end of the month or even what that balance is at any given point in time They can run up their accounts quickly and then be stuck with a bill they cannot pay With parents around, they can ask for help if they get into trouble Perhaps making some of the mistakes early on before it can really damage their finances is beneficial as well In short, while it might be a good idea to promote the avoidance of credit cards altogether, you Vocabulary A 1c 2d 3b 4c 5c 6d 7d 8a 9c 10d 11d 12a 13a 14d 15b 16c 17b 18c 19a 20c 164 Review Grammar B 1b 2b 3d 4a 5d 6c 7c 8b 9b 10d 11c 12c 13b 14d 15d 16d 17b 18c 19d 20a Use of English C 1b 2c 3a 4d 5a 6d 7b 8d D 1inspiration 2motivation 3extravagantly 4miserly 5criticism 6misuse 7undervalued 8powerless E 1only 2supposing 3rather 4what 5had 6would 7no 8such F 1but for the coach’s interference, they would have 2attend the conference providing (that) the entrance fee 3it’s time (that) Stacy moved 4had better apply today before it’s too 5were not so/less irritable, he wouldn’t get 6under no circumstances should she open Unit Reading A He describes an experience he had as a child with his dad B 1C 2D 3A 4H 5F 6B 7E Vocabulary A 1track 2whim 3buzz 4tip 5drain 6eye B 1invasion 2place 3spelt 4bitter 5phenomenon 6difference 7indulge 8drive C 1picturesque 2educated 3undesirable 4fearlessness 5graphically 6baggage 7rarity 8provincial D 1spur 2ear 3upon/across/onto 4on 5sense 6off 7catch 8throw E 1a 2b 3d 4b 5a 6b 7b 8d Grammar A perfectly clean immensely stressed positively glowing annoyingly loud dangerously high unbelievably charming B 1a 2c 3b 4c 5c 6c C 1hardly 2virtually 3Barely 4scarcely 5practically 6almost D puppies alive fire was ablaze passengers aboard patient was aglow E 1The people responsible for the damage should/must come forward 2Concerned citizens met in the town hall 3The damaged goods were destroyed 4Belongings damaged by/in the fire will be/are going to be/have been/are being replaced 5Responsible people pay bills on time 6Residents concerned about flooding should/can/could call this number F 1nowhere 2few 3never 4particular 5bit/little 6with/by 7barely 8which Listening A I’ve got a lot on my plate = I’m very busy at the moment B 1a 2b 3c 4c 5c 6a 7b 8c Writing A a b2 c d1 e2 f g h1 B 1Making a difference a world away For those looking for some work experience and who have a desire to go out into the world, there are few better opportunities than to volunteer abroad It can provide experience in tackling real-world problems while giving individuals a different perspective on life It is even a perfect fit for those who have amassed a great deal of experience and knowledge during their professional lives and who want communities in need around the globe to benefit from this Know what you are getting into For some, volunteering abroad seems like a luxury for the young and well-off, but many staffing agencies who find volunteers for organisations in host countries stress that this does not have to be the case These agencies can help individuals find organisations willing to pay for volunteers to travel to the host country, providing they have the right skill set They can also drastically cut down on volunteers’ travel expenses by providing accommodation While they not offer a stipend, they can make sure you spend very little while you are there Key points c and f contrast with the texts C 12 21 32 41 52 61 D Suggested answer: International volunteering is a rewarding, beneficial experience, but to make the best of it, certain conditions must be met This pertains to both the volunteers who get involved and the organisations who seek them Firstly, most volunteers have hugely different backgrounds from the local individuals who run the organisations in the host country As a result, there can be a clash of cultures between volunteers and management There can also be vast differences in educational levels between volunteers and local staff Volunteers should their best to respect the way locals are running their organisation so as to foster cooperation and unity for the task at hand By the same token, organisations should their best to choose the right individuals and make sure they are ready for the job when they arrive An organisation tasked with rebuilding schools might better with an international volunteer who knows how to build things, as opposed to someone trained in sustainable agriculture Additionally, making sure the volunteer has had some kind of training about what the organisation does and what the volunteer should expect on the job can go a long way in helping them to settle into their roles In brief, while international volunteers are a valuable resource and make positive efforts overall, volunteers as well as organisations should ensure that they are the right fit for the position and that basic training needs are fulfilled That way, both sides are getting as much out of the experience as possible Unit Reading A B 1C 2B 3A 4D 5B 6E 7A 8B 9E 10C Vocabulary A 1criterion 2curricula 3alumni 4stimuli 5parentheses 6appendix 7phenomena 8indices 9matrices 10bacterium B 1receptive 2infinite 3intimate 4retentive 5indicative 6argumentative 7inexplicable 8intelligible 165 C sphere, spanned thesis, theory syllabus, schedule analysis, methodology supplementary, appendix scholarly, reasoning academics, formidable insight, surmise D 1same 2in 3towards 4up 5by 6on 7hard 8lines E 1disrespectful 2rationale 3inexplicably 4analytical 5appendices 6receptive 7envision/envisage 8philosophical Grammar A cancelling to cancel reading her uncle her uncle to read that the university the university that of me me of to build building to rewrite on on rewriting/that he rewrite B 1suggested 2offered 3agreed 4encourages/encouraged 5complained 6assured C 1Bill denied cheating in the exam 2Sue congratulated Neil on graduating 3They apologised for being late 4Sean inquired about the graduate programme 5Kelly described the events to Sheila 6They stated that the funds would be/were delayed 166 D 1whether 2his 3denied 4how 5using 6over in enrolling 8if teacher’s resource pack, multimedia components, disorganised management, E 1c 2b 3c 4c 5c 6d 7a 8a Listening A Gap B education board’s 2articles statistical data failure rates mathematics instructor information transmission updating of 8self-discipline Writing A 1R 2E 3F 4R 5E B a Task 1: a superior, a school administrator Task 2: a peer group Task 3: a superior, a school administrator b Task 1: Components on offer Quality of materials Target age range Task 2: Activities undertaken Organisation Expertise Task 3: Test sections Test task types Effectiveness c reading comprehension, not very knowledgeable, fresh, engaging content, adolescent learners, misplaced candidates, grammar companion, C The learning content is great suitable for nursery school children, as it teaches them basic maths arithmetic and spelling skills There is a mix of sights visual stimuli, such as pictures with words labelled photography, and sounds audio stimuli, such as music that teaches through words lyrics, which helps all children The learning environment is helpful constructive, and all of the teachers care about are sensitive to the children’s needs Each child gets one-on-one time with personal attention from teachers on a daily basis and we are proud of ourselves for pride ourselves on forming friendships special bonds with children that make them feel happy content Headings: Learning content, Learning environment D Suggested answer: Nursery school education programme Introduction The aim of this report is to describe and evaluate the nursery school education programme that I teach at First Steps Day Care, as well as assess its benefits for parents who wish to enrol their children and give a few recommendations Learning Content The programme’s learning content is suitable for nursery school aged children, as it teaches them basic arithmetic and spelling skills as well as how to recognise basic words The programme also meets the needs of different learning styles among children For example, there is a mix of visual stimuli, such as labelled photography, and audio stimuli, such as music that teaches through lyrics, which helps all children learn in some way Learning environment The learning environment is friendly and constructive All of the teachers, including myself, are kind and sensitive to the children Each child gets personal attention on a daily basis and we pride ourselves on forming special bonds with children that make them feel comfortable in this environment Activities for children There are a number of interactive games the children can play with, which also double as learning devices Children are encouraged to work together to create things, which spurs both their creativity and their teamwork abilities Teachers organise several group activities such as guessing games, arts and crafts, and basic science experiments, all of which are both entertaining and thought-provoking Conclusion In conclusion, I would say that it would be wise of parents to place their children in day care that provides a nursery school learning programme such as the one at First Steps Day Care It is recommended that any working mums and dads who are in need of day care should consider a programme like ours Not only does it provide a safe environment for a child, but it also gives a child a head start in learning Review Vocabulary A 1d 2b 3c 4c 5c 6d 7a 8d 9b 10b 11c 12b 13d 14c 15a 16c 17c 18c 19b 20b Grammar B 1c 2d 3c 4b 5c 6a 7c 8b 9b 10b 11d 12b 13c 14a 15c 16c 17b 18c 19d 20d Use of English C 1c 2b 3a 4d 5a 6d 7b 8a D 1spherical 2insight 3inquisitive 4oddities 5deciding 6infinitely 7ominous 8appendices E 1off 2whim 3not/never 4on 5how 6on 7whether 8no F there were barely any trees 2materials were given to people present at the 3warned the employees not to be/about being was accused of lying to soldiers fought valiantly 6asked Paul whether or not he was Unit Reading A Questions and B 1b 2d 3a 4b 5a 6c 7a 8d Vocabulary A 1landlord 2neutral 3dispense 4autonomous 5references 6orientating 7sublet 8enfranchised B 1independence 2eviction 3entitlement 4obligatory 5disorientated 6dismissive 7immaturity 8hierarchically C 1step 2strike 3settle 4stand 5fend 6pull 7lift 8tend D 1up 2with 3in 4behind 5on 6papers 7off 8from E 1d 2a 3c 4d 5a 6b 7d 8d Grammar A 1what none of whom whose car both of which B 1All A few A number 4One C 1participating 2claimed 3suffering 4completed 5lining D so as to/in order to Even though/Although/Much as 3What with/In view of/Because of/Due to/Owing to 4so so as not to/in order not to E 1b 2b 3b 4a 5c 6a F so as not to make a 2new neighbours, one of whom is from 3the contractors in order to finish 4having signed the lease, they were informed of 5man standing on the other side of the Listening A Question B 1b 2c 3c 4a 5a 6b Writing A E, persuasion E, argument A, description 167 A, anecdote E, analysis A, narration B finding the financial backing: 3, forming partnerships with friends: 1, having a strong character: 2, planning out your business: 4, 1D 2D 3N 4N 5N 6D 7D 8A C 6, planning out your business 2, having a strong character D Suggested answer: Thinking of starting your own business? It’s a terrific accomplishment, and speaking for myself, it’s something to be proud of Here are what I consider the two most important aspects of starting a business First, it takes a great deal of careful consideration to get a business up and running You have to conjure up a good idea, if you haven’t already done so Is there something you’re good at making, such as jewellery or T-shirt designs? In my case it was the latter and, thankfully, I knew artists who could draw the designs I wanted You also need to consider a suitable business location that works for you Do you picture yourself selling your arts and crafts at a stand in a busy commercial area of town to passers-by? Or you want to what I did and set it up online, with photos of your work and a smooth, prompt delivery service? Answering these questions will go a long way in helping you plan Another important aspect is having a strong character, in my opinion You have to deal with the public, who can be very inquisitive, friendly and engaging, but they can also complain How you handle them will be hugely instrumental in the success – or failure – of your new enterprise You’ll also have to be very responsible; you may have to burn the midnight oil in the beginning until you get the hang of it I remember once when the server I use for my business crashed and I had to scramble to get someone in to fix it We were up very late into the night making sure it was fully functional and back in service 168 Personally, I think minor catastrophes such as this are worth enduring when you’re doing something as great as running your own business successfully So these are a few things to consider when starting your own enterprise – a challenging yet very fulfilling and rewarding adventure Good luck! Unit 10 Reading A Paragraphs A, F and G B 1F 2E 3G 4C 5H 6B 7D Vocabulary A 1b 2a 3c 4c 5b 6a B inertia, f frank, e forfeiture, d subscription, c endorse, b volume, a C 1tempts 2sway 3lobby 4account 5toss 6liken 7degree 8pulled D 1rule 2geared 3win 4wear 5push 6get 7drive 8talk E 1d 2a 3c 4b 5d 6b 7d 8a Grammar A papers, paper room, rooms jams, jam currencies, currency grounds, ground height, heights B 1none 2else 3little 4any 5everyone 6has 7neither 8another C one another 2yourself 3themselves 4herself 5ourselves D A, –, the, the the, the, the, – –, a, a, a The, –, the, the One, an, –, the The, a, –, the E 1anyone 2those 3ourselves 4everyone 5the 6a 7something 8nowhere Listening A Positive opinions: A, D, G Negative opinions: B, C, E, F, H B 1E 2H 3A 4D 5C 6G 7D 8C 9F 10H Writing A ✓ 2-3 ✓ 4-5 ✓ B 1X, The topic in is better for an analysis, rather than a narrative element 2X, The topic in asks how people in a community are affected, not the writer 35 41 C ✓ 2-3 ✓ D Suggested answer: Many of us have brands that we know and love; they are tried and tested, offer consistent quality and provide comfort in our lives Sometimes, though, a person can fall prey to brand addiction, where they cannot help but buy certain brands, and it ends up defining who they are My friend Justin’s problem epitomises this out-of-control behaviour and I give you the following situation as an example We are at a gathering with a mix of well-known friends and casual acquaintances I overhear him ask someone about their clothing label, to which he says, ‘Oh, I don’t buy that label I find the quality isn’t to my liking.’ Now, in many ways, Justin is a terrific guy: a very loyal friend and an intelligent person But if he could only hear himself talk It was not the friendliest of comments and it made Justin look as if he had an inferiority complex His brand addiction characterises him as being narrow-minded, even if that is not who he really is I would also like to point out that being addicted to certain brands equates to an unwillingness to try new things and such an individual is going to get stuck in their ways early on in life Justin’s brand addiction means he lacks interest in considering anything outside of his established catalogue of luxury brands Aside from being expensive, this habit robs an individual of variety, which as they say is the spice of life Getting over any addiction is difficult, especially when the person does not really believe it to be a problem But I urge anyone suffering from brand addiction to make an attempt to break out of their comfort zone and challenge themselves to try new things Review Vocabulary A 1d 2c 3c 4a 5a 6d 7c 8b 9c 10c 11d 12b 13d 14b 15b 16a 17c 18a 19b 20a Grammar B 1c 2c 3a 4a 5c 6b 7d 8b 9b 10d 11c 12b 13d 14c 15d 16c 17d 18a 19b 20c Use of English C 1b 2c 3a 4c 5a 6b 7c 8d D 1dismissal 2indispensable 3uncharismatic 4hierarchical 5acquisition 6manipulative 7hypocritical 8obligation E 1a 2each 3the 4Neither 5what 6in 7themselves 8order 9himself 10so F 1checked one another’s 2to whom they gave the project was a 3winning over so as not to get burnt by 5great deal of products were damaged 6view of his poor performance, he was laid Unit 11 Reading A Questions 1, and Vocabulary A 1memoirs 2blackmail 3exile 4credible 5string 6fabled 7hounded 8limelight 9column 10immortal B 1stalked 2slander 3stardom 4anecdote 5splash 6obscurity 7illustrious 8excerpts 9eminent 10feasible C 1d 2a 3b 4b 5b 6a D 1of 2over 3by/to 4on 5in 6at 7of 8in E 1acclaimed 2notoriously 3international 4correspondents 5illustrious 6conspiracy 7publicity 8infamous Grammar A to publish 2editing 3printing to broadcast 5type 6blogging 7writing 8posting B 1d 2c 3a 4b 5c 6b 169 B 1attending 2read 3asking to hear to discuss 6enter to hire 8building C to 2saying to pick 4nagging 5meeting 6pulling D 1winning 2accounting 3harm 4hoping 5eating 6pleasing 7knowing 8looking E 1c 2b 3b 4d 5b 6a 7b 8a Listening A Questions and B 1c 2b 3d 4b 5b Writing A Suggested answers: Film review captivating/commanding presence, captivating/commanding/ disappointing/poignant performance, captivating/ sweeping cinematography, clichéd/poignant anecdotes, convoluted/gripping plot/storyline, gripping direction, gripping/ poignant/romantic tragedy, main protagonist, underlying theme Book review captivating/convoluted/gripping/ poignant/romantic storyline, clichéd/poignant anecdotes, gripping/poignant/romantic tragedy, intended audience, main protagonist, underlying theme 170 Concert review captivating/commanding/ disappointing/electrifying performance, captivating/ commanding/electrifying presence, electrifying sound, harmonious melodies B Suggested answers: poignant documentary electrifying sound intended audience compelling storyline/plot main protagonist C Main paragraph 2 Main paragraph 3Conclusion 4Introduction Main paragraph D Suggested answer: Like most people, when I was first presented with the opportunity to try sushi, I felt more than a little uncomfortable But I’m happy to say that my curiosity won me over Since then, the more I consume it, the more intrigued I am about its art form This compelled me to view a documentary titled Jiro Dreams of Sushi, which chronicles the daily life of an 85-year-old sushi maker still in search of the perfect sushi The star of the poignant documentary, Jiro Ono, is a master sushi chef and a complete perfectionist His sushi bar is tucked away in the basement of a Tokyo high-rise building Ono’s establishment has an impeccable reputation; it’s been awarded the highest ratings from restaurant guides and the waiting list for a table is three months This is despite paying around £300 for a mouthwatering plate of food that will probably take less than ten minutes to eat The documentary is only partly about the art of sushi making What it really offers is a compelling storyline about a man who constantly struggles to please his customers I enjoyed seeing Jiro be deeply observant of his patrons and utterly dedicated to his craft He knows where they want to sit based on whether they are left-handed or right-handed It is mesmerising to watch him instruct his apprentices in preparing dishes repeatedly until they get it just right Underpinning this documentary is gripping direction that takes you on a step-by-step journey of sushi making Each introduction about a sushi-making process is short and artful, almost like a piece of sushi Seldom you see a style of filmmaking that embodies a cooking technique This is what makes it worth watching If the documentary has any shortcomings, it’s that – like sushi – it leaves you wanting more It is by far and away the best 80 minutes you could ever view about this culinary art form, even if you’re not a fan of raw fish Unit 12 Reading A in Text A, next to ‘3,000 BCE’; in Text B, next to ‘2nd century’; in Text D, next to ‘3rd millennium BCE’ and ‘8th to 15th centuries’; in Text E, next to ‘light-years’ B 1D 2B 3A 4D 5A 6E 7C 8D 9A 10B Vocabulary A 1reign 2archives 3memorial 4revival 5heirlooms 6legacy 7vestiges 8artefacts B 1primitively 2observers 3disrespect 4orator 5ancestral 6chronicles 7blurry/blurred 8normalise C 1closed 2integration 3mannerisms 4insane 5sit 6clash 7irreverent 8dispute D 1old-time 2deep-rooted 3strongly-held 4middle-aged 5full-length 6ever-present 7light-hearted 8time-honoured E 1b 2d 3a 4b 5a 6c 7b 8d Grammar A 1It was the modern Olympic Games It was a French educator It was in Athens It was Baron Pierre de Coubertin 5It was at the Panathenaic Stadium B 1It was an unknown composer who wrote the national anthem of the UK 2It was 6,000 years ago when the Phoenicians brought the olive tree to Spain 3It was during battle that Joan of Arc, a heroine of France, died in Normandy in 1431 4It wasn’t George Washington Carver who invented peanut butter, but rather, the Incas 5It was a Viking named Lief Erickson who truly discovered America, according to some C 1All they eat for 40 days is fruit, vegetables and simple grains./ All they eat is fruit, vegetables and simple grains for 40 days 2What we know about the excavation site is (that) it was inhabited in 3,150 BC 3It wasn’t until two weeks later that the townsfolk finished celebrating Carnival 4What they wore was ceremonial garb as they performed the ritual./What they wore as they performed the ritual was ceremonial garb 5What the villagers did was decorate the town square and clear the main street of cars D 1all 2What 3what 4all 5what 6all 7What 8all E 1was the stupendous finale of fireworks that scared a kettle does is heat up 3was in the 1950s when Jonas Salk developed 4that is needed for the invention to work 5I would never in an interview is Listening A dispelling, negating, leave out, lacking, not, dissimilar; Question B 1a 2c 3b 4c 5c 6a Writing A Purpose: to describe ways tours can offer culture to tourists Target reader:your supervisors in a travel agency Context:ideas on how to include culture in tours and how it will impact a tourist’s travel experience Purpose:to provide information to museum visitors Target reader:patrons in a folklore museum Context:aspects of the museum that patrons will find interesting, how folklore traditions influence life today and why they should be preserved Purpose:to describe problems that minorities face Target reader:the leader of your research study on minority rights Context:aspects concerning ways that minorities’ rights are infringed upon, the importance of protecting their rights and their contribution to culture diversity B 1C 2C 3B 4A 5A/B 6A/B/C C 1A 2B 3C 4B 5B 8C 9A 10C 11C 12A D Suggested answer: Influential people Introduction The purpose of this report is to describe a historical figure in Greece, as well as outline the ways that this person has influenced Greece’s history and why it is important for countries to honour great people in their history Description A ruler of Greece, Asia Minor and beyond during the 4th century BC, Alexander the Great is considered one of the greatest leaders in world history Born in Pella, northern Greece, he was instrumental in expanding Greek territory and spreading its culture to other places The two qualities that Alexander the Great is most remembered for are his performance as a military general and his love of Greek culture Military general When his father died, Alexander assumed leadership when he was just 20 Although trained by fabled philosopher Aristotle, Alexander did not always handle others philosophically He used force to unite the Greek territories, which began to fall apart after news of his father’s death Through strategy and a show of force, he brought Greece together as one country Furthermore, as he pushed into foreign territory, he never lost a 171 single battle, despite usually being outnumbered Lover of culture What Alexander is probably best known for is his desire to spread Greek culture throughout Asia His military campaigns took Greek forces all the way to India, and along the way, the people of ancient Persia and other lands adopted Greek customs, which became interwoven with their own It was Alexander’s dream that these cultures would blend with Hellenism Conclusion Looking back at Alexander the Great’s life, one should pause for thought at some of his actions, especially his militaristic ones Thankfully, most nations today spread their cultures through peaceful means Still, it is important to remember the people who influenced our countries and how they did so They give us hope that we can accomplish great things, no matter where we come from Review Vocabulary A 1b 2c 3c 4d 5c 6a 7c 8c 9b 10a 11b 12a 13c 14d 15c 16d 17c 18b 19d 20c Grammar B 1c 2b 3d 4c 5c 6c 7c 8c 9b 10d 11b 12b 13b 14d 15a 16d 17c 18b 19d 20a Use of English C 1c 2d 3b 4c 5d 6d 7a 8c D 1assumption 2stereotypical 3mannerisms 4insensitivity 5invasively 6notoriety 7diversity 8discretion E 1at 2to 3no 4what 172 5this 6would 7them 8turning F no knowing what Michael involves hiring a is in this country where I travel, all I take is was delighted to run into 6couldn’t/wasn’t able to remember participating ... address these students’ concerns so that their negativity does not adversely affect other students A key example is for teachers to reach out to troubled youths and make an effort to show an interest... it comes to using technology, I have to admit I’m not someone who’s used a lot of it before a newbie But I wanted to attend one of those places where they feature the latest in technology a tech... worlds that exist in these games I was especially pleased with this aspect of the expo The only drawback was with the wearable devices Honestly, I’m not sure why tech companies focus so much energy
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