Ebook Designing furniture: Phần 1

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Part 1 ebook present the content: finding design inspiration; a short history of design; quintessential arts and crafts; building in the language of Greene and Greene; elements of the Shaker style; developing designs and organizing projects; furniture design the four objectives; designing furniture: a survival guide; building'' without plans; creating'' working drawings; drafting basics; models help projects succeed; organize yow'' projects. Contents Introduction Creating' Working Drawing'S 47 JIM TOLPIN SECTION Finding Design Inspiration Drafting Basics 53 PH ILI P C LOWE A Short History of Design 6RAHAM B LACK BURN Quintessential Arts and Crafts GRAHAM BLACKB Models Help Projects Succeed 12 RN Building in the Language of Greene and Greene Organize Yow' Projects 65 JIM TOLP IN 20 THOMAS HU GH STANGEL AND Elements of the Shaker Style 60 JAN ZAITLIN 28 A Drafting Table for Shop or Home 71 CAMERON RUSSELL CHRIST IAN BECKSVOORT CTiON Construction by Design SECTION Developing Designs and Organizing Projects Furnitw'e Desig'n: The Fow' Objectives Doors Make the Difference Joining Legs to Aprons 34 M IK E DUNBAR Designing Furnitw'e: A Survival Guide 37 CRAIG VANDALL ST EVENS 89 CHR IST IAN BEC KSVOO Rl Exposing Your Back Side 41 82 GARRETT HACK Graduated Drawers GARRETT HACK Building' Without Plans 77 CHR ISTIAN BfCKSVOORT CHR ISTIAN BEC KSVOORT 91 C ON Designing Furniture Making' Dining Tables That Work Designing for Style and Function 95 PETER TISC H LER Designing on the Go: A Coffee Table Takes Shape 120 PETER TURNER Large-Case Construction Strategies 99 BRUCE CO H EN Where Furnitul'e Meets the Floor 125 MAR IO RODR IGUEZ Designing a Chest of Drawers 104 GARRE TT H ACK Dressing' Up a Basic Box 133 ROGER H OLMES Sideboard Strategies WILL NEPTUNE 110 Going Over Edges 136 WIL L NEPTUNE Designing Table Legs 142 GRAHAM BLAC K BURN Credits 152 Index 153 Introduction _ _• here is something wonderful about turning a rough idea into a wcllcrafted, pleasing and useful pic e of furniture Th e slIccessful furniture makers find a " ay to tie the piece together \ ith little consistent details.They expertly craft the way the horizontal SlIffa Ces meet and comp liment the verti cal lines anel parts Th eir eyL'S and minds give th em the proportions that make the piece of furnitu re feci grounded and statuesque at the same time }jut it doesn 'tju~t happen - at least not for most of liS Every wood\ o rker should save his or her Clr\t original projecl,j ust a~ a reminder of how tin they'vc come My greatest furniture- making disaster is al a th e only piece f'vc evcr mId It was a svelte but pitiful w:t ll rack for displayi ng plates The shelves we re too small , the j oi nery v as ugly and the fini sh as not finish ed But some needy sou l took pay o n it and it~ price tag at our yard sale My se and, and much more origina l, proj ect is sti ll in o ur house, althou gh it' been rdq~ated to the b:lse rn elll guest rOOIll Now, w hen guests remark all the crud e, pine cartee table I j oke that my bli nd grandfather made it My ego doesn 't su ffer because I assullle they've seen th e subsequent furniture projects were good en ough to bri ng up (j·orn the basernent I've learned a great dea l about fu rniture design in th e years ~ill c e tbat coffee table took shape Mu ch of it I learned from the wood" orkers 110 have written the chapters of th is book, be ause many have I een shar ing their secrets in the pages o( Pill/' IV(l(ldIVOrkill1" scalloped edge • Tripod legs • Ball-and·claw feet 17.'i() • New England· rectangular style • Mapl ; originally painted red • Markedly slender cabriole legs • Pad feet • Deeply scalloped apron \ I , J ,, t , I ,." ( Ii II ) ( 770 • High-style work typICal of Philadelphia cabinetmakers • Chest-on-chest, double-case construction • Richly ('.arvad , broken scroll bonnet • Carved corners • Carved cabriole legs with ball-and·claw feet at fcont and back • Sophisticated proportions, progressively graduated drawers • Veneered casework A SHORT HISTORY OF DESIGN 'n,Mc, ("t/, 1810-1820 fter the Revolution, American tastes and sympathies transferred from Britain to France, especially with regard to fumiture styles The French Empire style planned and fostered by Napoleon was adopted and distinctively modified by American cabinetmakers and is typicaJly known as Federal style In comparison to the light and well-proportioned fumiture typified by the Hepplewhite- and Sheraton-style pieces of the end of the Mahogany Period and the early days of the Federal Period, much Federal fumiture is dark, heavy, and vulgar The finest, however, is often superb and owes much to one of the most famous of all American cabinetmakers, • Reminiscent of the Shemto n style • Pier·type table Wit h ovolo comers • Mahogany and maple painted black with gill and polychrome • Harbor view painted on center of apron • Typical of Balti more Federal· style painted furniture • No stretchers, Sherdton·style tapered and flut ed legs • Inlay and banding • Tapered fe t Duncan Phyfe, a New York woodworker possessed of great taste and a wonderful eye for proportion Typical H pplewhite pull • Khsmos·type chair With classical d talis, made by Duncan Phyfe u / • Mahogany • S haggy fron t legs r • H airy-paw feet • Lyre splat • H eavily reeded • G raceful curves • Light, stretcherless construction ('(I' I, r}' t1 I LO • Highly varnished • Veneered construc tion • Massive in scale and proportion • High-style Philadelphia Federal bureau, French Emplr inspired • Mahogany and bird's-eye maple FINDING DESIGN INSPIRATION Step Draw Overall Dilnensions and Curves Determine the height of the tabletop and get an idea of its overall size Then draw the actual curved edges on the left 01 the centerline Only half of the table needs to be drawn in the lront and plan views Make a paHern of the I front curve and use it to I I draw the side curve I Draw hall of the front serpentine curve I Draw a diagonal line to locate the corner \ DRAW HALF OF THE FRONT CURVE SMOOTH THE CURVE Use a Sketch it out freehand, trusting f lexible ship curve to creale a your eye fair, even profile Pla n J ; II Determine the height of the table Establish the fl oor line I Draw the overall tabletop di ensions to deter· mine its size; erase the right half later Locate the centerline of the table from the plan view and bring it down to the front view MAKE A PLYWOOD PATIERN Poke a DRAW SYMMETRICAL series of holes through the paper to CURVES Use the pattern to transfer the pattern to thin plywood draw a matching serpentine curve on the side rail and to l ayout the actual workpleces 1/0,,/ J it'll' These hair views have a few im portant adv:tnt:tgl's They not only lI1ean a smaller drawillg ,md less work, but they al a gllaralltee ~ylllllletry I make a half template for th e serpentine curve across th e front and simp ly fl ip it to lay a lit th e other si de.This is much e:tsicr than trying to dra w the el1tire curve and match bot h sides AI 'o, the ';Ulll' curve is llsed a ll the sides I ch-a \ hal f o f lh e ~erpl'l1line Cll e acro s the fj'ont in the plan vie\ I draw thl line freehand, working LO get a curve that i pleasing to my eye I mack this tableLOp twice a wide a It is deep, allowing two importan t things LO happen One, the sal/ll' half- serpl'lltinl' 56 DEVELOPtNG DES IGNS AND ORGANI ZING PROJ ECTS cur l' pattern for tlt e fi-ont can be lISl'd for the side Two, lhc l'nlifl' lable G ill bc doubled, turni ng it il/LO a card table with all identical serpl' l1til/c rail on aU four side After dra\ illg the curve for the fron t, I use a piece of X-in - thi ck pl ywood to lIlake a pattern of the curve by layill g lhe plywood underneath lh e drawing and pricking hob alon g the lil/e, through the paper and in to the plywood I saw out the pa ttt'rn and slIIooth it ith a spokeshave and salldpapl'r I can liSt' il a a template for doing the re t o f the dra\ ing, and when building the table m the shop Step Size the Legs and Rails After choosing the overhang of the bletop, draw the legs in the plan view, transfer the leg and tabletop edges to the front view, and add the tabletop chamfer and hidden lines for the rails I i l I \\ Determine leg locations \\ I \ Draw the front and side ils 1>1(1" J ; el/l -, TRANSFER UNE.S FROM THE PlAN view to the front Pia" "ill / view Use a long triangle to carry down the table- ~ / top and leg edges I I ' Draw the tabletop l in the front view Decide on the rail width I f '1:: Transfer leg locations from the plan view Draw the taper of the finished I gs I I I I l~ I milt I ;('11' r m" t l i ('W I DRAW THE RAILS I N THE TOP VIEW Use the overhang dimension to offset the curved rail evenly from the curved tabletop The overhang determines the table base Looking at the fro nt and plan vie\ s, I deci de th e erhang of the tabletop For tlti table, a light overhang wiU keep the tabletop fro nl hidill g th e rail and w ill accentuate the lI\ ~ tc hin g cu rVL'~ ill both At t h i~ POlllt I also determi ne th e thick ness of the tabletop and dld\ it into the (i'Ollt and pla n it'Ws A ht'avy cham fe r ullder the edb't.' ligh tens the look The erhang dimension i' used to po~i tion th e legs and rail in the I Ian view At this oint, I COli ider the width and thickness of the legs and draw them Now, usi ng a triallgle, I projeCl the dimensiom of the leg; dOWIl illlo the frollt ie\ I also contillue ti ll' e light lillt'!-o to the Ooor w hi ch md up formin g th e rectangle of tack fronl wh ich the legs \; ill be , awn O n this tradition al table [ keep the ils flush w ith the k gs It's e:lsier to build a ll inset rail , but a f1mh rail c reate~ a sl1\ooth fl ow around the corner for a 11l0re high-style look.rlo dra\ the curved rai l in the plan view, you need a hidden lim' that is offiet t' enly fi'0l11 lhe cur e o f the top.T he overhang of th e tabletop is X in I mark thi ' on: Tt liOl1l the tablcto edge in " dozen or Q plan's and then usc a hip curve to draw a Lowe is using a triangu lar scale, but any ruler will DRAFTI NG BASICS 57 Step To transfer dimensions from the plan view to the side view draw a line at a 45 ' angle and project lines across and then down ))raw the Side View All of the information necessary to complete the side view is incorporated in the plan and front views ,, , ) I I lall i fILII / ==-J rt I) o I n·,mt f '; t·" i Sltfr f it'll' I I NOW FILL IN THE SIDE VIEW, Carryover horizontal lines from the front view and transfer the other dimensions from the plan view L using a 45" line or simply by measuring n-;,.,, 4- -1 Step Add Joinery and Title Hlock I Design the joinery in the plan view find the rail thicknesses fill in the front and side views and add the title block Locate the back edge of the front rail A I L )' - Layout joinery on the plan view / 1/ I all fuU·" dfflW;", makes it easy to de- / termine necessary stock thicknesses (shaded areas) on curved parts ~ ; I / 1\ J ;C/I' ~:m1= - - -==i Iii -1 III I Iii LL I Lay out ioin~ry on th I.! front view Transfer joinery to the side view I I I FIGURE OUT THE SIDE RAIL'S THICKNESS Start with a construction line to determine the outside edge of the rail stock, then offset a parallel line from that to find the / Add the title block inside edge of the rail Front 58 Vi('w Sid(' Vi('w smooth curve for the rail :\ext, I pick a pleasing width for the front rail .lumping back to the legs, I consider how they should be tapered-on two sides Project joinery to the front and side views :\ ow carry the tenon thicknesses and lengths down to the front view and hi turn to the side view n e last decision that or four? llaving decided that a two-sided needs to be made regarding the tenons is taper looks best on this table, I layout the their width and the size of any top or amount of taper at the floor line and locate bottom shoulders to make the table resist one end of a long straightedge on the racking think giving the tenons a X-in drawing at that point The other end goes shoulder at the top and no shoulder at the on a point about % in below the rail, where bottom is enough It is easier to align the I generally start my tapers bottom edge of the rails to each other without a shoulder to deal with, making it Develop the side view So far, I only have worked on the front and plan views.To create a side view, I project lines from the front easier to apply any banding that might run around the bottom edge of the rails and across the legs view and take the horizontal dimensions horn the plan view U ntil now, only the external lines of the table have been addressed, so if any of the proportions need to be changed, this is the time to it.The white eraser will make clean work of it Once I'm satisfied, it's time to fill in the joinery If there is no shoulder at the top, an open mortise is created and the strength of the leg is compromised It wouldn't stand up to an accidental kick or a whack from a wayward vacuum cleaner The last element that I place on the drawing is the title block, which contains Joinery determines the thickness of the both a cut list and a hardware list refer to rails First, in the pI an view, I fill in the lo- the drawing many times during construc- cations of the mortises and tenons Then tion, keeping myself organized and avoiding furniture at his shop in Beverly can draw the back edge of the rail, deter- costly errors Mass PHILIP C LOWE runs a wood working school and makes period mining its overall thickness On smaller tables like this, I keep the front cheeks of the tenons A in back from the outside of the leg and use a X-in.-thick tenon.These locations allow long mortises to fit inside the leg without touching one another and weakening the leg The first step on the plan view is to draw he title block is an important last step It contains the back rail A in thick with the standard rough and finished stock dimen- X-in.-thick tenon Then, after drawing the sions listing wood species and comments for each part as well as a hardware list the date and the maker's name and address joinery on the front rail in the plan view, I can draw the horizontal line indicating the back of that piece, and a clear view of the stock develops I can determine easily that it must be 2% in thick to contain die curve The side rails can be taken from a thinner piece of stock by drawing a consume tion line from the outside edge of the curve to the rail's front shoulder, and then drawing a line parallel to that one to indicate the overall thickness of the part DRAFTING BASICS 59 Models Help Projects Succeed BY JA:\ ZAITLI:\ mmm'M A BIG PA N 01; :\1AKI:\G :\1ODELS and mock-ups hefore I move on to a fin- BIG OR SMALL, MODELS help refine design The author uses huilding a project for myself a quick model can prevent disappointments later lLishcd piece offurniture Whether the I use several types of model s and the prototypes are cardhoard or foam full size applications and the materials for each vary or one-eighth scale they help solve a long I have three favorites: the quick full-scale hst offurnituremaking prohlems \;]odels mock-up what I call the scale appearance are good for demonstrating knockdown model and the full-size detail mock-up like features and can help me decide what con- the one in die photo helow three kinds of models to help struction techniques to use Clients love her visualize furniture projects model s hecause visualizing the real thing A Quick, Full-ScaJeMock-Up before they are built Full-size from drawings can he difficult: model scan 1\ mock-up is a quick inexpensive full- show clients how finished pieces will look scale approximation of the compl ded piece in their intended room settings Even if I'm The purpose is to catch any ohvious mis- mock-ups can be assembled quickly with cardboard and straight pins, as she does here takes in proportion I usually huild one right after I have my design concept drawn dimensioned and approved The mock-up shouldn't take more than an hour to construct and should he taken to the site.There I can tell if the finished piece will he the right size for the intended space ifit hlocks too much light or ifits position or dimensions will cause some other unexpected prohlem such as limiting the swing ofa door If the project is a dining tahle I can place chairs around the mock-up to see ifit makes the room seem too crowded allows room for serving platters and seats the required numher of people comfortahly I use inexpensive materials that can he worked quickly \;Jock-ups need not he pretty For most projects I use corrugated cardboard which can be used for curved as well as angular projects because I can bend it with the ··grain.··lInd I can draw on it with a pencil or marker to suggest details Sometimes the appropriate mock-up material is foam board polystyrene foam sandwiched between smooth paper Foam board looks cleaner than cardboard and it doesn't have the strong grain that corrugated cardboard has It is available at art and A CUSHION THAFS REALLY architectural supply stores and comes in a range of thicknesses (X in At in.,'A in.) and in sheet sizes up to ft by ft Both foam board and cardboard are easily Other materials are also useful for mock- polyurethane foam shapes ups: scrap wood for those times when cardboardjust isn't strong enough aluminum cut with a utility knife I use a cordless hor- foil to simulate a mirror or metal parts and melt glue gun for quick assembly On those construction paper or poster board bent occasions where hot-melt glue is not appro- cut or nsed like a veneer Be creative priate (it can be messy and thick) I have used good idea to make it easy to alter so you Tacky Glue I also use a variety of tapes in- can make changes without too much cluding repositionable tape which is good for trouble lifter all you're really trying to see changing things around Check the adhesives how the shape and proportion work so a section in art or graphic supply stores mock-up thars easy to adjust will be a lot ordinary straight pin the kind used by tailors to hold fabric together These are available at fabric stores and often at grocery and drug stores Straight pins are great for making a knockdown mock-up (see the photo on the facing page) For more sculptural applications such as a chair or lamp base or wherever it is important to show mass I use rigid blue foam joints Be sure it is easy to disassemble so the mock-up can be moved to a site or stored until completion of the real piece Don't be tempted to toss the mock-up before the piece is completed It will come in handy when you need to tryout design changes that occur in mid-project A Scale A ppearanceModel lifter the mock-up I consider making an struction as insulation and comes in 2-ft by appearance model-a scale model that 8-ft sheets I in and in thick II void the looks like the real piece only smaller white foam It breaks up into little pellets I make appearance models when I am and doesn't sand well 3\1l@ makes a spray designing a piece for production or if a adhesive especially for foam that bonds al- one-of-a-kind piece is particularly sculptural most instandy so you can stack up layers of uses unusual construction techniques or if foam to get a mass of material very quickly the concept cannot be conveyed adequately most woodworking machinery and hand tools The board can cut cleanly with both a bandsaw and a table saw sanded quickly with a disc sander (be sure to use a dust mask) or sculpted with a Surform@ tool or a file upholstery in scale models more helpful than one with permanent (extruded polystyrene) It is used in con- Blue foam can be worked quickly with easily and is perfect to mimic Whe n you build your mock-up irs a a quick-drying white glue called Elmer's@ II handy fastener for butt joining is an FOAM High-density, white with a drawing II model gives a more realistic sense of the finished piece especially if your drawing skills are weak: it makes a great presentation tool and it can be used· to create photos of a room setting when thejob site isn't available for a mock-up MODELS HELP PROJECTS SUCCEED 61 DETAIL MOCK-UPS TEST ALTERNATIVES The author used white foam to make a full-size detail mock-up of a cabinet handle Several options can be made as A nice appearance model takes a day or two white, high-density polyurethane foam to build available in sheets X in to in thick that is I make appearance models offurniture at one-eighth or one-quarter scale, according to the size of the project It·s best not to You can paint it with acrylic paint detail mock-ups and then tried out on the quick, full-size mock-up go overboard on detail, or the model begins Acrylic sheet or rod can be used to sim- to look too cute, hke doll furniture Small ulate metal or glass It can be bent with details also take time to well and often heat from a heat gun torch, or in an oven don·t tell you much If they are really im- and painted with a metallic paint I have portant, the third type of model, a full- used pieces of acrylic sheet to simulate glass scale detal; mock-up :'v]ore on that later tabletops by painting the edges green (a Wood is the primary material on most of my appearance models I used to mill my light green marker is even easier) Painted wood can be used to simulate own small stock, but I found that it was other materials For example, there are faux time-consuming to cut the very thin stock marble paint kits avadable in paint stores or that is necessary And quite often, the art supply stores, so you can machine a quality was not as good as the store-bought tabletop in wood and then make it look model-making material It can be tricky to like marble or granite To make the patterns mill small stock without having it explode look right on scale models, you may have in the planer or chip badly :'v]any hobby to alter your technique slightly For in- shops and architectural supply stores carry a stance, to get a smaller pattern that looks good selection of basswood, cherry, and right, a tight-pored sponge, hke a sea walnut I avoid balsa because it doesn·t cut sponge, works best for marbling cleanly :'v]any of the places that carry SIMPLE FIXTURE MAKES CUT- more expensive but holds details better and is more uniform (see the photo on p 61) Don·t overlook paper as a model-making model-making supplies also sell ultra-thin material When used hke a veneer, it is plywood I have seen three-layer sheets quicker than paint and can simulate lami- (I ft by ft.) of ply as thin as VM in nates and stone Art or graphic supply stores TING small model parts saferThe author made a small crosscut fixture for her radialarm saw to reduce the danger of When the project calls for a substance other than wood, I use a variety ot materi- the number ofcolors will surprise you Ask als Blue foam is good for simulating the for Pantone(R) paper While you are in the look ofupholstery There is a better quality, graphics department, get a can of instant small parts getting pushed through the big gap in a standard saw fence carry paper in glossy or matte finishes, and spray adhesive made just for paper And don·t leave until you check out some markers, pencils, and press-on snipes and patterns Architects and designers use diese to simulate details; you can too.You can draw on inlays or drawer and door lines A dot can simulate a knob, a horizontal line can suggest a wire pull, and markers can simulate aniline dyes There are wood-colored markers, but you need to test the color to see ifit approximates the real wood color Special tools help model making Though the construction of scale models can be relatively quick, it requires some special tools and fixtures to make the machining of small parts safe and accurate For example, 62 DEVELOPING DESIGNS AND ORGANIZING PROJECTS Fas I build the I made a small-parts crosscut jig for my ra- to think through the whole construction dial-arm saw (see the bottom photo on the process on full-scale pieces As I build the facing page).The jig helps block off the big model, I imagine that I am doing everything gap in the fence that could swallow up in full scale, and based on that experience, small parts as they are being cut to length I choose the best construction technique for To deal with this gap problem on the however, diat if a construction operation or narrow slot I also can rip thin material on detail is easy in scale, it may not be when it the tablesaw without having it slip under the is full size and vice versa For example, once bottom edge of the fence by using an easily I neglected to account for how difficult it installed facing for the fence that goes all the would be to lift a glass top in and out ofa way down to the table surface I always use frame repeatedly to get a perfect fit; on the push sticks; sometimes I use two, one in each model, it was easy to fit because the small hand Feadierboards are also good for keep- piece of acrylic was so light Conversely, ing your fingers away from the cutting edges some things can be awkward on a scale model because die access is tight or the joinery on appearance models I use butt joints when I can get away with it, but I also use tliin dowels or wooden toothpicks for that I am doing everything in full the real piece It is important to remember, tablesaw, I made a wooden diroat plate with a Joinery for models I often simplify the nwdel, I imagine scale, and based on that experience, I choose the best • construction technique for the real piece parts are so small that clamping is difficult, but on the real thing, access may be a simple matter of reaching your arm inside of a cabinet or using a bar clamp through-dowel joints when necessary Dado joints are pretty easy with a router table and Full-Scale Detail Mock-Up M«-in and X-in straight bits Make certain that the hole in the table is not so large that it creates a safety hazard when machining small parts I use little De-Sta-Co clamps to make quick jigs to hold the small parts when machine them on the router table Mies van der Rohe the famous architect, once said, "God is in the details.'" So when am working on a piece that has unusual edge or surface treatment, a unique pull, connection, or foot, I mock up just the detail The full-scale detad mock-up lets you Mortise-and-tenonjoinery may seem a bit extreme, but occasionally, I find that it provides detailing important to the look of the finished piece And it may help hold the model together I drill out holes and clean out corners just like in full-scale mortise joints, but use a shop made J4-in see your design in three dimensions If you have already made a full-scale mock-up of the entire piece, then it's a good idea to attach this detail mock-up to it (see the top photo on the facing page) Work precisely on the detail mock-up so that you can work from it to budd the real thing chisel I made the chisel by grinding the tang end of an old, dull file Th e steel is hard enough to keep an edge My material of choice is foam, both the blue and white types discussed earlier, because foam is so easy to work Wh e n I use One store-bought model-making tool wood, I prefer something that can be worked that I find useful is the tiny brass bar clamp easily, such as pine Wood is the obvious The bar clamps are handy because they choice ifthe detad is turned on the lathe or if fit in small places Other good clamping it requires a texture that cannot be expressed tools are clothespins, paper clips, tape, and in some other quickly worked material rubber bands Scaled construction hints at real problems Although the tools are smaller, scale JAN ZAITLIN is an industrial designer and a furniture- maker in Albany, Calif model making provides a good opportunity MODELS HELP PROJECTS SUCCEED 63 S cale models that are made with care can be photographed to look hke full-size pieces, as shown in the photo at right This is a great design and presentation tool ])etermine the Hackgrou nd The easiest background is a sheet of paper large enough to fill the picture frame G se any color paper as long as it isn't glossy Bend the paper, don't crease it, so it sits on a tabletop and runs up a wall behind the table For a more dramatic effect, use a roll of back- MODELS LET YOU LOOK at the result In advance This scale model of ground paper, available in a variety of colors from a conference table comes to life when photographed with a few professional photo supply stores.Tack one end to the props and an appropriate background Cardboard or clear acrylic human figures add scale wall, and put a table about f1 away from the wall Roll the paper onto the table, and set the roll on the floor Place the model on the paper near the front of the table, and focus light there The background fades cutting guide to any rigid, thin material, like into darkness, which contrasts with the lighted model X-in acrylic Then glue a small triangle to the back of the figure to make it stand on its own Photos of the Piece on Site To see what the piece will look hke on site, use three pieces offoam board taped together on the back side to form two walls and a floor large enough to house the model and fill the picture frame (see the photo below).To give a sense of scale, I use a few props.This can be as simple to as drawing an outline of a door with a circle for a knob at the right height When I was photographing a model of an audio-visual storage system, I drew a screen on a cardboard television set, which was just a rectangle of gray cardboard propped up from behind with a httle cardboard triangle Photo Tips In addition to a 35mm camera, I would suggest that you use a macro lens or a set of magnifying lenses, called close-up filters, which screw onto a lens to allow you to focus at much closer distances than standard lenses J\ tripod and a cable shutter release allow you to snap a shot without wiggling the camera Light stands can be fashioned with clamp-on shop lights and a chair for a stand But daylight shooting is often quicker and can be just as effective lust be sure that your film is matched to whatever fighting you choose J\ ny good photo supply store can give you advice on choosing the correct film Figures Add Human ])imension I find scale figures helpful, too.You can make a quick one by photocopying a figure from an architectural graphics book or a department store advertisement Enlarge or reduce the figure until it is the right size t; se spray mount to fix the figure as a THREE PIECES OF FOAM BOARD can make a room-With the camera pulled back, the illusion is revealed The backdrop is held up by string and tape Simple shop-style clamp lights can substitute for the electronic flash shown here Organize Your Projects o :\ C E YO C II 1\ VE a clear v ision of a woodworking project , either through concept sketc he s or from measuring an existing pi ece, the next ste p is to create a hridge het ween the id ea and the actua l construction This m ea n s definin g yo ur vi s ion o n paper w ith wo rkin g draw in gs, u sually a three-v iew (ordiographic) proj ec tion (see '"CreatingWorking Drawings,"' pp 47-52) I use th ese drawin gs to generate a hill of materials, which function s hoth as an order sheet and as a data hase from w hich to deve lop the cutting lists-on e for so lid sto ck and one for she e t stock, ifany The se li st s s h ow th e numh er, th e size, a nd the deta ilin g of eve ry piece of woo d that goes int o th e projec t So m e tim es I a lso m ake gra phi c rep- Creating; a Bill of Materials B Y J I ~I T L P I :\ To e n sure th at all the parts of a project will he accounted for in the hill of materi a l s, FROM THREE-VIEW DRAWING to bill of materials to cutting and lat er in (he cutting lists, creat e a refer- list, step-by-step organization e ncin g sys t em On th e thre e -vi ew drawing, can all but eliminate measure- lah e l e ach co mp one nt with a circled leiter ment errors By taking care of the calculations and account- You nee dn ' t b o th er t o lahel se parat e id en ti- ing up front , you can concen- ca l co mp o n en t s, su c h as four le gs of an e nd trate on attaining accuracy tah le (as long as th ey 'r e all made from the and perfecting technique sa m e m ater ia l ) T o make organizing the hill san e r, espec ial ly with large, comple x projects , lahel the largest components first, working your way down to details such as m oldings and dra wer part s Be sure to plac e m ateri a l und e r th e ap pr opr iat e st oc k h e ading- so lid o r s h ee t - an d a dd a n o t a ti o n for s pec ies if yo u ' re u s in g m ore than o n e kind of woo d resen t a ti o n s of the culling li sts t o help m e 1\s you li st eac h item in th e hill of matedeter e the mo s t efficient u se of th e sto ck Last, I cross-check carefully from the drawing to the hill of mat eria l s to the cutt i ng li st s to m ak e sure that they all agree Once yo u ve accurat e cutting lists in h a nd, yo u can h eg i n th e actual co n s t ru c tion proc ess h y lay in g o ut th e co mpon e nt s Wh e n all th e pa rt s are mark ed o n th e st ock, it' s c lear sa iling;-no mor e knitted hr ow and c lenche d t eet h You can leave b eh ind all that left - hrain, analytical thinking and enjoy the process of cutting, shaping , a nd assem- rial s, add a se cond circle around the letter on the drawing When all the letter s are douhl e-ci r cle d , you 'll have account ed for every compo n e n1 D ou hIe - c he c k b y com paring th e numher of it e m s o n yo ur bill of ma t e ri a l s aga in st a co unt of compon e nt s s h ow n in the drawin g Whe n li stin g wid th s and len g th s of component s o n th e hill of mat e ri a l s, h e su re you've taken a ny joinery into account It's easy to over l ook the extra lengdi you'll need for tenons or the width for ton gues bling the components 65 Bill of Materials to Cutting- Lists Develop the cutting lists directly from the hill of materials, collating the components hy function and then hy dimension Estahlish a heading for thickness first, and then create suhsidiary columns for each width (see the photo on p (5) U nder the appropriate width, write in the length of each piece If the components aren·t simply square-sided (without profile), add a crosssectional graphic next to the length If there are a numher of identical parts, make tick marks to the right of the length to indicate how many Don·t confuse yourself with nu- A POUNCE WHEEL IS USEFUL for merals here As with the hill of materials, list transferring layout information either directly to the stock, if whenjoining hoards with tongues and the largest pieces first, douhle-circle the let- grooves If your three-view drawing does ter symbol on the bill once you transfer it rial, such as 'I.-in lauan plywood not specify the sizes of these joints, lay to the cutting list and double-check hy or Masonite, if you want a more them out on a full-scale drawing L:nless comparing the number of components on you note otherwise, assume that the length your bill of materials and cutting list you only want one piece of that design, or onto template mate- permanent record to reproduce the piece later of the components runs with the grain of the wood If I have a lot of components to cut out of sheet stock, I make a graphic cutting diagram (scaled drawings of 4x8 panels) on which I juggle the layout of the components to get the most out of each sheet I account for sawkerfs, and I pay attention to BENDING A BATTEN TO points grain by book-matching pairs of doors or along a curve is the best way to cutting a hank of drawer faces from a single layout long, gentle curves For section ofa sheet, for example To make the fair curves, use a square batten panels easier to handle, I try to arrange the components so that the first cuts are fulllength rips, giving me lighter stock to deal with when crosscutting Laying Out on Solid Stock With die cutting lists completed and doublechec ked against the bill of material s, you ·re ready to layout the components on the hoards As you hring each previously thicknessed board to a leveled pair of sawhorses, set them down so that most defects face up :'v]ark die locations of any defects from die underside of the board onto the visihle face widi chalk Always ··waste·· a minimum of an inch at each end ofa board when squaring it, and take off more if splits are obvious 66 DEVELOPING DESIGNS AND ORGANIZING PROJECTS Fig J: ])ra wing an Arc 1) Mark points A and E\ where the arc leaves the stock and draw a line indicating the height of the arc 2) Swing compass or trammel from points above the height of the arc and below the stock on an extension board 3) Draw a line through the points defined by the intersection of the compass or trammel beam swings Point C is the apex of the arc A and B both Workpiece -A Height of arc B A !f\ c ', \ B A \/ / " Extension board 4) Repeat steps and except swing from Band C instead of A and B Where this new line (perpendicular to the segment between B and C) intersects the line you drew in step is the pivot point for the arc you wish to draw B A 5) Set compass or trammel to the distance between D and A (or B) Swing arc through A, B and C A / c ~ B o - Pivot point If the board rocks on the leveled saw- horses or bows significandy, it's probably best even wider if you know the stock tends to curve as it's ripped lis you locate each used for short components Try to layout component on the boards, pencil in a tick components to make the most efficient use mark to the left of the length notation on ofa board Work around knots and other de- the cutting list When the tick marks on fects, keeping an eye out for grain matches the left equal those on the right, all the and striving for an overall pleasing look for pieces of this width and length have been the visible faces of a project Finally, try to accounted for arrange the layout so the offcuts are long lengths; shorter, wider offcut pieces generally Laying Out Sheet Stock make less useful stock for future projects Panel s are a lot easier to lay ou t than U se a piece of chalk or a timber crayon boards Stock sizes are uniform, edges are to mark out the pieces on the stock Lay straight, and except for occasional shipping out pieces X in long at this point and at damage, defects are negligible If you're go- least Xr in wide It's easier to remove wood ing to cut panels on a tablesaw and your rip later than it is to add it back Leave pieces fence and crosscut box are accurate and reORGANIZE YOUR PROJECTS 67 a chance I'll want to make a piece liable, there's no need to transfer the layout there's from the graphic cutting diagram to the again, I make a template; if I know a piece stock Simply set the rip fence or stop on is a one-off, I just pounce onto the stock the crosscut box to the measurements on To transfer the shape of a complex or the cutting list, and make the cuts Label irregularly shaped component, such as a each component along an edge with a scalloped table apron, I always use a full- marking pen, and put a second circle scale template To make the template, I tape around the symbol denoting that compo- vellum tracing paper (available at art supply nent on the cutting diagram stores) over the area of the full-scale dra wing containing the component and trace its Joinery and Complex Shapes the pattern onto a piece of X-in lauan ply- Once you've cut out all the components, wood I bandsaw this pattern to within 'A
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